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Abnormalities of the secondary palate were studied in an animal model in which features of Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) and Nager or Miller syndromes (both of which are facially similar to Treacher Collins, but include limb malformations) were induced by acute maternal exposure to 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA, isotretinoin, Accutane). Previous work in our laboratory has illustrated that excessive cell death in the proximal aspect of the maxillary and mandibular prominences of the first visceral arch and in the apical ectodermal ridge of the limb bud probably accounts for the characteristic craniofacial and limb abnormalities observed (Sulik et al, 1987; Sulik and Dehart, 1988). The current study shows that maternal treatment with 400 mg per kilogram 13-cis-RA at 8 days 14 hours (8d14hr) or 9d6hr post fertilization results in abnormalities of the secondary palate that vary in incidence and severity. Following the earlier treatment time, 82 percent (68 of 74) of the 18d fetuses were affected, with, severely hypoplastic, unfused palatal shelves present in 34 percent (25 of 74). The less severely affected fetuses had malformations that involved primarily the posterior aspect of the palatal shelves. This malformation (foreshortening of the posterior portion of the palate) constituted the major developmental alteration that resulted from treatment at the later time, at which time a 52 percent (26 of 50) malformation incidence was seen. The change in pattern of malformations with treatment time is consistent with the changing pattern of programmed cell death, which was observed to occur in the first visceral arch.
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The study showed that performing dermatosurgical and laser procedures in patients receiving or recently received isotretinoin is safe, and the current guidelines of avoiding dermatosurgical and laser interventions in such patients taking isotretinoin need to be revised.
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41% of patients were prescribed isotretinoin for partial response to previous therapy, 26% for partial therapy and scarring and 17% for partial response to treatment and psychological disturbance. Only 16 patients received isotretinoin for severe acne.
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Encouraging the use of highly effective, patient-independent contraception and limiting abstinence to women who have never been sexually active may further reduce the rate of isotretinoin-exposed pregnancies.
Topical bexarotene 1% gel is currently FDA-approved for early stage (IA and IB) persistent or refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). No uniformly effective therapy exists for follicular mucinosis, although several treatments are routinely used. There are no known reports of topical bexarotene being used in the treatment of idiopathic follicular mucinosis when there is no association with CTCL. This article reports the first case of bexarotene gel to successfully treat persistent idiopathic follicular mucinosis.
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During method development for the determination of either isotretinoin, tretinoin and their 4-oxo-metabolites, or etretinate, acitretin and 13-cis-acitretin in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography and column switching, recovery problems arose, when undiluted plasma samples were injected directly onto the precolumn. These recovery problems may be due to the strong binding of the retinoids to different plasma proteins. Measures to overcome this strong protein binding, such as variation of the injection solution composition and the purge mobile phase, were systematically investigated. Best recoveries were obtained by diluting of plasma with 9 mM sodium hydroxide-acetonitrile (8:2, v/v) and protein precipitation with ethanol for the isotretinoin and etretinate series, respectively, in combination with the use of a purge mobile phase containing ammonium acetate and 10-20% acetonitrile. Less effective was the use of a longer precolumn or heating of the precolumn.
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This was a multicentre, randomized, controlled, noninferiority investigator-blinded study involving 266 subjects.
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Based on a synthesis of the literature and our own experience, it appears that isotretinoin therapy for CF patients with moderate-severe acne may be an appropriate option when clinically indi ated. If dermatologists monitor lab values and adverseeffects carefully, patients with CF can benefit from isotretinoin therapy.
Treatment of acne with isotretinoin can occasionally induce inflammatory episodes of acne. To date there have been no reported cases of isotretinoin-induced Sweet's syndrome. The subsequent onset of ulcerative-hemorrhagic rectocolitis provides an indication of the complexity of the pathogenic mechanisms involved.
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The ICGS is reproducible and relatively simple to use. It can be incorporated as an objective tool to aid in the assessment of isotretinoin associated cheilitis.
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The Canadian Saskatchewan Health Database and the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database.
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We describe a neonate with isotretinoin embryopathy and an incidental finding of congenital neuroblastoma. Diffuse liver metastases led to the decision to provide oncologic therapy followed by tumor resection. Despite the possible need for chronic care related to the comorbidities of the isotretinoin embryopathy and oncologic management, the patient remains disease-free. Because of the uncertain etiology of neuroblastoma, it remains unclear whether exposure to isotretinoin during embryogenesis and fetal development had an oncogenic effect on this patient.
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Although neuromuscular adverse effects represent significant clinical manifestations of hypervitaminosis A syndrome, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the potential neuromuscular toxicity of vitamin A derivatives (retinoids). Since isotretinoin and acitretin are currently the two most commonly used oral retinoids in systemic dermatotherapy, this review focuses exclusively on their neuromuscular adverse effects and proposes a neuromuscular algorithm for appropriate monitoring of patients treated with these two compounds. The most frequent CNS adverse effect associated with oral isotretinoin is headache, either as an independent adverse effect or as part of benign intracranial hypertension, which is additionally characterized by nausea and visual changes. Isolated cases of stiff-person-like syndrome, epileptic seizures and generalized muscle stiffness syndrome, possibly or probably related to oral treatment with isotretinoin, have also been reported. In addition, oral isotretinoin has reportedly been associated with muscular adverse effects that most frequently manifest as myalgia and stiffness and, in rare cases, as true myopathy or rhabdomyolysis. Creatine phosphokinase, a specific marker of muscle destruction, has been found to be elevated, occasionally by up to 100 times the normal value (with or without muscular symptoms and signs), in a variable percentage of patients receiving isotretinoin treatment and particularly in those undergoing vigorous physical exercise. Oral acitretin has been found to cause peripheral nerve dysfunction, particularly of sensory fibres, which in rare cases leads to clinically evident sensory disturbances. Less clear is the causal relationship between acitretin and benign intracranial hypertension or myopathy, whereas an isolated case of cranial nerve IV (oculomotor) palsy and a further case of thrombotic stroke during treatment with oral acitretin have been reported. Systemic diseases with involvement of nervous and/or muscle tissue and neuromuscular disorders should be regarded as exclusion criteria for initiation of oral retinoid therapy. Additionally, intense physical exercise and concurrent treatment with neurotoxic or myotoxic drugs should be avoided during treatment with oral retinoids. In order to minimize the potential risk of neuromuscular adverse effects, a neuromuscular algorithm is suggested that may be useful for monitoring patients taking oral retinoids.
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Previously, we showed that chronic administration of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA) induces depression-related behaviors in mice and that 13-cis-RA alters components of the serotonergic system in vitro. Work by others has shown that 13-cis-RA reduces hippocampal neurogenesis in mice and orbitofrontal cortex metabolism in humans. In the current study, we measured cytochrome oxidase activity, a metabolic marker that reflects steady state neuronal energy demand, in various regions of the brain to determine the effects of 13-cis-RA on neuronal metabolic activity and network interactions between the raphe nuclei and the hippocampal system. Brain cytochrome oxidase activity in young adult male mice was analyzed following 6 weeks of daily 13-cis-RA (1 mg/kg) or vehicle injection and behavioral testing. Chronic 13-cis-RA administration significantly decreased cytochrome oxidase activity only in the inferior rostral linear nucleus of the raphe. However, covariance analysis of interregional correlations in cytochrome oxidase activity revealed that 13-cis-RA treatment caused a functional uncoupling between the dorsal raphe nuclei and the hippocampus. Furthermore, a path analysis indicated that a network comprising lateral habenula to dorsal raphe to hippocampus was effectively uncoupled in 13-cis-RA treated animals. Finally, cytochrome oxidase activity in the dentate gyrus of 13-cis-RA treated mice was inversely correlated with depression-related behavior. Taken together, these data show that 13-cis-RA alters raphe metabolism and disrupts functional connectivity between the raphe nuclei and the hippocampal formation, which may contribute to the observed increase in depression-related behaviors.
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Trials in lung cancer chemoprevention have so far produced either neutral or harmful primary end point results whether in the primary, secondary and tertiary settings. The data suggest that lung cancer was not prevented by beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, retinal, retinyl palmitate, N-acetylcysteine, or isotretinoin in smokers. The results from the recently completed Canadian study of anethole dithiolethione in smokers with bronchial dysplasia as well secondary analyses of the phase III trials involving selenium and data from the US Intergroup NCI-91-0001 supporting treatment with isotretinoin in never and former smokers are hopeful and may help define new avenues of chemopreventive treatment after scientists and clinicians analyze the information generated.
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Despite advances in acne therapy in recent years, treatment failure is common. Isotretinoin is the only drug that affects almost all factors in acne pathogenesis, but side-effects are common at the doses reported in published studies in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of low daily dose isotretinoin in moderate to severe acne patients. The secondary objective was to measure the rate of relapse 5 years after the completion of therapy.
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Data from 61 of the 116 studies were evaluated; 26 studies (1574 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. The mean (99% CI) values during treatment (nonbaseline) for triglycerides was 119.98 mg/dL (98.58-141.39 mg/dL); for total cholesterol, 184.74 mg/dL (178.17-191.31 mg/dL); for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 109.23 mg/dL (103.68-114.79 mg/dL); for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 42.80 mg/dL (39.84-45.76 mg/dL); for aspartate aminotransferase, 22.67 U/L (19.94-25.41 U/L); for alanine aminotransferase, 21.77 U/L (18.96-24.59 U/L); for alkaline phosphatase, 88.35 U/L (58.94-117.76 U/L); and for white blood cell count, 6890/µL (5700/µL-8030/µL). This meta-analysis showed that (1) isotretinoin is associated with a statistically significant change in the mean value of several laboratory tests (white blood cell count and hepatic and lipid panels), yet (2) the mean changes across a patient group did not meet a priori criteria for high-risk and (3) the proportion of patients with laboratory abnormalities was low.
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Women of reproductive age treated with isotretinoin are required to use two forms of contraceptives, yet adherence to the recommendations is limited. Our objective was to determine if an active intervention by a drug consultation center (DCC) will increase contraceptive use among women taking isotretinoin.
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Patients who completed 6 months of isotretinoin therapy for moderate and severe forms of acne vulgaris and a control group consisting of healthy individuals between February 2011 and March 2012 were included in the study. Before isotretinoin therapy and at 6.- months of the therapy, serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured. In the healthy control group, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were assessed only once.
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A simple, precise, and specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous measurement of retinol (ROH), 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cRA), and 4-oxo-13-cRA. The average recovery of ROH from serum or plasma was 95%, and the precision of the assay was less than 5%. With this HPLC method, a series of studies was carried out to evaluate the stability of ROH in various matrices. ROH was stable under our HPLC assay conditions as well as in plasma- and in serum-enriched culture media; however, ROH was not stable in aqueous matrices. Serum or heparinized plasma may be routinely used for measurement of ROH concentrations, providing EDTA, oxalate, and citrate are not used as anticoagulants. Because of ROH stability, blood samples can be kept on ice in the dark for at least 24 hours prior to separation of plasma. In addition, plasma samples containing ROH can be stored for up to 1 year at -20 degrees C without loss of stability.