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We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 661 consecutive patients who received first-line H. pylori eradication treatment between January 2013 and October 2015. Patients who received 7-day P-CAB therapy (vonoprazan 20 mg+amoxicillin 750 mg+clarithromycin 200 mg twice/day; n=181) were compared with those who received 7-day PPI therapy (lansoprazole 30 mg/rabeprazole 20 mg+amoxicillin 750 mg+clarithromycin 200 mg twice/day; n=480) using propensity score matching analysis. The successful eradication and adverse event rates were compared between the two groups.
This is the first study to show that single-dose pantoprazole, esomeprazole and rabeprazole are associated with greater gastric pH increase and greater gastric juice volume decrease than omeprazole in critically ill patients. Our study also suggests that PPIs do not affect gastric pHi measurements in critically ill patients and can be administered during pH monitoring.
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One hundred and sixty-five consecutive outpatients with peptic ulcer and H pylori infection were randomly assigned to one of the following three groups and medicated for 7 d. Group A: triple therapy with rabeprazole (10 mg twice daily), clarithromycin (200 mg twice daily) and amoxicillin (750 mg twice daily). Group B: sofalcone (100 mg thrice daily) plus the triple therapy. Group C: polaprezinc (150 mg twice daily) plus the triple therapy. Eradication was considered successful if (13)C-urea breath test was negative at least 4 wk after cessation of eradication regimens or successive famotidine in the cases of active peptic ulcer.
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For the 20-mg rabeprazole, 40-mg rabeprazole, and concomitant dosage regimens, the median percent times and ranges when nocturnal intragastric pH values were lower than 4.0 were 78.8% (47.5%-98.0%), 45.3% (29.0%-52.2%), and 15.5% (0.0%-40.8%), respectively, for homozygous EMs; 51.0% (7.0%-91.6%), 41.3% (33.0%-59.0%), and 18.5% (8.4%-31.9%), respectively, for heterozygous EMs; and 4.5% (2.0%-31.2%), 9.5% (0.0%-31.1%), and 9.3% (0.0%-14.7%), respectively, for PMs. Although significant differences in acid inhibition between the different CYP2C19 genotypes were observed when rabeprazole alone was given (P = .016 for 20 mg rabeprazole and P = .023 for 40 mg rabeprazole), such differences were not observed when famotidine was concomitantly given (P = .206).
The symptoms of dyspepsia, which may include epigastric pain, heartburn. bloating, and early satiety, defy diagnosis in as many as 50% of patients, even after endoscopy and other appropriate studies. In the other half of patients, such causative disorders as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, and gastric cancer may be diagnosed. Despite controversy regarding the selection of therapy, empiric treatment is common for apparent idiopathic dyspepsia. Histamine2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), promotility agents, and coating agents have all been used as empiric therapy for dyspeptic symptoms. With empiric treatment, subsequent management is directed by the therapeutic response. In the absence of a definitive diagnosis, treatment is usually selected on the basis of the type and severity of symptoms, a thorough history and physical examination, and factors such as age and the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Five PPIs are currently available--lansoprazole, omeprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, and esomeprazole--all with established efficacy in GERD and other acid-mediated disorders. The PPIs can be expected to be useful in certain patients with dyspepsia, and may be prescribed for patients who are found to re- spond to potent antisecretory therapy. Patients' concern about their symptoms, practical considerations, and restrictions imposed by managed care organizations may all affect the choice between empiric therapy and early endoscopy in patients with dyspepsia.
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Ten male volunteers without Helicobacter pylori infection received four different 14-day regimens of rabeprazole and ranitidine (study a, morning dose of 20 mg rabeprazole; study b, morning dose of 20 mg rabeprazole with a single bedtime dose of 150 mg ranitidine only on the last day; study c, continuous 20 mg morning dose of rabeprazole and 150 mg at bedtime; study d, morning and evening doses of 10 mg rabeprazole). Ambulatory 24-h gastric pH monitoring was conducted on the last day of each regimen.
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The mechanism of drug-induced AIN is unknown, but an immunological mechanism is suspected. Our reports show no relation between dosage, latency, time to recovery, age or gender, supporting the hypothesis that the aetiology of AIN is immunological. Lareb has received reports of AIN with the use of omeprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole. This shows that AIN is a complication associated with the whole group of PPIs and not only omeprazole. It is important for health professionals to be aware of this adverse drug reaction, because an accurate and timely diagnosis and withdrawal of the offending drug can prevent potentially life-threatening renal failure.
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Clinical literature identified through MEDLINE (January 1966-August 2001). Key search terms included gastroesophageal reflux, benzimidazoles; omeprazole; lansoprazole; pantoprazole; rabeprazole; receptor antagonists, histamine(2); therapy, combination drug; therapy, combined modality; and combinations, drug.
In study 1, the prevalence of esophageal injury in LDA patients was 40.0%, significantly higher than in non-LDA subjects (25.0%, p = 0.042). In study 2, significant increases in incidence of injury were observed with regimens A (45.8%) and AC (50.0%), but not with C (20.0%), on day 7. Among subjects in whom pH was >5.0 and <4.0 for less than 40% of time, none developed esophageal injury.
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This review summarizes the literature regarding long-term adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). A PubMed search (1966 to February 2013) for English language studies was conducted using key terms PPI: omeprazole, esomeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, rabeprazole, pneumonia, Clostridium difficile, osteoporosis, risk of fractures, thrombocytopenia, rhabdomyolysis, anemia, iron deficiency, hypomagnesemia, vitamin B₁₂ and nephritis. The risk of pneumonia was increased 27-39% in short-term use of PPIs in three meta-analyses. C. difficile infections were also associated with the use of PPIs (odds ratio: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.81-2.55; p < 0.00001). This effect appears to be dose related. The US FDA has recently issued a warning regarding fractures and the impaired magnesium absorption associated with the use of PPI. Thrombocytopenia, iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, rhabdomyolysis and acute interstitial nephritis have also been reported with the use of PPIs. There is mounting evidence that PPIs are associated with serious adverse effects. Practitioners should be vigilant and counsel patients accordingly.
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is commonly observed in children, particularly during the first year of life. Pharmacological therapy is mostly reserved for symptomatic infants diagnosed with GER disease (GERD), usually as defined in a recent consensus statement. The purpose of the present article was to review the reported adverse effects of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of paediatric GERD. We conducted this review using the electronic journal database Pubmed and Cochrane database systematic reviews using the latest 10-year period (1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012). Our search strategy included the following keywords: omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole, rantidine, cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine, domperidone, metoclopramide, betanechol, erythromycin, baclofen, alginate. We used Pubmed's own filter of: 'child: birth-18 years'. All full articles were reviewed and we only included randomized controlled trials retrieved from our search. We addressed a summary of our search on a drug-by-drug basis with regard to its mechanism of action and clinical applications, and reviewed all of the adverse effects reported and the safety profile of each drug. Adverse effects have been reported in at least 23% of patients treated with histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2 RAs) and 34% of those treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and mostly include headaches, diarrhoea, nausea (H2 RAs and PPIs) and constipation (PPIs). Acid suppression may place immune-deficient infants and children, or those with indwelling catheters, at risk for the development of lower respiratory tract infections and nosocomial sepsis. Prokinetic agents have many adverse effects, without major benefits to support their routine use.
Lansoprazole (LPZ), amoxicillin (AMPC) and clarithromycin (CAM) are commonly used drugs (LAC regimen) for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, but the eradication rate with this regimen was reported to be 70% to 90%. A few studies have reported that a successful eradication was associated with the CYP2C19 genotype, which influences the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) including LPZ. This study examined the changes in the H. pylori eradication rates between the periods before and after the commencement of a routine genetic test for CYP2C19 at the Daiko Medical Center in Nagoya, Japan, in November, 2005. Subjects were patients who visited the Center during the period from June, 2004 to August, 2010. The patients were classified into three groups according to their CYP2C19 genotype: rapid metabolizers (RM) with a *1*1 genotype, intermediate metabolizers (IM) with a *1*2 or *1*3 genotype, and poor metabolizers (PM) with a *2*2, *2*3, or *3*3 genotype. Non-rapid metabolizers (IM and PM) were basically treated with a LAC regimen, while RMs were treated with a RAM reg imen(rabeprazole, AMPC, and metronidazole). The eradication rate was 80.0% (n=90) for the period without the genetic testing and 88.7% (n=124) for the period with the genetic testing (chi2=3.11, p=0.078). The age-sex adjusted odds ratio of eradication success was 2.29 (95% confidence interval, 0.99-5.28, p=0.051) for the latter period relative to the former period among those less than 70 years of age. Those results suggested that the routine genetic test which allows a choice of the RAM regimen for R M improved the eradication rate.
In PPI, amoxicillin and clarithromycin (PAC) based regimens, twice daily PPI gave optimal eradication rates (relative risk reduction [RRR] compared with once daily = 7%; 95% CI 2% to 12%), but in PPI, clarithromycin and metronidazole (PCM) based regimens there was no difference (RRR = 2%; 95% CI -7% to 10%). Omeprazole and lansoprazole-containing triple therapies achieved similar eradication rates, but rabeprazole appeared superior to omeprazole (RRR = 8%; 95% CI 2% to 14%). The optimum clarithromycin dose in a PAC regimen was 500 mg twice daily (RRR = 11%; 95% CI = 3% to 18%), but 250mg twice daily in a PCM regimen (RRR = 2%; 95% CI -4% to 7%). Eradication rates were lower with a seven day regimen compared with fourteen (RRR = 12%; 95% CI 7% to 17%). Overall there was no difference between a PAC and a PCM regimen (RRR = 0%; 95% CI -3% to 3%).
In these healthy adult subjects, the bioavailability of rabeprazole granules was comparable between all of the dosing vehicles tested, and rabeprazole was well tolerated. Soft food suitable for young children or infant formula may be appropriate for use as dosing vehicles for rabeprazole granules.
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Numerous studies have investigated utility of esophageal intraluminal baseline impedance levels (BILs) in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, effect of BILs in refractory GERD (RGERD) has not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate role of BILs in RGERD patients. Total 62 subjects with refractory gastroesophageal reflux symptoms underwent 24-hour impedance-pH monitoring and gastroendoscopy. Distal BILs in acid reflux type were significantly lower than those in nonacid reflux type and functional heartburn (FH) group. Distal BILs of reflux esophagitis (RE) patients were lower than those of nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) patients, while there were no statistical significance between 2 groups. Patients with severe esophagitis had lower distal BILs than those with mild esophagitis and NERD patients, and patients with severe esophagitis in acid reflux type had the lowest distal BILs. Distal BILs were significantly negatively correlated with DeMeester score, episodes of acid reflux, and acid exposure time, but no correlated with episodes of nonacid reflux. Characteristics of BILs in RGERD patients were similar with those in GERD patients, but might be more complicated. Evaluating BILs in RGERD patients could achieve a better understanding of pathophysiology in RGERD.
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Proton pump inhibitors have dramatically influenced the management of acid-peptic disorders in recent years. They all have a broadly similar mechanism of action and are extensively metabolized in the liver via cytochromes P450 2C19 and 3A4. There is some variation in their potential for drug interactions due to differences in enzyme inhibition. Relatively few serious adverse effects have been reported for the proton pump inhibitors. Comparative studies of acid suppression suggest that lansoprazole and pantoprazole have a potency similar to that of omeprazole on a mg for mg basis; however, rabeprazole may have a greater potency than omeprazole. Lansoprazole and rabeprazole display a more rapid onset of maximal acid suppression than the other proton pump inhibitors. Comparative studies using proton pump inhibitors for the treatment of reflux oesophagitis, duodenal ulcer healing and Helicobacter pylori eradication show little overall difference in outcome between the proton pump inhibitors when used in their standard doses. Lansoprazole and rabeprazole provide earlier and better symptom relief than the other proton pump inhibitors in some studies of peptic ulcer treatment. The few studies of gastric ulcer treatment suggest that there is an advantage in using the proton pump inhibitors that have a higher standard daily dose.
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Rabeprazole has a comparable efficacy compared to ranitidine when given on-demand for the treatment of NERD. Both medications were associated with improved quality of life.
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The overall ITT eradication rate was 76.2% (122/160). The final ITT eradication rates were 70.8% (56/79; 95%CI: 63.3%-77.1%) in the RAM-7 group and 81.4% (66/81; 95%CI: 74.6%-88.3%) in the RAM-14 group (P = 0.034). The overall PP eradication rate was 84.1% (122/145), and the final PP eradication rates were 77.7% (56/72; 95%CI: 70.2%-85.3%) in the RAM-7 group and 90.4% (66/73; 95%CI: 82.8%-98.1%) in the RAM-14 group (P = 0.017). The H. pylori-eradication rates in the RAM-14 group were significantly higher compared with that of the RAM-7 group according to both the ITT (P = 0.034) and the PP analyses (P = 0.017). Both groups exhibited good treatment compliance (RAM-7/RAM-14 group: 100%/100%). The adverse event rates were 19.4% (14/72) and 20.5% (15/73) in the RAM-7 and RAM-14 groups, respectively (P = 0.441). Adverse events occurred in 14 of the 72 patients (19.4) in the RAM-7 group and in 15 of the 73 patients (20.5) in the RAM-14 group. No statistically significant differences (P = 0.441) were observed.
Aspirin enjoys widespread use as an antithrombotic drug, but such ubiquity also increases the risk of gastrointestinal mucosal injury. Recent studies have shown that aspirin can also induce esophageal mucosal injury. We resolved to determine the intragastric pH value necessary to prevent aspirin-induced esophageal mucosal injury.
In baseline data, the endoscopists who performed the ESD were significantly different between the groups. Finally, 66 of 73 patients in the PPI group and 64 of 70 in the H2RA group were analyzed. Bleeding occurred in four patients in the PPI group and 11 in the H2RA group (P= 0.057). Multivariate analysis revealed that treatment with the PPI significantly reduced the risk of bleeding: adjusted hazard ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.92, P= 0.028. One delayed perforation was experienced in the H2RA group.
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important cause of various gastrointestinal diseases. H. pylori eradication is essential for the cure and prevention of associated diseases. Nowdays, proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy is the standard eradication regimen. The aims of this study were to compare the H. pylori eradication rate of different PPI-based triple therapies and to find out the factors influencing the eradication rate.
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To compare the efficacy of different proton-pump inhibitors in triple therapy by performing a meta-analysis.
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A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study design in three phases was conducted at intervals of 2 weeks. Twenty-one healthy Japanese volunteers, including three CYP2C19 genotype groups, took a single oral 20-mg dose of rabeprazole after three 6-day pretreatments, i.e., clarithromycin 800 mg/day, fluvoxamine 50 mg/day, and placebo. Prediction formulas of the AUC were derived from pharmacokinetics data of 21 subjects in three phases using multiple linear regression analysis. Ten blood samples were collected over 24 h to calculate AUC. Plasma concentrations of rabeprazole was measured by an HPLC-assay (l.l.q.=1 ng/ml).
Helicobacter pylori-positive dyspeptic patients were randomized to receive either (i) rabeprazole 10 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and metronidazole 400 mg (RAM-10) or (ii) high-dose rabeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and metronidazole 400 mg (RAM-20), each given twice daily for 7 days. Helicobacter pylori eradication was confirmed by (13)c-urea breath test 5 weeks after stopping medications. side-effects of treatments were documented.
Thirty-five NERD patients with persistent symptoms, despite taking rabeprazole 10 mg twice daily for at least 8 wk, were included in this study. All patients underwent 24 h combined impedance - pH on rabeprazole. The symptom index (SI) was considered to be positive if ≥ 50%, and proximal reflux episodes were determined when reflux reached 15 cm above the proximal margin of the lower esophageal sphincter.
Bacterial resistance of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics is increasing and it often leads to failure of antibiotic treatment. A new sitafloxacin-based triple therapy was developed to counter this situation; the fluoroquinolone sitafloxacin has a low minimum inhibitory concentration for H. pylori.
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To compare the efficacy of the proton-pump inhibitor, rabeprazole, with that of the H₂-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, as on-demand therapy for relieving symptoms associated with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD).
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The CYP2C19 genotype status of Chinese Han healthy volunteers was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Twenty H pylori-negative healthy subjects voluntary participated in the study. They were divided into the following three groups: homozygous extensive metabolizers (homEM), heterozygous extensive metabolizers (hetEM) and poor metabolizers (PM). After they orally received rabeprazole 20 mg once daily in the morning of d 1 and d 8, blood samples were collected at various time-points until 24 h after administration and intragastric pH values were monitored for 24 h by Digitrapper pH. Serum gastrin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum concentrations of rabeprazole were measured by high performance liquid chromatography.