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Aggrenox (Acetylsalicylic Acid + Dipyridamole)
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Aggrenox

Generic Aggrenox is an effective preparation which is taken in struggle against pain, fever, and inflammation. Generic Aggrenox is also used to keep platelets in your blood from sticking together to form clots. Generic Aggrenox consists of aspirin and dipyridamole combination. Generic Aggrenox is also taken to protect from the risk of stroke in people who have had blood clots or a "mini-stroke" (transient ischemic attack or TIA).

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Aspirin, Dipyridamole

 

Also known as:  Acetylsalicylic Acid + Dipyridamole.

Description

Generic Aggrenox is developed by medical scientists to relieve pain, fever, and inflammation. Also it keeps platelets in your blood from sticking together to form clots.

Generic Aggrenox is also created for people who have had blood clots or a "mini-stroke" (transient ischemic attack or TIA) to protect from possible risk of stroke.

Generic Aggrenox consists of aspirin (25 mg) and dipyridamole (200 mg).

Aspirin is in a group of drugs called salicylates. Aspirin works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation, fever and pain in the body.

Dipyridamole operates by keeping platelets in your blood from sticking together to form clots.

Dosage

Take capsules orally with a full glass (8 ounces) of water.

It is possible to take Generic Aggrenox with or without food.

Remember to swallow the capsule whole without any tries to crush, chew, break, or open it.

Remember that taking Generic Aggrenox is not the same as taking each of the medications (aspirin and dipyridamole) separately.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop using Generic Aggrenox suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Aggrenox and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Aggrenox overdosage: feeling light-headed, or fainting, warmth or tingly feeling, sweating, restlessness, dizziness, weakness.

Storage

Store at a room temperature between 4 and 30 degrees C (39 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Aggrenox are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not use Generic Aggrenox if you are allergic to Generic Aggrenox components.

Do not use Generic Aggrenox if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. It is not known whether Generic Aggrenox harms baby.

Do not use Generic Aggrenox with any other over-the-counter pain medication.

Do not give Generic Aggrenox to a child or teenager who has a fever, flu symptoms or chicken pox. Generic Aggrenox can cause a serious and sometimes fatal condition called Reye's syndrome in children.

Do not use Generic Aggrenox if you have a history of allergy to an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) such as Advil, Motrin, Aleve, Orudis, Indocin, Lodine, Voltaren, Toradol, Mobic, Relafen, Feldene, and others, asthma or nasal polyps.

Be careful with Generic Aggrenox if you are taking medicines such as acetazolamide (Diamox); diuretic (water pill) such as amiloride (Midamor, Moduretic), furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, HydroDiuril, Hyzaar, Lopressor, Vasoretic, Zestoretic), spironolactone (Aldactazide, Aldactone), triamterene (Dyrenium, Maxzide, Dyazide), and others; seizure medication such as carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol), phenytoin (Dilantin), or phenobarbital (Luminal, Solfoton); methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall); diabetes medications that you take by mouth; Alzheimer medications such as donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Reminyl), or rivastigmine (Exelon); beta-blocker such as atenolol (Tenormin), carvedilol (Coreg), esmolol (Brevibloc), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol), propranolol (Inderal, InnoPran), sotalol (Betapace), timolol (Blocadren), and others; aspirin or other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), indomethacin (Indocin), ketoprofen (Orudis), meloxicam (Mobic), nabumetone (Relafen), piroxicam (Feldene); gout medications such as probenecid (Benemid) or sulfinpyrazone (Anturane); ACE inhibitor such as benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), quinapril (Accupril), ramipril (Altace), and others.

Be careful with Generic Aggrenox if you suffer from or have a history of kidney disease, stomach ulcers or bleeding, bleeding disorder such as hemophilia, low blood pressure, heart disease, congestive heart failure, or recent heart attack, liver disease.

Avoid alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Aggrenox using suddenly.

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Most strokes were embolic. Linearized embolic stroke rates were 1.3% +/- 0.2% per year for aortic bioprostheses, 1.4% +/- 0.2% per year for aortic mechanical valves, 1.3% +/- 0.3% per year for mitral bioprostheses, and 2.3% +/- 0.4% per year for mitral mechanical valves (p = 0.002, vs other implant types). Age more than 75 years, female gender, and smoking were independent risk factors after aortic and mitral valve replacement. Atrial fibrillation, coronary disease, and tilting-disc mechanical prostheses were independent predictors of embolic stroke after aortic valve replacement. Preoperative left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was an independent risk factor in patients with mitral prostheses. Primary operative indication, diabetes, redo status, or the presence of two prosthetic valves were not associated with an increased hazard. The addition of acetyl salicylic or dipyridamole to warfarin anticoagulation did not significantly lower embolic stroke risk in patients with mechanical prostheses.

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In 1988, we undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), modified-release dipyridamole, and the two agents in combination for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Patients with prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were randomized to treatment with ASA alone (50 mg daily), modified-release dipyridamole alone (400 mg daily), the two agents in a combined formulation, or placebo. Primary endpoints were stroke, death, and stroke or death together. TIA and other vascular events were secondary endpoints. Patients were followed on treatment for two years. Data from 6,602 patients were analysed. Factorial analysis demonstrated a highly significant effect for ASA and for dipyridamole in reducing the risk of stroke (p < or = 0.001) and stroke or death combined (p < 0.01). In pairwise comparisons, stroke risk in comparison to placebo was reduced by 18% with ASA alone (p = 0.013); 16% with dipyridamole alone (p = 0.039); and 37% with combination therapy (p < 0.001). Risk of stroke or death was reduced by 13% with ASA alone (p = 0.016); 15% with dipyridamole alone (p = 0.015); and 24% with the combination (p < 0.001). The treatment had no statistically significant effect on the death rate alone. Factorial analysis also demonstrated a highly significant effect of ASA (p < 0.001) and dipyridamole (p < 0.01) for preventing TIA. The risk reduction for the combination was 36% (p < 0.001) in comparison with placebo. Headache was the most common adverse event, occurring more frequently in dipyridamole-treated patients. All-site bleeding and gastrointestinal bleeding were significantly more common in patients who received ASA in comparison to placebo or dipyridamole. We conclude that (1) ASA 25 mg twice daily and dipyridamole, in a modified-release form, at a dose of 200 mg twice daily have each been shown to be equally effective for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke and TIA; (2) when co-prescribed the protective effects are additive, the combination being significantly more effective than either agent prescribed singly; (3) low-dose ASA does not eliminate the propensity for induced bleeding.

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Randomised long term secondary prevention trials with concealed treatment allocation, treatment for > 1 month, starting within 6 months after presentation of a arterial vascular disease were selected (coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, retinopathy, nephropathy, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, TIA, amaurosis fugax). Therapy consisted of dipyridamole in any dose in the presence or absence of other antiplatelet drugs compared with no drug or an antiplatelet drug(s) other than dipyridamole (control group).

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The combination of low-dose aspirin and dipyridamole is more effective than aspirin alone in reducing the risk of recurrent stroke and other major cardiovascular events in patients with a recent transient ischemic attack or minor stroke. It is unknown whether this also applies to patients with a disabling stroke.

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From December 1976 through March 1982, 188 patients entered an open non-random study carried out on hospitalized patients with a history of transient ischemic attacks or amaurosis fugax. Ninety-two patients received peroral anticoagulants usually combined with heparin treatment during the first days of treatment, and 96 patients enteric-coated acetylsalicylic acid 0,5 g twice daily plus dipyridamole 75 mg twice daily. The patients were followed up to March 1983, irrespective of whether treatment was changed or not. Recurrent transient ischemic attack or amaurosis fugax occurred more frequently (P less than 0.01) from 2 months of follow-up and throughout the observation period in the antiplatelet-treated group. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups on the originally given treatment for endpoints such as stroke (6 patients on anticoagulants, 12 patients on antiplatelet therapy) or stroke or death (11 patients on anticoagulants, 17 patients on antiplatelet therapy). The findings from this trial suggest that anticoagulant treatment is superior to antiplatelet therapy given in the prevention of ischemic attacks and that this difference mainly exists during the first one to 2 months after onset of transient ischemic attacks or amaurosis fugax.

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The primary outcome measure of efficacy was serious vascular events (non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction and vascular death). The outcome measure of safety was any bleeding.

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Oral anticoagulants (target INR range 2.0-3.0) are not more effective than aspirin for secondary prevention after transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke of arterial origin. A possible protective effect against ischaemic events is offset by increased bleeding complications.

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Choice of antithrombotic therapy depends on the etiology of the stroke. Oral anticoagulation treatment is the preferred choice for inferred cardioembolism in the setting of atrial fibrillation, while the varying rates of hemorrhage with oral anticoagulants continue to favor antiplatelet therapy in other settings of inferred etiology. Combinations of antithrombotic therapy vary in their lowering of stroke rate, and some raise the risk of hemorrhage. Insufficient data exist to determine whether antithrombotic therapy combined with antihypertensives, statins or other agents will further reduce the risk of stroke in synergistic or supplemental fashion, or give no additional benefit.

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We have examined the effects of dipyridamole on platelet aggregation in whole blood both in vitro and after administration to man. The effects of dipyridamole ex vivo were compared with those of aspirin and a combination of dipyridamole and aspirin. In vitro dipyridamole was most effective as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor (PAF) and low concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA). Its inhibitory effect was always potentiated by adenosine suggesting that its effect on aggregation may be via inhibition of adenosine uptake into blood cells. Ex vivo, dipyridamole, aspirin and the combination of these drugs inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by PAF and AA. Again, adenosine increased the degree of inhibition. These results stress the importance of measuring platelet aggregation in the natural whole blood environment for detection of the inhibitory effects of dipyridamole and suggest a mode of action for the drug.

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The Persantine Aspirin Trial focused on the question of whether the administration of the combination of aspirin and dipyridamole (Persantine) would result in a lower incidence of cerebral or retinal infarction or death than the administration of aspirin alone for persons with a history of recent carotid territory transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Fifteen centers in the United States and Canada participated and 890 individuals were admitted and randomly allocated to either aspirin (325 mg) plus placebo or aspirin (325 mg) plus Persantine (75 mg) four times daily. Ninety eight percent of the subjects were followed for at least one year; many were followed for four to five years. The results of life table analysis indicate that the overall endpoint rates for the "aspirin only" and "aspirin plus Persantine" groups are identical. Thus, for TIA patients taking aspirin, the addition of Persantine contributes nothing. There was a clustering of stroke endpoints during the first month after randomization. Deaths from all causes were essentially equally divided between the two treatment groups.

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Adult patients with ≥1 hospitalizations for TIA/stroke between January 2007-July 2009 and ≥1 claims for an oral anti-platelet (OAP) were observed for 1 year before and after the first TIA/stroke hospitalization or until death, whichever came first. Cohorts were defined by the first claim for ASA-ERDP or CLOPID within 30 days post-discharge. A generalized linear model, adjusting for demographics, baseline comorbidities and costs, compared total follow-up costs (medical + pharmacy) between ASA-ERDP and CLOPID patients.

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Clopidogrel was marginally more effective than aspirin at reducing the risk of ischaemic stroke, MI or vascular death in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease, however, it did not statistically significantly reduce the risk of vascular death or death from any cause compared with aspirin. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of bleeding complications experienced in the clopidogrel and aspirin groups. MR-dipyridamole in combination with aspirin was superior to aspirin alone at reducing the risk of stroke and marginally more effective at reducing the risk of stroke and/or death. Compared with treatment with MR-dipyridamole alone, MR-dipyridamole in combination with aspirin significantly reduced the risk of stroke. Treatment with MR-dipyridamole in combination with aspirin did not statistically significantly reduce the risk of death compared with aspirin. Compared with treatment with MR-dipyridamole alone, bleeding complications were statistically significantly higher in patients treated with aspirin and MR-dipyridamole in combination with aspirin. Due to the assumptions that have to be made, no conclusions could be drawn about the relative effectiveness of MR-dipyridamole, alone or in combination with aspirin, and clopidogrel from the adjusted indirect comparison. The following would apply for a cost of up to GBP20,000-40,000 per additional quality-adjusted life-year. For the stroke and TIA subgroups, ASA-MR-dipyridamole would be the most cost-effective therapy given a 2-year treatment duration as long as all patients were not left disabled by their initial (qualifying) stroke. For a lifetime treatment duration, ASA-MR-dipyridamole would be considered more cost-effective than aspirin as long as treatment effects on non-vascular deaths are not considered and all patients were not left disabled by their initial stroke. In patients left disabled by their initial stroke, aspirin is the most cost-effective therapy. Clopidogrel and MR-dipyridamole alone would not be considered cost-effective under any scenario. For the MI and peripheral arterial disease subgroups, clopidogrel would be considered cost-effective for a treatment duration of 2 years. For a lifetime treatment duration, clopidogrel would be considered more cost-effective than aspirin as long as treatment effects on non-vascular deaths are not considered. It is suggested that the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin should be evaluated for the secondary prevention of occlusive vascular events. Also randomised, direct comparisons of clopidogrel and MR-dipyridamole in combination with aspirin are required to inform the treatment of patients with a history of stroke and TIA, plus trials that compare treatment with clopidogrel and MR-dipyridamole for the secondary prevention of vascular events in patients who demonstrate a genuine intolerance to aspirin.

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Pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and placental abruption are thought to have a common origin related to abnormalities in the development and function of the placenta.

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The Dialysis Access Consortium (DAC) study group previously reported that treatment with extended-release dipyridamole plus aspirin (DASA) resulted in a significant but clinically modest improvement in primary unassisted arteriovenous graft (AVG) patency. Utilizing DAC published data, the objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of antiplatelet interventions aimed at preventing loss of primary AVG patency in hemodialysis (HD) patients.

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Various pharmacological approaches have been advocated, but the relative efficacy and safety of these regimens has remained the subject of much debate. The results of recent clinical trials on the use of antiplatelet therapy suggest that patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack may constitute a population distinct from patients with coronary or peripheral vascular disease. This may be caused, in part, by the differing etiologies of stroke and the increased vulnerability of cerebral vessels to bleeding. Indeed, dual antiplatelet therapy, which has been found to be beneficial for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary interventions, does not confer secondary stroke protection. The emerging paradigm is that some level of platelet inhibition is required for secondary stroke protection; a level beyond which increased risk of bleeding arises.

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Antiplatelet regimes appear as a good choice in coronary stent, in spite of the fact that the primary indication seems that of group A.

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Two trials showed a small but significant reduction with aspirin plus dipyridamole compared to aspirin (ARR 1.5%, P < 0.05 and ARR 1.0%, P < 0.05). There was no effect on vascular death. One trial showed a small but statistical significant reduction with clopidogrel compared to aspirin (ARR 0.5%, P < 0.05). The association of clopidogrel with aspirin could not show any significant benefit compared to clopidogrel monotherapy, nor compared to aspirin monotherapy, but showed higher rates of adverse events. Significantly more patients discontinued treatment with aspirin plus dipyridamole compared to aspirin monotherapy (34.5% versus 13.4% and 29.0% versus 22.2%, P < 0.001) and clopidogrel monotherapy (29.1% versus 22.6%, P < 0.001). Transposition of statistical significant reductions in stroke recurrence into clinical significance could not be supported.

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Dipyridamole has been shown to decrease proteinuria and improve renal function progression especially in early chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with glomerulonephropathy. A combination therapy of dipyridamole with aspirin could prevent second strokes in the general population. Whether these effects of dipyridamole are also true in advanced CKD patients and whether dipyridamole could improve renal outcomes or patient survival is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed an observational cohort of 3074 participants with CKD stage 3-5 from southern Taiwan, of whom 871 (28.3%) had received dipyridamole treatment ≥50 mg/d for ≥3 months and more than half of the observation period. The mean age was 63.6 ± 13.4 years and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 25.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2). After inverse probability of treatment weighted adjustment by propensity score, there were no differences between the dipyridamole-treated and untreated groups. Dipyridamole treatment was associated with decreased odds for rapid eGFR decline [odds ratio, 0.755; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.595-0.958; p = 0.007] and progression of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (odds ratio, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.517-0.832; p = 0.002). In survival analysis, the dipyridamole-treated group was also associated with a decreased risk for end-stage renal disease (hazard ratio, 0.847; 95% CI, 0.733-0.980; p = 0.011) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.765; 95% CI, 0.606-0.971; p = 0.001) but not for cardiovascular events. Our findings demonstrate that dipyridamole treatment is significantly associated with better renal outcomes and patient survival in patients with CKD stage 3-5. Further investigations are warranted to confirm these independent positive effects.

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Following cerebral ischaemia a recurrent stroke must be avoided in most patients by means of antithrombotic agents. Based on the results reviewed here of new therapy studies, we discuss the presently available antithrombotic treatment options for prophylaxis in ischaemic stroke. TASS (Ticlopidine Aspirin Stroke Study) and CATS (Canadian American Ticlopidine Study) are two multicentre studies investigating the effect of ticlopidine, a new antiplatelet agent of the thienopyridine family, compared to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) respectively placebo, in the secondary prophylaxis of ischaemic stroke. A significant relative risk reduction of ticlopidine against ASA (21%) and against placebo (28.1%) was shown. CAPRIE (Clopidogrel vs. Aspirin in Patients with Risk of Ischemic Events) evaluated clopidogrel and ASA in the secondary prophylaxe of stroke, myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular occlusive disease. Clopidogrel has been shown to be as effective as ticlopidine compared to ASA in the secondary prevention of vascular disease but had the advantage of a far less severe side effect profile as ticlopidine. ESPS 2 (2nd European Stroke Prevention Study) compared dipyridamole and ASA alone and in combination against placebo in stroke prevention. The combination of agents showed a 24.4% relative risk reduction to suffer ischaemic stroke as opposed to placebo. The ranking of heparin and heparinoids in the secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke has not been completely established but seems to diminish according to recently published data from three major trials. The American TOAST study (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) failed to prove any advantage of intravenous Orgaran compared to placebo. In IST (International Stroke Trial) and CAST (Chinese Acute Stroke Trial) the benefits of heparin are invalidated by a higher bleeding rate of patients on intravenous heparin therapy. Furthermore, the results of IST have to be judged critically because of significant methodical inadequacies. When applying antithrombotic agents, therapeutic effect and presumed better outcome should be weighed against the risk of associated bleedings. The indication for an antithrombotic treatment should be reevaluated in regular control examinations and the possibility of a less aggressive treatment should be considered.

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The impact of commencing or changing antiplatelet therapy on von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) and von Willebrand factor propeptide (VWF:Ag II) levels has not been comprehensively assessed following TIA or ischaemic stroke. In this pilot, longitudinal, observational analytical study, VWF:Ag and VWF:Ag II levels were simultaneously quantified in platelet poor plasma by ELISA in patients within 4 weeks of TIA or ischaemic stroke (baseline), and then 14 days (14d) and >90 days (90d) after altering antiplatelet therapy. Ninety-one patients were recruited. Eighteen were initially assessed on no antiplatelet therapy, and then after 14d (N = 17) and 90d (N = 8) on aspirin monotherapy; 21 patients were assessed on aspirin and after 14d and 90d on clopidogrel; 52 were assessed on aspirin monotherapy, and after 14d and 90d on aspirin and dipyridamole combination therapy. VWF:Ag, VWF:Ag II levels and VWF:Ag/VWF:Ag II ratio were unchanged at 14d and 90d in the overall study population (p ≥ 0.1). VWF:Ag and VWF:Ag II levels remained stable at 14d and 90d after commencing aspirin (p ≥ 0.054), and after changing from aspirin to clopidogrel (p ≥ 0.2). Following the addition of dipyridamole MR to aspirin, there was a significant reduction in VWF:Ag levels at 14d (p = 0.03) and 90d (p = 0.005), but not in VWF:Ag II levels (p ≥ 0.3). The addition of dipyridamole to aspirin led to a persistent reduction in VWF:Ag but not in VWF:Ag II levels, suggesting that dipyridamole may inhibit release of platelet-derived VWF:Ag following TIA or ischaemic stroke.

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Adenosine at a dosage of 125 mug/min increased FBF from 4.6+/-0.9 to 29.4+/-5.3 (539% increase) with dipyridamole/aspirin and from 3.9+/-0.8 to 12+/-2.5 mL/100 mL forearm/min (208% increase) with aspirin alone (P=0.007). In contrast, dipyridamole/aspirin did not alter the response to acetylcholine or to nitroprusside. The magnitude of adenosine-induced vasodilation correlated with plasma dipyridamole concentrations (r2=0.6); no correlation was observed with acetylcholine- or nitroprusside-induced vasodilation. Similar potentiation of adenosine, but not acetylcholine or nitroprusside, was observed in 7 additional subjects when adenosine, acetylcholine, and nitroprusside were given in random order before and 2 hours after a single dose of dipyridamole/aspirin.

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Saphenous vein coronary artery bypass graft patency can be increased by antiplatelet therapy. Aspirin plus dipyridamole are effective but are associated with tolerability problems. Indobufen is a possible alternative antiplatelet agent that may be better tolerated. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of indobufen 200 mg twice daily with aspirin 300 mg thrice daily plus dipyridamole 75 mg thrice daily in preventing occlusion of autologous saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts. A total of 803 patients were randomized in the study, of whom 552 had a follow-up coronary angiogram approximately 1 year after operation. All anastomoses were patent in 56% of indobufen-treated patients and 59% of aspirin-dipyridamole recipients (p = 0.384). The percentage of all anastomoses patent was 82% in the indobufen group and 83% in the aspirin-dipyridamole group (p = 0.297). Mean postoperative blood loss was significantly less in the indobufen group (p = 0.043). Patients who received indobufen also had significantly fewer adverse events considered to be treatment-related compared with aspirin-dipyridamole recipients (p = 0.02). At the doses tested indobufen was as effective as aspirin plus dipyridamole in preventing occlusion of saphenous vein grafts and was better tolerated. Because indobufen was associated with less postoperative blood loss it may be used before operation in coronary artery bypass grafting.

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A trial of antiplatelet therapy (slow-release aspirin and dipyridamole) in mesangial IgA glomerulonephritis was conducted. Vitamin B was given to the control group. Altogether, 38 patients were observed for a mean of 33.2 months. Antiplatelet therapy did not favorably modify the course of mesangial IgA glomerulonephritis. The rate of progression of the disease, measured by the slope of reciprocals of serum creatinine v time plots, correlated significantly with the severity of tissue damage as assessed by an arbitrary morphologic score from renal biopsy specimens.

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This study was designed to investigate the role of inflammation on the occurrence of angiographic restenosis 6 months after coronary stent implantation and the influence of different kinds of antithrombotic and antiplatelet strategies on inflammation.

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The use of antiplatelet therapy in combination with oral anticoagulants remains controversial. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the incidence of adverse and coronary event rates between patients receiving warfarin monotherapy or warfarin and antiplatelet combination therapy.

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Platelet deposition can occur in areas of vascular damage and on prosthetic materials such as heart valves or grafts; mural thrombus formation, with eventual organization, progression to fatal occlusion, thrombolysis, or arterial embolization can follow. Use of antiplatelet drugs in patients undergoing certain cardiovascular surgical procedures or having rapid progression of atherosclerosis may reduce the thromboembolic risk.

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Evidence is fair to good for 62% of diagnostic and 52% of therapeutic interventions assessed.

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aggrenox missed dose 2016-04-02

To determine the drug dose required to inhibit platelet reactivity by at least 50%, 2 drug regimens were evaluated in heartworm-negative, heartworm-infected, and heartworm-infected dogs embolized with dead heartworms. Aspirin, or a combination of aspirin and dipyridamole, were administered to 2 groups of Beagles (n = 5 each) for 5 to 9 days; a third group of 5 Beagles served as nontreated controls. For heartworm-negative dogs, mean (+/- SD) aspirin dosage that buy aggrenox inhibited collagen-induced platelet reactivity by at least 50% was 6 (+/- 2) mg/kg of body weight given once daily. The aspirin/diphridamole combination dosage was 1 mg of each drug/kg given every 12 hours. All dogs (n = 15) were implanted with 7 adult heartworms each and remedicated (or not treated) beginning at 21 days after heartworm implantation. In heartworm-infected dogs, mean aspirin dosage required to inhibit collagen-induced platelet reactivity greater than or equal to 50% was 10 (+/- 6) mg/kg. Mean dosage of aspirin/dipyridamole combination was 1.6 +/- (0.5) mg of each drug/kg given every 12 hours. When platelet reactivity in response to collagen was determined to be inhibited by at least 50% in all medicated dogs, each dog (n = 15) was embolized with 7 dead adult heartworms to mimic heartworm adulticidal treatment. Platelet reactivity was monitored for 21 days after treatment, and drug dose was adjusted to maintain platelet inhibition by at least 50%. In embolized dogs, mean aspirin dosage was 17 (+/- 14) mg/kg given once daily. Mean dosage of the aspirin/dipyridamole combination was 2.8 (+/- 1.3) mg of each drug/kg given every 12 hours. All dogs (n = 15) were euthanatized 21 days after heartworm embolization. Each lung lobe was evaluated for severity of lesions and presence of organized or fibrinous thrombi. Lesion severity in the aspirin- and aspirin/dipyridamole-treated dogs was not significantly different from that in control dogs.

aggrenox 225 mg 2017-05-26

A reproducible model for producing diffuse myocardial injury (epinephrine infusion) has been developed to study the cardioprotective effects of agents or maneuvers which might alter the evolution of acute myocardial infarction. Infusions of buy aggrenox epinephrine (4 mug per kilogram per minute for 6 hours) increased radiocalcium uptakes into intact myocardium and each of its subcellular components with the mitochondrial fraction showing the most consistent changes when compared to saline-infused control animals (4,957 vs. 827 counts per minute per gram of dried tissue or fraction). Myocardial concentrations of calcium also increased significantly (12.0 vs. 5.0 mg.per 100 Gm. of fat-free dry weight). Infusions of calcium chloride sufficient to raise serum calcium concentrations 2 mEq. per liter failed to increase calcium influx into the myocardial cell. Mitochondrial radiocalcium uptakes were significantly decreased in animals pretreated with acetylsalicylic acid or dipyridamole or when hydrocortisone was added to the epinephrine infusion (2,682,2,803, and 3,424 counts per minute per gram of dried fraction, respectively). Myocardial calcium concentrations also were decreased (11.2, 8.3, and 8.9 mg. per 100 Gm. of fat-free dry weight, respectively) in the three treatment groups, being significantly decreased only in the last two. Evidence of microscopic damage was graded as less severe in the three treatment groups. Acetylsalicylic acid, dipyridamole, and hydrocortisone all appear to have cardioprotective effects when tested in this model.

aggrenox generic price 2017-07-05

Antiplatelets are the pivotal drugs in preventing recurrent stroke or other major vascular events in patients who have undergone TIA or stroke. Aspirin is the most widely used, although its effect is very modest buy aggrenox (relative risk reduction 20%), and most physicians use between 100 and 325 mg daily as a maintenance dose. For patients who develop stroke on aspirin treatment, the options are either to increase the dose of aspirin or to administer another anti-aggregate. No study has yet been performed to support these approaches. In patients who cannot tolerate aspirin, the options are clopidogrel 75 mg once daily or dipyridamole 400 mg combined with 50 mg aspirin. An approach which is very appealing, but not yet proven is to combine different antiplatelet drugs with different modes of action, such as aspirin and clopidogrel, in order to achieve a better and more effective antithrombotic effect. Further controlled trials are needed to justify this approach.

aggrenox brand name 2015-03-18

Antiplatelets are recommended for patients with acute noncardioembolic stroke or transient ischemic attack. We compared buy aggrenox the safety and efficacy of dual versus mono antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

aggrenox medication aspirin 2017-10-17

The study enrolled 60 consecutive patients (20 per treatment arm), all of whom completed the study. There were no significant differences between treatment arms, although the ER-DP+ASA group had a numerically greater mean age, higher proportion of men, and a greater prevalence of vascular disease and smoking compared with the other groups. There were no deaths or serious adverse events during the study, including symptoms attributable to cerebral ischemia, worsening of diabetes, or cerebral or systemic bleeding. buy aggrenox Three patients in the ER-DP+ASA group and 1 in the clopidogrel plus ASA group reported headache during the first several days of therapy; 1 patient in the clopidogrel monotherapy group experienced transitory nausea and vomiting. ER-DP+ASA was associated with a significantly delayed (day 30) reduction in expression of glyco-protein (GP) Ilb/IIIa activity (P = 0.02), platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) (P = 0.03), GP Ib (P = 0.001), vitronectin (P = 0.001), P-selectin (P = 0.001), lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (P = 0.001), and cluster of differentiation 40 ligand (P = 0.01), as well as significant inhibition of the intact (P = 0.01) and cleaved (P = 0.01) epitopes of protease-activated receptor 1. Clopidogrel monotherapy, on the other hand, was associated with significant inhibition of adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation (P = 0.001), closure-time prolongation (P = 0.01), and reduction in measurements on the rapid platelet function assay-ASA at day 15 (P = 0.001). Expression of PECAM-1 (P = 0.03) and GP IIb/IIIa activity (P = 0.01) was reduced at day 15 in clopidogrel-treated patients. The addition of ASA to clopidogrel was associated with significant inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation (P = 0.001) and diminished formation of platelet-monocyte microparticles at days 15 (P = 0.02) and 30 (P = 0.03).

aggrenox reviews 2015-10-26

Stroke is the third most common cause of adult mortality in the United States. Antithrombotic agents form the mainstay of stroke preventive therapy. Aspirin produces a modest reduction in the risk of secondary stroke and is widely recommended for initial administration. The thienopyridines, ticlopidine and clopidogrel, are useful alternatives buy aggrenox for secondary stroke prevention in patients who do not respond to or cannot take aspirin. They have not been proven more clinically effective than aspirin and have been associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. The combination of aspirin and ER-dipyridamole offers multiple mechanisms of action and an additive effect on stroke risk reduction compared with either agent alone. A twofold increase in risk reduction and a favorable safety profile suggest that the combination can be used as a first-line agent in a prophylactic regimen for secondary stroke.

aggrenox 60 capsules 2017-12-02

Two hundred and eighty-four patients were included; 154 (54%) males, 130 (46%) females, with a mean age of 69.5 ± 13 years. The median baseline NIHSS score was 16 ± 5. The median time to TCD examination was 131 ± 38 min from symptom onset. The median time to IV rt-PA was 140 ± 34 min. One hundred eighty patients were not on AP prior to their stroke, 76 were on aspirin, 15 were on clopidogrel, 2 were on aspirin-dipyridamole combination, 2 were on both aspirin and clopidogrel, and 9 patients on subtherapeutic coumadin. In patients who were naïve to AP, 68/178 (38.2%) had complete recanalization, whereas in the AP group, 25/91 (28%) had complete recanalization. Patients on aspirin alone buy aggrenox had a lower recanalization rate (16/72) as compared to those not on AP (22 vs. 39%) (p = 0.017), while those on clopidogrel had higher rates of complete recanalization (9/19, 60%). There was no difference in the rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages in patients on AP agents as compared to those not on AP (9/180, 5% vs. 9/95, 9.5%) (p = 0.13). A good long-term outcome (mRS ≤2) was achieved in 85/160 (53%) of the patients naïve to AP and in 33/84 (39%) of the patients on AP (p = 0.035). In multiple regression, AP use was not a predictor of either recanalization rate (p = 0.057) or good outcome (p = 0.27).

aggrenox medication generic 2015-07-02

Data collected included patient details, inclusion buy aggrenox and exclusion criteria, type of graft, antithrombotic therapy, outcomes, and side effects.

aggrenox generic canada 2016-08-27

Atherothrombosis remains a major global public health problem. Chronic atherosclerotic disease is often clinically silent and coexists across vascular beds, but when complicated by thrombosis can result in acute coronary syndrome, stroke, transient ischaemic attack and critical limb ischaemia. Platelets play a role in the development of chronic atherosclerotic disease and are a key mediator of clinical events in atherothrombosis. Numerous trials have examined the role of antiplatelet agents in primary and secondary prevention and several new antiplatelet drugs are under development. In secondary prevention, there is evidence of clear benefit of single and in some cases dual antiplatelet therapy in the prevention of recurrent cerebro-vascular complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy has emerged as the standard of care in acute coronary syndromes, with aspirin typically being used in combination with clopidogrel or one of the newer more potent buy aggrenox antiplatelet agents. Conversely, in chronic stable coronary disease, no benefit has yet been convincingly demonstrated from dual antiplatelet therapy. In cerebro-vascular disease, aspirin monotherapy remains the cornerstone of prevention of recurrent events, with clopidogrel or the combination of aspirin and dipyridamole being only modestly more efficacious. In primary prevention, the evidence for the routine use of aspirin or any other antiplatelet agent is mixed and suggests this should only be considered on an individual basis in high-risk groups where the thrombotic risk outweighs the risk of major bleeding complications.

aggrenox cost assistance 2016-05-01

Two buy aggrenox review authors evaluated trials under consideration for appropriateness for inclusion and methodological quality without consideration of their results according to the prestated eligibility criteria. We used a fixed-effect meta-analysis for combining study data if the trials were judged to be sufficiently similar. We investigated heterogeneity by calculating I² statistic, and if this indicated a high level of heterogeneity among the trials included, we used a random-effects model.

aggrenox pill identifier 2017-03-14

In patients with prior stroke or transient ischaemic attack, anti-platelet treatment with dipyridamole substantially reduced stroke recurrence, with a beneficial effect comparable to and additive with that induced by aspirin (the European Stroke Prevention Study-2). Eugenio Picano and Maria Abbracchio present here a platelet-independent hypothesis, according to which cardiovascular and neuroprotective actions achieved by dipyridamole through chronic elevation of endogenous adenosine levels may have contributed to the therapeutic success buy aggrenox of this study.

aggrenox generic 2015-05-26

Greyhounds (n = 38) were randomized to aspirin and dipyridamole (ASA + DPM), the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (TSI) CGS12970 (CIBA-GEIGY) or placebo twice daily for 48 hours prior to bilateral implantation of femoral artery Dacron grafts. In-vivo 111In-platelet deposition on grafts was measured at 5 days and 2 months. Grafts were removed at 2 months when ex-vivo graft and arterial release of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1a (6-keto PGF1a) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Graft 6-keto-PGF1a was significantly increased by CGS12970 but ASA + DPM had no significant effect. ASA + DPM significantly reduced arterial 6-keto-PGF1a although this was marginally increased by CGS12970. Neither active treatment reduced in-vivo 111In-platelet deposition. Preservation of vascular or graft prostacyclin by thromboxane synthetase inhibitors may represent an alternative strategy in preventing prosthetic graft thrombosis buy aggrenox .

buy aggrenox online 2017-10-12

Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among patients with stroke; thus, cardiologists frequently treat patients at high risk for stroke. Results from recent clinical trials of antiplatelet medications, given alone or in combination, may be of special interest to cardiologists. The MATCH study demonstrated no significant difference between clopidogrel alone and clopidogrel plus aspirin in reducing risk of vascular events after stroke or transient ischemic attack. A 1.3% increased risk of major bleeding was associated with clopidogrel plus aspirin. In CHARISMA, clopidogrel plus aspirin did not reach statistical significance vs. placebo plus aspirin in reducing incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes in patients with stable atherothrombotic disease; clopidogrel was associated with an increase in moderate bleeding. These results suggest that clopidogrel plus aspirin may be inappropriate as first-line therapy for secondary stroke prevention. In patients with established cardiovascular disease at risk for MI or other vascular events, physicians must weigh the benefits and risks before choosing this therapy. Selection of an antiplatelet agent must be based on patient history, including previous MI and stroke, susceptibility to bleeding, and other high-risk factors (e.g. advanced age and diabetes). Aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole may be more effective than clopidogrel for preventing stroke in high-risk patients. This article strives to buy aggrenox put MATCH and CHARISMA results into context by providing an overview of antiplatelet therapy, including relevant clinical trial results, a review of current practice guidelines, and a summary of an ongoing study that will improve clinical decision making.

aggrenox drugs 2016-04-19

Titrated initiation of ASA-dipyridamole (25/200 mg) appears to have low discontinuation rate and approximately 90% tolerance after 2 weeks. buy aggrenox History of migraine or tension headaches was not directly associated with discontinuation because of headaches.

aggrenox 200 mg 2015-11-22

In a double-blind trial of streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction, 219 consecutive patients presenting with infarction within four hours (mean, 3.0 +/- 0.8) of the onset of chest pain were randomly assigned to treatment with streptokinase (1.5 million units) or placebo, given intravenously over 30 minutes. The primary end point of the study was left ventricular function in patients with first infarctions. Patients who could undergo beta-blockade also received intravenous propranolol. Heparin (for 48 hours) and a combination of low-dose aspirin and dipyridamole were administered to both groups until cineangiography was performed at three weeks. In the patients with first infarctions treated with streptokinase, the left ventricular ejection fraction was 6 percentage points higher (streptokinase vs. placebo, 59 +/- 10. Prilosec Tablets 5 vs. 53 +/- 13.5 percent; P less than 0.005), with benefit to patients with either anterior infarction (57 +/- 11.9 vs. 49 +/- 15.9 percent; P less than 0.05) or inferior infarction (60 +/- 9.1 vs. 55 +/- 11.3 percent; P less than 0.05). Left ventricular function was improved regardless of whether concomitant propranolol was given. Survival (at 30 days) was improved with streptokinase: 2 deaths occurred among 79 patients who received this drug, as compared with 12 deaths among 93 patients who received placebo (2.5 vs. 12.9 percent, P = 0.012). Rates of reinfarction (streptokinase vs. placebo, 3 vs. 1 percent) and requirements for surgery or angioplasty (7 vs. 5 percent) were similar in the two groups. We conclude that administration of intravenous streptokinase (1.5 million units) to patients with a first myocardial infarction results in improved left ventricular function and short-term survival.

aggrenox drug information 2017-02-07

Results of an open trial of platelet inhibitor treatment for necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum suggest the possible importance of abnormal platelet function in this disease. In ten female patients with Avodart Uk Buy necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum (six who were diabetic and four who were not) platelet survival times were measured before and after treatment with aspirin and dipyridamole. Pretreatment platelet survival time was considerably shortened in 50 percent of the diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Platelet-inhibitor treatment prolonged platelet survival time toward normal in most of these patients. The clinical response to treatment varied from healing to no noticeable effect.

aggrenox retail cost 2017-02-04

Analysis of this patient group revealed that Patient 1 experienced nausea, emesis, anorexia, diarrhea and significant clinical decline during treatment with Aggrenox. Patients 2 and 3 also presented with complaints of nausea and emesis. Lab measurements along with clinical symptoms indicated that all three patients experienced acute renal failure, having increases in serum creatinine of 186%, 144% and 249%, respectively. Symptoms and lab work returned to baseline Famvir Medication following discontinuation of Aggrenox.

aggrenox authorized generic 2015-07-10

A total of 3782 (31.9%) patients had received 1 or 2 AP drugs at baseline: 3016 (25.4%) acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 243 (2.0%) clopidogrel, 175 (1.5%) ASA and dipyridamole, 151 (1.3%) ASA and clopidogrel, and 197 (1.7%) others. Patients receiving APs were 5 years older and had more risk factors than AP naïve patients. Incidences of SICH per SITS-MOST (ECASS II respectively) were as follows: 1.1% (4.1%) AP naïve, 2.5% (6.2%) any AP, 2.5% (5.9%) ASA, 1.7% (4.2 Zyrtec Cost %) clopidogrel, 2.3% (5.9%) ASA and dipyridamole, and 4.1% (13.4%) ASA and clopidogrel. In multivariable analyses, the combination of ASA and clopidogrel was associated with increased risk for SICH per ECASS II (odds ratio, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.45; P=0.003). However, we found no significant increase in the risk for mortality or poor functional outcome, irrespective of the AP subgroup or SICH definition.

aggrenox generic cost 2017-06-21

Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia and thrombosis is a severe complication of systemic heparin therapy. Its treatment is mainly based upon discontinuation of heparin therapy. However in some patients requiring emergency cardiac or vascular surgery, reexposure to heparin may be unavoidable. We report the management of two such patients by use of antiplatelet drugs for a vascular procedure. In the two cases, a combination of iloprost, a stable prostacyclin analogue (1 to 2 ng/kg/mn) with aspirin and dipyridamole was shown to inhibit ex vivo the heparin-induced platelet aggregation. These antiplatelet agents were continued during the perioperative period. A successful vascular procedure was achieved with full heparinization without subsequent thrombocytopenia or thrombotic or hemorrhagic complications. This experience supports the hypothesis that heparin can be readministered early to patients with heparin-associated thrombocytopenia and thrombosis, provided Requip Yellow Pill antiplatelet therapy is given.

aggrenox drug 2017-07-03

Six patients with no hemodynamically significant atherosclerotic lesions of the lower limb arteries but with ischemic changes of the feet or toes were studied and diagnosed as having atherothrombotic microembolism. All patients were non claudicators and had peripheral Doppler examinations on admission. Five patients experienced more than one separate episode of microembolization involving both extremities. None presented with a history of heart disease or diabetes. Biplanar arteriograms revealed in every case atherosclerotic degeneration of the aorta without any obstructing lesions and anatomical arterial continuity between the aorta and the site of distal embolization. Three patients who refused operation, were treated conservatively, with a combination of dipyridamole plus aspirin. Three other patients had surgical repair of their atheromatous infrarenal aorta: in two cases thromboendarterectomy was performed, and in the other a Dacron bifurcated graft interposition. No amputations resulted in the patients treated medically, but one of the surgical group lost one toe. This study confirms that atherothrombotic microembolism from an ulcerated atherosclerotic aorta is a potential threat to the extremities and indicates that Cymbalta Cost Canada the optimal therapy for this syndrome has yet to be found.