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Most strokes were embolic. Linearized embolic stroke rates were 1.3% +/- 0.2% per year for aortic bioprostheses, 1.4% +/- 0.2% per year for aortic mechanical valves, 1.3% +/- 0.3% per year for mitral bioprostheses, and 2.3% +/- 0.4% per year for mitral mechanical valves (p = 0.002, vs other implant types). Age more than 75 years, female gender, and smoking were independent risk factors after aortic and mitral valve replacement. Atrial fibrillation, coronary disease, and tilting-disc mechanical prostheses were independent predictors of embolic stroke after aortic valve replacement. Preoperative left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was an independent risk factor in patients with mitral prostheses. Primary operative indication, diabetes, redo status, or the presence of two prosthetic valves were not associated with an increased hazard. The addition of acetyl salicylic or dipyridamole to warfarin anticoagulation did not significantly lower embolic stroke risk in patients with mechanical prostheses.
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In 1988, we undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), modified-release dipyridamole, and the two agents in combination for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Patients with prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were randomized to treatment with ASA alone (50 mg daily), modified-release dipyridamole alone (400 mg daily), the two agents in a combined formulation, or placebo. Primary endpoints were stroke, death, and stroke or death together. TIA and other vascular events were secondary endpoints. Patients were followed on treatment for two years. Data from 6,602 patients were analysed. Factorial analysis demonstrated a highly significant effect for ASA and for dipyridamole in reducing the risk of stroke (p < or = 0.001) and stroke or death combined (p < 0.01). In pairwise comparisons, stroke risk in comparison to placebo was reduced by 18% with ASA alone (p = 0.013); 16% with dipyridamole alone (p = 0.039); and 37% with combination therapy (p < 0.001). Risk of stroke or death was reduced by 13% with ASA alone (p = 0.016); 15% with dipyridamole alone (p = 0.015); and 24% with the combination (p < 0.001). The treatment had no statistically significant effect on the death rate alone. Factorial analysis also demonstrated a highly significant effect of ASA (p < 0.001) and dipyridamole (p < 0.01) for preventing TIA. The risk reduction for the combination was 36% (p < 0.001) in comparison with placebo. Headache was the most common adverse event, occurring more frequently in dipyridamole-treated patients. All-site bleeding and gastrointestinal bleeding were significantly more common in patients who received ASA in comparison to placebo or dipyridamole. We conclude that (1) ASA 25 mg twice daily and dipyridamole, in a modified-release form, at a dose of 200 mg twice daily have each been shown to be equally effective for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke and TIA; (2) when co-prescribed the protective effects are additive, the combination being significantly more effective than either agent prescribed singly; (3) low-dose ASA does not eliminate the propensity for induced bleeding.
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Randomised long term secondary prevention trials with concealed treatment allocation, treatment for > 1 month, starting within 6 months after presentation of a arterial vascular disease were selected (coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, retinopathy, nephropathy, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, TIA, amaurosis fugax). Therapy consisted of dipyridamole in any dose in the presence or absence of other antiplatelet drugs compared with no drug or an antiplatelet drug(s) other than dipyridamole (control group).
The combination of low-dose aspirin and dipyridamole is more effective than aspirin alone in reducing the risk of recurrent stroke and other major cardiovascular events in patients with a recent transient ischemic attack or minor stroke. It is unknown whether this also applies to patients with a disabling stroke.
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From December 1976 through March 1982, 188 patients entered an open non-random study carried out on hospitalized patients with a history of transient ischemic attacks or amaurosis fugax. Ninety-two patients received peroral anticoagulants usually combined with heparin treatment during the first days of treatment, and 96 patients enteric-coated acetylsalicylic acid 0,5 g twice daily plus dipyridamole 75 mg twice daily. The patients were followed up to March 1983, irrespective of whether treatment was changed or not. Recurrent transient ischemic attack or amaurosis fugax occurred more frequently (P less than 0.01) from 2 months of follow-up and throughout the observation period in the antiplatelet-treated group. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups on the originally given treatment for endpoints such as stroke (6 patients on anticoagulants, 12 patients on antiplatelet therapy) or stroke or death (11 patients on anticoagulants, 17 patients on antiplatelet therapy). The findings from this trial suggest that anticoagulant treatment is superior to antiplatelet therapy given in the prevention of ischemic attacks and that this difference mainly exists during the first one to 2 months after onset of transient ischemic attacks or amaurosis fugax.
The primary outcome measure of efficacy was serious vascular events (non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction and vascular death). The outcome measure of safety was any bleeding.
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Oral anticoagulants (target INR range 2.0-3.0) are not more effective than aspirin for secondary prevention after transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke of arterial origin. A possible protective effect against ischaemic events is offset by increased bleeding complications.
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Choice of antithrombotic therapy depends on the etiology of the stroke. Oral anticoagulation treatment is the preferred choice for inferred cardioembolism in the setting of atrial fibrillation, while the varying rates of hemorrhage with oral anticoagulants continue to favor antiplatelet therapy in other settings of inferred etiology. Combinations of antithrombotic therapy vary in their lowering of stroke rate, and some raise the risk of hemorrhage. Insufficient data exist to determine whether antithrombotic therapy combined with antihypertensives, statins or other agents will further reduce the risk of stroke in synergistic or supplemental fashion, or give no additional benefit.
We have examined the effects of dipyridamole on platelet aggregation in whole blood both in vitro and after administration to man. The effects of dipyridamole ex vivo were compared with those of aspirin and a combination of dipyridamole and aspirin. In vitro dipyridamole was most effective as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor (PAF) and low concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA). Its inhibitory effect was always potentiated by adenosine suggesting that its effect on aggregation may be via inhibition of adenosine uptake into blood cells. Ex vivo, dipyridamole, aspirin and the combination of these drugs inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by PAF and AA. Again, adenosine increased the degree of inhibition. These results stress the importance of measuring platelet aggregation in the natural whole blood environment for detection of the inhibitory effects of dipyridamole and suggest a mode of action for the drug.
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The Persantine Aspirin Trial focused on the question of whether the administration of the combination of aspirin and dipyridamole (Persantine) would result in a lower incidence of cerebral or retinal infarction or death than the administration of aspirin alone for persons with a history of recent carotid territory transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Fifteen centers in the United States and Canada participated and 890 individuals were admitted and randomly allocated to either aspirin (325 mg) plus placebo or aspirin (325 mg) plus Persantine (75 mg) four times daily. Ninety eight percent of the subjects were followed for at least one year; many were followed for four to five years. The results of life table analysis indicate that the overall endpoint rates for the "aspirin only" and "aspirin plus Persantine" groups are identical. Thus, for TIA patients taking aspirin, the addition of Persantine contributes nothing. There was a clustering of stroke endpoints during the first month after randomization. Deaths from all causes were essentially equally divided between the two treatment groups.
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Adult patients with ≥1 hospitalizations for TIA/stroke between January 2007-July 2009 and ≥1 claims for an oral anti-platelet (OAP) were observed for 1 year before and after the first TIA/stroke hospitalization or until death, whichever came first. Cohorts were defined by the first claim for ASA-ERDP or CLOPID within 30 days post-discharge. A generalized linear model, adjusting for demographics, baseline comorbidities and costs, compared total follow-up costs (medical + pharmacy) between ASA-ERDP and CLOPID patients.
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Clopidogrel was marginally more effective than aspirin at reducing the risk of ischaemic stroke, MI or vascular death in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease, however, it did not statistically significantly reduce the risk of vascular death or death from any cause compared with aspirin. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of bleeding complications experienced in the clopidogrel and aspirin groups. MR-dipyridamole in combination with aspirin was superior to aspirin alone at reducing the risk of stroke and marginally more effective at reducing the risk of stroke and/or death. Compared with treatment with MR-dipyridamole alone, MR-dipyridamole in combination with aspirin significantly reduced the risk of stroke. Treatment with MR-dipyridamole in combination with aspirin did not statistically significantly reduce the risk of death compared with aspirin. Compared with treatment with MR-dipyridamole alone, bleeding complications were statistically significantly higher in patients treated with aspirin and MR-dipyridamole in combination with aspirin. Due to the assumptions that have to be made, no conclusions could be drawn about the relative effectiveness of MR-dipyridamole, alone or in combination with aspirin, and clopidogrel from the adjusted indirect comparison. The following would apply for a cost of up to GBP20,000-40,000 per additional quality-adjusted life-year. For the stroke and TIA subgroups, ASA-MR-dipyridamole would be the most cost-effective therapy given a 2-year treatment duration as long as all patients were not left disabled by their initial (qualifying) stroke. For a lifetime treatment duration, ASA-MR-dipyridamole would be considered more cost-effective than aspirin as long as treatment effects on non-vascular deaths are not considered and all patients were not left disabled by their initial stroke. In patients left disabled by their initial stroke, aspirin is the most cost-effective therapy. Clopidogrel and MR-dipyridamole alone would not be considered cost-effective under any scenario. For the MI and peripheral arterial disease subgroups, clopidogrel would be considered cost-effective for a treatment duration of 2 years. For a lifetime treatment duration, clopidogrel would be considered more cost-effective than aspirin as long as treatment effects on non-vascular deaths are not considered. It is suggested that the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin should be evaluated for the secondary prevention of occlusive vascular events. Also randomised, direct comparisons of clopidogrel and MR-dipyridamole in combination with aspirin are required to inform the treatment of patients with a history of stroke and TIA, plus trials that compare treatment with clopidogrel and MR-dipyridamole for the secondary prevention of vascular events in patients who demonstrate a genuine intolerance to aspirin.
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Pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and placental abruption are thought to have a common origin related to abnormalities in the development and function of the placenta.
The Dialysis Access Consortium (DAC) study group previously reported that treatment with extended-release dipyridamole plus aspirin (DASA) resulted in a significant but clinically modest improvement in primary unassisted arteriovenous graft (AVG) patency. Utilizing DAC published data, the objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of antiplatelet interventions aimed at preventing loss of primary AVG patency in hemodialysis (HD) patients.
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Various pharmacological approaches have been advocated, but the relative efficacy and safety of these regimens has remained the subject of much debate. The results of recent clinical trials on the use of antiplatelet therapy suggest that patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack may constitute a population distinct from patients with coronary or peripheral vascular disease. This may be caused, in part, by the differing etiologies of stroke and the increased vulnerability of cerebral vessels to bleeding. Indeed, dual antiplatelet therapy, which has been found to be beneficial for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary interventions, does not confer secondary stroke protection. The emerging paradigm is that some level of platelet inhibition is required for secondary stroke protection; a level beyond which increased risk of bleeding arises.
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Antiplatelet regimes appear as a good choice in coronary stent, in spite of the fact that the primary indication seems that of group A.
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Two trials showed a small but significant reduction with aspirin plus dipyridamole compared to aspirin (ARR 1.5%, P < 0.05 and ARR 1.0%, P < 0.05). There was no effect on vascular death. One trial showed a small but statistical significant reduction with clopidogrel compared to aspirin (ARR 0.5%, P < 0.05). The association of clopidogrel with aspirin could not show any significant benefit compared to clopidogrel monotherapy, nor compared to aspirin monotherapy, but showed higher rates of adverse events. Significantly more patients discontinued treatment with aspirin plus dipyridamole compared to aspirin monotherapy (34.5% versus 13.4% and 29.0% versus 22.2%, P < 0.001) and clopidogrel monotherapy (29.1% versus 22.6%, P < 0.001). Transposition of statistical significant reductions in stroke recurrence into clinical significance could not be supported.
Dipyridamole has been shown to decrease proteinuria and improve renal function progression especially in early chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with glomerulonephropathy. A combination therapy of dipyridamole with aspirin could prevent second strokes in the general population. Whether these effects of dipyridamole are also true in advanced CKD patients and whether dipyridamole could improve renal outcomes or patient survival is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed an observational cohort of 3074 participants with CKD stage 3-5 from southern Taiwan, of whom 871 (28.3%) had received dipyridamole treatment ≥50 mg/d for ≥3 months and more than half of the observation period. The mean age was 63.6 ± 13.4 years and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 25.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2). After inverse probability of treatment weighted adjustment by propensity score, there were no differences between the dipyridamole-treated and untreated groups. Dipyridamole treatment was associated with decreased odds for rapid eGFR decline [odds ratio, 0.755; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.595-0.958; p = 0.007] and progression of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (odds ratio, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.517-0.832; p = 0.002). In survival analysis, the dipyridamole-treated group was also associated with a decreased risk for end-stage renal disease (hazard ratio, 0.847; 95% CI, 0.733-0.980; p = 0.011) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.765; 95% CI, 0.606-0.971; p = 0.001) but not for cardiovascular events. Our findings demonstrate that dipyridamole treatment is significantly associated with better renal outcomes and patient survival in patients with CKD stage 3-5. Further investigations are warranted to confirm these independent positive effects.
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Following cerebral ischaemia a recurrent stroke must be avoided in most patients by means of antithrombotic agents. Based on the results reviewed here of new therapy studies, we discuss the presently available antithrombotic treatment options for prophylaxis in ischaemic stroke. TASS (Ticlopidine Aspirin Stroke Study) and CATS (Canadian American Ticlopidine Study) are two multicentre studies investigating the effect of ticlopidine, a new antiplatelet agent of the thienopyridine family, compared to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) respectively placebo, in the secondary prophylaxis of ischaemic stroke. A significant relative risk reduction of ticlopidine against ASA (21%) and against placebo (28.1%) was shown. CAPRIE (Clopidogrel vs. Aspirin in Patients with Risk of Ischemic Events) evaluated clopidogrel and ASA in the secondary prophylaxe of stroke, myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular occlusive disease. Clopidogrel has been shown to be as effective as ticlopidine compared to ASA in the secondary prevention of vascular disease but had the advantage of a far less severe side effect profile as ticlopidine. ESPS 2 (2nd European Stroke Prevention Study) compared dipyridamole and ASA alone and in combination against placebo in stroke prevention. The combination of agents showed a 24.4% relative risk reduction to suffer ischaemic stroke as opposed to placebo. The ranking of heparin and heparinoids in the secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke has not been completely established but seems to diminish according to recently published data from three major trials. The American TOAST study (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) failed to prove any advantage of intravenous Orgaran compared to placebo. In IST (International Stroke Trial) and CAST (Chinese Acute Stroke Trial) the benefits of heparin are invalidated by a higher bleeding rate of patients on intravenous heparin therapy. Furthermore, the results of IST have to be judged critically because of significant methodical inadequacies. When applying antithrombotic agents, therapeutic effect and presumed better outcome should be weighed against the risk of associated bleedings. The indication for an antithrombotic treatment should be reevaluated in regular control examinations and the possibility of a less aggressive treatment should be considered.
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The impact of commencing or changing antiplatelet therapy on von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) and von Willebrand factor propeptide (VWF:Ag II) levels has not been comprehensively assessed following TIA or ischaemic stroke. In this pilot, longitudinal, observational analytical study, VWF:Ag and VWF:Ag II levels were simultaneously quantified in platelet poor plasma by ELISA in patients within 4 weeks of TIA or ischaemic stroke (baseline), and then 14 days (14d) and >90 days (90d) after altering antiplatelet therapy. Ninety-one patients were recruited. Eighteen were initially assessed on no antiplatelet therapy, and then after 14d (N = 17) and 90d (N = 8) on aspirin monotherapy; 21 patients were assessed on aspirin and after 14d and 90d on clopidogrel; 52 were assessed on aspirin monotherapy, and after 14d and 90d on aspirin and dipyridamole combination therapy. VWF:Ag, VWF:Ag II levels and VWF:Ag/VWF:Ag II ratio were unchanged at 14d and 90d in the overall study population (p ≥ 0.1). VWF:Ag and VWF:Ag II levels remained stable at 14d and 90d after commencing aspirin (p ≥ 0.054), and after changing from aspirin to clopidogrel (p ≥ 0.2). Following the addition of dipyridamole MR to aspirin, there was a significant reduction in VWF:Ag levels at 14d (p = 0.03) and 90d (p = 0.005), but not in VWF:Ag II levels (p ≥ 0.3). The addition of dipyridamole to aspirin led to a persistent reduction in VWF:Ag but not in VWF:Ag II levels, suggesting that dipyridamole may inhibit release of platelet-derived VWF:Ag following TIA or ischaemic stroke.
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Adenosine at a dosage of 125 mug/min increased FBF from 4.6+/-0.9 to 29.4+/-5.3 (539% increase) with dipyridamole/aspirin and from 3.9+/-0.8 to 12+/-2.5 mL/100 mL forearm/min (208% increase) with aspirin alone (P=0.007). In contrast, dipyridamole/aspirin did not alter the response to acetylcholine or to nitroprusside. The magnitude of adenosine-induced vasodilation correlated with plasma dipyridamole concentrations (r2=0.6); no correlation was observed with acetylcholine- or nitroprusside-induced vasodilation. Similar potentiation of adenosine, but not acetylcholine or nitroprusside, was observed in 7 additional subjects when adenosine, acetylcholine, and nitroprusside were given in random order before and 2 hours after a single dose of dipyridamole/aspirin.
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Saphenous vein coronary artery bypass graft patency can be increased by antiplatelet therapy. Aspirin plus dipyridamole are effective but are associated with tolerability problems. Indobufen is a possible alternative antiplatelet agent that may be better tolerated. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of indobufen 200 mg twice daily with aspirin 300 mg thrice daily plus dipyridamole 75 mg thrice daily in preventing occlusion of autologous saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts. A total of 803 patients were randomized in the study, of whom 552 had a follow-up coronary angiogram approximately 1 year after operation. All anastomoses were patent in 56% of indobufen-treated patients and 59% of aspirin-dipyridamole recipients (p = 0.384). The percentage of all anastomoses patent was 82% in the indobufen group and 83% in the aspirin-dipyridamole group (p = 0.297). Mean postoperative blood loss was significantly less in the indobufen group (p = 0.043). Patients who received indobufen also had significantly fewer adverse events considered to be treatment-related compared with aspirin-dipyridamole recipients (p = 0.02). At the doses tested indobufen was as effective as aspirin plus dipyridamole in preventing occlusion of saphenous vein grafts and was better tolerated. Because indobufen was associated with less postoperative blood loss it may be used before operation in coronary artery bypass grafting.
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A trial of antiplatelet therapy (slow-release aspirin and dipyridamole) in mesangial IgA glomerulonephritis was conducted. Vitamin B was given to the control group. Altogether, 38 patients were observed for a mean of 33.2 months. Antiplatelet therapy did not favorably modify the course of mesangial IgA glomerulonephritis. The rate of progression of the disease, measured by the slope of reciprocals of serum creatinine v time plots, correlated significantly with the severity of tissue damage as assessed by an arbitrary morphologic score from renal biopsy specimens.
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This study was designed to investigate the role of inflammation on the occurrence of angiographic restenosis 6 months after coronary stent implantation and the influence of different kinds of antithrombotic and antiplatelet strategies on inflammation.
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The use of antiplatelet therapy in combination with oral anticoagulants remains controversial. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the incidence of adverse and coronary event rates between patients receiving warfarin monotherapy or warfarin and antiplatelet combination therapy.
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Platelet deposition can occur in areas of vascular damage and on prosthetic materials such as heart valves or grafts; mural thrombus formation, with eventual organization, progression to fatal occlusion, thrombolysis, or arterial embolization can follow. Use of antiplatelet drugs in patients undergoing certain cardiovascular surgical procedures or having rapid progression of atherosclerosis may reduce the thromboembolic risk.
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Evidence is fair to good for 62% of diagnostic and 52% of therapeutic interventions assessed.