amaryl oral medication
Carriers of more than 17 T2DM risk alleles had a 1.7-fold reduced likelihood to achieve stable SU dose (P=0.044). No significant effect of the number of T2DM risk alleles on prescribed dose was found. Carriers of more than 17 T2DM risk alleles showed a marginally significant increased time to stable dose (hazard ratio: 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.01, P=0.058).
For elderly patients with type 2 DM, reductions in HbA(1c) after treatment with a DPP-4 inhibitor were not significantly different from those in younger patients. Use of DPP-4 inhibitors in these studies was associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia, and these agents were weight neutral.
To compare the efficacy and safety of weekly albiglutide with daily sitagliptin, daily glimepiride, and placebo.
amaryl buy online
Ridayarishta formulation was phyto-chemically standardized against arjunolic acid, arjunetin, berberine, piperine, resveratrol and withaferin-A using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. The formulation was standardized with respect to ethanol by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. HDI was evaluated with Ridayarishta formulation and amlodipine besilate, atenolol, atorvastatin, metformin, glipizide glimepiride cocktail using high throughput CYP450 enzyme inhibition assay; against CYP1A2, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 isozymes.
amaryl 2mg tab
Glimepiride (Hoe 490, CAS 93479-97-1), a novel sulfonylurea antidiabetic agent, was studied for the cause of sex-related difference in the elimination clearance of the unchanged drug in rats. After intravenous and oral administration, the serum level of the unchanged drug was higher in female rats and AUC and t1/2 (beta) values were about 1.7- and 1.4-fold those for males, while Vss and oral bioavailability were nearly equal. The excretion clearance of the unchanged drug was quite small in both male and female animals, and most of the administered drug was excreted into the bile as a hydroxymethyl derivative, M1. In the in vitro metabolism study, M1 was found to be formed mainly in the liver microsomal fraction, and its hydroxylation activity was significantly higher in males. This metabolic activity was dependent on NADPH and was inhibited by proadifen. On the other hand, formation of M2, a carboxyl derivative, from M1 was observed in the cytosol fraction and showed no sex difference. Its metabolic activity depended on NAD and was inhibited by pyrazole. These results suggest that the sex difference observed in rat pharmacokinetics is mainly due to different hydroxylation activities of the side chain methyl group based on the participation of sex dependent cytochrome P-450 in liver microsomes.
CYP2C9 polymorphisms leading to decreased enzyme activity show a modest impact on the risk of mild hypoglycaemia attacks during oral antidiabetic treatment, with a significant association in patients treated with gliclazide.
amaryl tab use
The present study was aimed to investigate the role of plasma glucose concentration as a phenotypic marker and to study the frequency distribution of CYP2C9 genetic variants in Gujarat state diabetic population. One hundred and nine unrelated diabetes mellitus patients treated with sulfonylureas were genotyped for CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles. Their pre- and posttreatment postprandial blood glucose levels were recorded and mean glucose drop per milligram of drug values were calculated and further used as an index for phenotypic correlation. The frequencies of CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 alleles in the Gujarat state diabetic population were 0.84, 0.07 and 0.09, respectively. The distribution of CYP2C9*1/*1, CYP2C9*1/*2, CYP2C9*1/*3, CYP2C9*2/*2, CYP2C9*2/*3 and CYP2C9*3/*3 genotypes were 0.73, 0.08, 0.13, 0.0, 0.06 and 0.0, respectively. Patients with CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype did not show any significant difference in the mean glucose drop per milligram of drug values when compared with wild-type patients in glipizide-treatment group. Patients with CYP2C9*1/*3 genotype showed greater mean glucose drop per milligram of drug values than patients with CYP2C9*1/*1 wild-type genotype for both glipizide and glimepiride while patients with CYP2C9*2/*3 genotype showed greater drop than patients with CYP2C9*1/*1 genotype only in the glipizide-treatment group. The presence of CYP2C9*3 allele significantly affected plasma glucose drop per milligram of drug values in patients taking glipizide and glimepiride, while effects of CYP2C9*2 allele were insignificant. Further studies are needed to confirm the effects of CYP2C9*2 allele on plasma glucose drop per milligram of drug values. However, plasma glucose concentration is a complex physiological marker that cannot be used to establish perfect genotype-phenotype correlation. Hence studies exploring robust phenotypic markers must be initiated.
A 77-year-old man being treated for Alzheimer-type dementia and an old cerebral infarction was admitted to our hospital due to disturbance of consciousness. The patient's Mini-mental State Examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale scores were 23 and 17 points, respectively. His blood glucose level was low (18 mg/dl), with a relatively high insulin level (15.2 μU/ml). Computed tomography and an 18-hour fasting test showed no signs of insulinoma. Since his wife had been taking medications for dementia and diabetes, including Glimepiride, we considered the possibility that he may have taken glimepiride by mistake. Five months later, he was admitted again due to severe hypoglycemia with a relatively high insulin level (23.4 μU/ml). More than 660 g of glucose and 100 mg of hydrocortisone were administered, and the hypoglycemia resolved approximately 24 hours after admission. Again, there were no signs of insulinoma. We asked Sanofi-Aventis to measure the level of glimepiride in a blood sample obtained six hours after admission. Glimepiride was detected at a concentration of 24.48 ng/ml, which roughly corresponded to the accidental ingestion of 6 mg of the drug. We were later informed by the patient's home doctor that he had visited the emergency department of another prefecture hospital with the same symptoms. Thereafter, the couple received counseling by their home doctor, and the hypoglycemia has not recurred since. Given the increase in the number of elderly households, an increase in the number of episodes of accidental ingestion of medicine is expected. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for accidental exposure to drugs prescribed to other family members especially, in elderly patients.
amaryl pill picture
Intensive frequency of follow-up is associated with improved QOL and clinical indicators and thus may be a preferred approach for type 2 diabetes patients on oral hypoglycemic agents. As QoL is negatively correlated with clinical indicators, it could be used as a comprehensive indicator of therapeutic effects on type 2 diabetes patients.
amaryl 8 mg
Sulfonylurea drugs exert their insulinotropic action by inhibiting ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the pancreas. However, these channels are also expressed in myocardial and vascular smooth muscle, implicating possible detrimental cardiovascular effects. Aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory potency of various widely used sulfonylurea drugs in resistance arteries. Isolated mesenteric and renal resistance arteries mounted in a myograph and isolated perfused kidneys were used to measure drug responses. Pinacidil induced a dose-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine preconstricted mesenteric and renal arteries (pEC(50)=6.10 ± 0.01 and 5.66 ± 0.03, respectively). Schild plot analysis of pinacidil relaxation curves in mesenteric arteries in the presence of sulfonylurea antagonists revealed the following order of potency: glimepiride (pA(2)=7.22) ≥ glibenclamide (pA(2)=7.05) > glipizide (pA(2)=5.25) > gliclazide (pA(2)=4.31). The effects of glibenclamide in renal arteries were comparable. Furthermore, glibenclamide produced similar constrictive properties in isolated renal arteries as in isolated perfused whole kidneys. We conclude that sulfonylurea drugs exert differential effects on vascular smooth muscle K(ATP) channels. Our results suggest that glibenclamide and glimepiride will interact with these channels at therapeutic concentrations.
Dapagliflozin (Farxiga, AstraZeneca) is a selective SGLT2 inhibitor approved as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Dapagliflozin lowers blood glucose independent of insulin secretion and action by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose, thus promoting increased urinary excretion of glucose. Dapagliflozin has been shown to improve glycemic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes when used as monotherapy or in combination with metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, or insulin. Dapagliflozin treatment is associated with weight reduction, it has a low intrinsic propensity to cause hypoglycemia, and it may offer the advantage of a complementary mechanism of action when added to other therapies. During Phase III clinical trials, dapagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with an overall frequency of adverse events similar to that reported with placebo use. However, increased rates of genital and, in some trials, urinary tract infections have been reported in dapagliflozin-treated groups relative to placebo groups. Pooled data from clinical trials indicated an imbalance in bladder cancer cases between dapagliflozin-treated and placebo groups; however, most cases were diagnosed within one year of exposure. Ongoing research is expected to further delineate the effects of dapagliflozin on bladder cancer risk and cardiovascular safety measures.
amaryl 500 mg
VADT is maintaining the expected A1C in both STD and INT, and LDL-C, triglycerides and blood pressure are at target. The trial is continuing to June 2008. It will be the first long-term completed type 2 diabetes study of the role of glycaemia on CV disease with modern treatments.
amaryl 04 mg
Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon concentrations were measured every 30 min from -60 through 180 min with random-sequence, double-blind administration of diazoxide (6.0 mg/kg) or placebo at -30 and 1 min, ingestion of a formula mixed meal (Ensure Plus) at 0 min after diazoxide and after placebo and, on a separate occasion, ingestion of glimepiride (4.0 mg) at 0 min (with glucose infused to prevent hypoglycemia) after diazoxide and after placebo in 11 healthy young adults.
glimepiride amaryl generic
In STZ-induced diabetic wistar rats level of Hexokinase, and Glucose-6-Phosphatase was decreased to a significant level while the level of fructose-1-6-biphophatase was augmented. Therapy with Qurs Tabasheer for 28 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduces the level of serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1-6-biphosphatase, while magnitude of HDL cholesterol and hexokinase was amplified.
amaryl 5 mg
Irrespective of treatment, reductions in A1C levels were generally greater in groups with higher baseline A1C values. After 26 weeks of treatment, liraglutide produced the greatest reductions in A1C values across all baseline categories, ranging from 0.7% to 1.8% (baseline A1C categories ≤7.5% to >9.0%, respectively), followed by insulin glargine (0.3% to 1.5%) and then by glimepiride (0.4% to 1.3%). Generally, larger percentages of patients achieved the A1C target of ≤6.5% with liraglutide therapy across all baseline categories (from 62% of patients with A1C values ≤7.5% to 10% of patients with A1C values >9.0%) in comparison with other treatments (ranging from 49% to 0% of patients, respectively). Similarly, greater proportions of patients also reached the A1C target of <7.0% with liraglutide therapy across all baseline categories (from 83% of patients with A1C values ≤7.5% to 25% of patients with A1C values >9.0%) versus comparators (from 74% to 5% of patients, respectively).
amaryl 10 mg
Over a period of 30 years, compared with glimepiride, liraglutide 1.8 mg was associated with improvements in life expectancy (0.1 year) and quality adjusted life-year (0.168 QALY), and a reduced incidence of diabetes-related complications leading to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per QALY gained versus glimepiride of CNY 25,6871 (DEC 2010, 1 USD = 6.6227 CNY).
Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic activity of Qurs Tabasheer extract in STZ- induced wistar rats was found to be more effective than standard oral hypoglycemic drug Glimepiride.
amaryl tablet composition
Tablet splitting is a well-established medical practice in clinical settings for multiple reasons, including cost savings and ease of swallowing. However, it does not necessarily result in weight-uniform half tablets.
amaryl dosage information
Twenty-seven patients in the pioglitazone group (15-30 mg) and 30 in the glimepiride group (0.5-4 mg) completed the 24-week trial. Increases in plasma esRAGE were significantly greater in the pioglitazone group (12 weeks: 55 ± 15 pg/mL, p = 0.018; 24 weeks: 90 ± 14 pg/mL, p = 0.003) as compared to the glimepiride group (12 weeks: 12 ± 9 pg/mL; 24 weeks: 29 ± 14 pg/mL). Increases in plasma sRAGE were also significantly (p = 0.037) higher in the pioglitazone group at 24 weeks (170 ± 166 vs.74 ± 171 pg/mL). Furthermore, RAGE expression in mononuclear cells was significantly (p = 0.008) decreased to a greater degree in the pioglitazone group at 24 weeks (-7.39 ± 5.18 vs. -3.39 ± 5.72 MFI). Changes in HbA1c, IRI, and insulin resistance index (HOMA) at 24 weeks were not significantly different between the groups.
We evaluated individual cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of the change in CIMT produced by pioglitazone treatment by determining whether their addition to a baseline model resulted in loss of significance for the treatment effect on CIMT. Pioglitazone treatment led to improvement in levels of multiple cardiovascular risk markers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A1, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, and free fatty acid. At 24 weeks, there were significant differences in HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, body mass index, hip circumference, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein between the pioglitazone and glimepiride treatment groups. After adjustment for 24-week on-treatment values of cardiovascular risk factors, only inclusion of the changes in HDL cholesterol and insulin significantly impacted the magnitude and significance of the treatment effect on CIMT. Furthermore, irrespective of treatment assignment, increased HDL cholesterol at 24 weeks was a significant predictor of reduced CIMT progression at 72 weeks.