There was no significant difference between the patients and the control groups. After 3 months of etoricoxib therapy, 8 of 76 (10.53%) of the study group had aggravation of their underlying IBD and stopped the drug therapy, while 68 of 76 (89.5%) completed the study. The mean disease activity index before etoricoxib therapy was 1.15 + 0.794, whereas it was 1.19 + 0.683 after therapy. In the control group 8 of 70 (11.43%) experienced exacerbation of their symptoms while 62 of 70 (88.6%) completed the study. In the control group the mean disease activity before treatment was 1.16 + 0.253, whereas after placebo therapy was 1.20 + 0.481. 67 of 76 (88.2%) of the study group and 62 of 70 (88.6%) of the control group gave history of using t-NSAID therapy in addition to PPI that caused flare up of their IBD. For the patients who had to stop their drug therapy, all the adverse events occurred in the first month of drug/placebo challenge and all symptoms were reversible.
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Postoperative use of etoricoxib 90 and 120 mg in patients undergoing total knee replacement is both superior to placebo and non-inferior to ibuprofen in reducing pain at rest and also reduces opioid (morphine) consumption.
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The aim of this study was to test the tolerability of meloxicam in NSAID-sensitive patients.
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Establishment of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as an outpatient procedure has accentuated the clinical importance of reducing early postoperative pain, as well as postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). We therefore planned to evaluate the role of a multimodal approach in attenuating these problems.
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Patients in group E reported lower post-operative pain scores at 30, 60, 120 (P < 0.01) and 180 min (P < 0.05) after surgery, and longer time to first analgesic use (P < 0.05). Patients in group E required less fentanyl (P < 0.05) and were discharged more quickly (P < 0.05) than patients in group C. Patients in group E had a lower cumulative consumption of paracetamol + codeine tablets (P < 0.05) and lower pain scores (P < 0.05) during 7 days at home than patients in group C. Adverse events were rare in both groups.
This study aims to evaluate the tolerance to etoricoxib in children with hypersensitivity to multiple antipyretics.
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We determined cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibition in healthy middle-aged subjects (41-65 years) randomly assigned to four 7-day treatment sequences of etoricoxib 90 mg every day, celecoxib 200 mg twice a day, diclofenac 75 mg twice a day, or placebo in a double-blind, randomized, 4-period crossover study. Maximum inhibition of thromboxane B(2) (cyclo-oxygenase-1 activity) in clotting whole blood on day 7 (0-24 hours postdose) was the primary endpoint. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E(2) in whole blood (cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity) was assessed on day 7 (0-24 hours postdose) as a secondary endpoint. Diclofenac had significantly greater maximum inhibition of thromboxane B(2) versus each comparator (P < .001); placebo 2.4% (95% confidence interval: -8.7% to 12.3%), diclofenac 92.2% (91.4% to 92.9%), etoricoxib 15.5% (6.6% to 23.5%), and celecoxib 20.2% (11.5% to 28.1%). Prostaglandin E(2) synthesis was inhibited with a rank order of potency of diclofenac > etoricoxib > celecoxib. In summary, at doses commonly used in rheumatoid arthritis, diclofenac significantly inhibits both cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2, whereas etoricoxib and celecoxib significantly inhibit cyclo-oxygenase-2 and do not substantially inhibit cyclo-oxygenase-1.
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The geometric mean ratios (etoricoxib/placebo) for AUC(0-24h), C(max) and urinary excretion were 1.06 (90% confidence interval 0.97, 1.17), 1.33 (1.21, 1.46) and 1.10 (1.00, 1.20), respectively. The median (range) for digoxin T(max) (h) values with etoricoxib and placebo were 0.5 (0.5, 1.5) and 1.0 (0.5, 1.5), respectively. Steady-state digoxin plasma concentrations were achieved by day 7 in each treatment period. No serious adverse experiences were reported.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as non-selective NSAIDs (nsNSAIDs) or selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, are commonly prescribed for arthritic pain relief in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Treatment guidelines for chronic NSAID therapy include the consideration for gastroprotection for those at risk of gastric ulcers (GUs) associated with the chronic NSAID therapy. The United States Food and Drug Administration has approved naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets for the relief of signs and symptoms of OA, RA, and AS, and to decrease the risk of developing GUs in patients at risk of developing NSAID-associated GUs. The European Medical Association has approved this therapy for the symptomatic treatment of OA, RA, and AS in patients who are at risk of developing NSAID-associated GUs and/or duodenal ulcers, for whom treatment with lower doses of naproxen or other NSAIDs is not considered sufficient. Naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets have been compared with naproxen and celecoxib for these indications in head-to-head trials. This systematic literature review and network meta-analyses of data from randomized controlled trials was performed to compare naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets with a number of additional relevant comparators. For this study, an original review examined MEDLINE(®), Embase(®), and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register from database start to April 14, 2009. Using the same methodology, a review update was conducted to December 21, 2009. The systematic review and network analyses showed naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets have an improved upper gastrointestinal tolerability profile (dyspepsia and gastric or gastroduodenal ulcers) over several active comparators (naproxen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, ketoprofen, etoricoxib, and fixed-dose diclofenac sodium plus misoprostol), and are equally effective as all active comparators in treating arthritic symptoms in patients with OA, RA, and AS. Naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets are therefore a valuable option for treating arthritic symptoms in eligible patients with OA, RA, and AS.
In the first study, the between-treatment ratio of faecal blood loss for etoricoxib vs. placebo (1.06) was not significantly different from unity; however, the ratios for ibuprofen vs. placebo (3.26) and etoricoxib (3.08) were significantly greater than unity (P < 0.001). In the second study, the incidence of ulcers of > or = 3 mm with naproxen (25.3%) was significantly higher than that with etoricoxib (7.4%) or placebo (1.4%; P < 0.001); the results were similar for ulcers of > or = 5 mm.
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Overall, 165 patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty under spinal anaesthesia.
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Due to the solubility behaviour within the physiological pH gradient of the gastrointestinal tract, etoricoxib can be classified as an intermediate class 1/2 drug rather than BCS class 2. In vitro results combined with in silico simulations using GastroPlus support scientifically that a biowaiver for immediate release etoricoxib solid oral dosage forms is justified.
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At present there are several kinds of medicine for treating acute gout arthritis (AGA). This study compared the efficacy and safety of prednisolone, etoricoxib, and indomethacin in the treatment of AGA.
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Prostaglandins control osteoblastic and osteoclastic function under physiological or pathological conditions and are important modulators of the bone healing process. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and consequently prostaglandins synthesis. Experimental and clinical evidence has indicated a risk for reparative bone formation related to the use of non-selective (COX-1 and COX-2) and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Ketorolac is a non-selective NSAID which, at low doses, has a preferential COX-1 inhibitory effect and etoricoxib is a new selective COX-2 inhibitor. Although literature data have suggested that ketorolac can interfere negatively with long bone fracture healing, there seems to be no study associating etoricoxib with reparative bone formation. Paracetamol/acetaminophen, one of the first choices for pain control in clinical dentistry, has been considered a weak anti-inflammatory drug, although supposedly capable of inhibiting COX-2 activity in inflammatory sites.
To compare the preemptive analgesia efficacy between two cycloxygenase-2 inhibitors, rofecoxib and etoricoxib in the ambulatory uterine evacuation patients.
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EPE at various doses significantly reduced mechanical, heat, cold hyperalgesia and increased the horizontal and vertical movements in intra-articular MIA injected rats. EPE prevented the damage to cartilage structure and reduced the cellular abnormalities. Articular cartilage of rats treated with EPE at 300 mg/kg group was almost normal with well-developed smooth surface and chondrocytes were distributed individually or arranged in column.
We report here the preclinical profile of etoricoxib (MK-0663) [5-chloro-2-(6-methylpyridin-3-yl)-3-(4-methylsulfonylphenyl) pyridine], a novel orally active agent that selectively inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), that has been developed for high selectivity in vitro using whole blood assays and sensitive COX-1 enzyme assays at low substrate concentration. Etoricoxib selectively inhibited COX-2 in human whole blood assays in vitro, with an IC(50) value of 1.1 +/- 0.1 microM for COX-2 (LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis), compared with an IC(50) value of 116 +/- 8 microM for COX-1 (serum thromboxane B2 generation after clotting of the blood). Using the ratio of IC(50) values (COX-1/COX-2), the selectivity ratio for the inhibition of COX-2 by etoricoxib in the human whole blood assay was 106, compared with values of 35, 30, 7.6, 7.3, 2.4, and 2.0 for rofecoxib, valdecoxib, celecoxib, nimesulide, etodolac, and meloxicam, respectively. Etoricoxib did not inhibit platelet or human recombinant COX-1 under most assay conditions (IC(50) > 100 microM). In a highly sensitive assay for COX-1 with U937 microsomes where the arachidonic acid concentration was lowered to 0.1 microM, IC(50) values of 12, 2, 0.25, and 0.05 microM were obtained for etoricoxib, rofecoxib, valdecoxib, and celecoxib, respectively. These differences in potency were in agreement with the dissociation constants (K(i)) for binding to COX-1 as estimated from an assay based on the ability of the compounds to delay the time-dependent inhibition by indomethacin. Etoricoxib was a potent inhibitor in models of carrageenan-induced paw edema (ID(50) = 0.64 mg/kg), carrageenan-induced paw hyperalgesia (ID(50) = 0.34 mg/kg), LPS-induced pyresis (ID(50) = 0.88 mg/kg), and adjuvant-induced arthritis (ID(50) = 0.6 mg/kg/day) in rats, without effects on gastrointestinal permeability up to a dose of 200 mg/kg/day for 10 days. In squirrel monkeys, etoricoxib reversed LPS-induced pyresis by 81% within 2 h of administration at a dose of 3 mg/kg and showed no effect in a fecal 51Cr excretion model of gastropathy at 100 mg/kg/day for 5 days, in contrast to lower doses of diclofenac or naproxen. In summary, etoricoxib represents a novel agent that selectively inhibits COX-2 with 106-fold selectivity in human whole blood assays in vitro and with the lowest potency of inhibition of COX-1 compared with other reported selective agents.
This study investigates the effect of etoricoxib on oxidative stress induced by I/R of the rat liver.
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The effect of hepatic insufficiency on the pharmacokinetics of etoricoxib, a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, was investigated following administration of single and multiple oral doses to mild hepatic insufficiency patients (Child-Pugh score of 5 to 6), multiple oral doses to moderate hepatic insufficiency patients (Child-Pugh score of 7 to 9), and single intravenous doses to both mild and moderate hepatic insufficiency patients. A trend of decreasing systemic clearance with increasing hepatic impairment was observed. Absorption of etoricoxib was unaffected by hepatic impairment. Binding of etoricoxib to plasma proteins was also found to be unaffected by hepatic disease. Etoricoxib was generally well tolerated by patients with mild and moderate hepatic insufficiency. Together, these results support a 60-mg once-daily dosing regimen for mild hepatic insufficiency patients and a 60-mg every-other-day dosing regimen for moderate hepatic insufficiency patients. There are no clinical or pharmacokinetic data in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh score > 9).
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Seventeen publications out of 8681 identified studies were included in the review, all of which included people with rheumatoid arthritis using various NSAIDs, including aspirin. There were no identified studies for other forms of inflammatory arthritis.For NSAIDs, 13 studies were included that used concurrent NSAIDs, of which nine studies examined unspecified NSAIDs. The mean number of participants was 150.4 (range 19 to 315), mean duration 2182.9 (range 183 to 5490) days, although the study duration was not always clearly defined, and the studies were mainly of low to moderate quality. Two of these studies reported no evidence for increased risk of methotrexate-induced pulmonary disease; one study assessed the effect of concurrent NSAIDs on renal function and found no adverse effect; one study identified no adverse effect on liver function; three studies demonstrated no increase in methotrexate withdrawal; and one study showed no increase in all adverse events, including major toxic reactions. However, transient thrombocytopenia was demonstrated in one study, specifically when NSAIDs were taken on the same week day as methotrexate. This study was a retrospective review that involved small numbers only and was of moderate quality; these finding have not been replicated since.Four studies looked at specific NSAIDs (etodolac, piroxicam, celecoxib and etoricoxib), with a mean number of participants of 25.8 (range 14 to 50) and mean study duration of 16.8 (range 14 to 23) days. These studies were mainly of moderate quality. The studies were primarily pharmacokinetic studies but also reported adverse events as secondary outcomes. There were no clinically significant adverse effects with concomitant piroxicam or etodolac; and only mild adverse events with celecoxib or etoricoxib, such as nausea and vomiting, and headaches.For aspirin, seven studies provided data on adverse events with the use of aspirin and methotrexate. These studies included a mean number of participants of 100 (range 11 to 232), had a mean duration of 1325 (range 8 to 2928) days and were mainly of low to moderate quality. Two of the studies reported no evidence for increased risk of methotrexate-induced pulmonary disease and two studies showed no increase in all adverse events including major toxic reactions; however, none of these studies specified the dose of aspirin that was used. One study demonstrated that concurrent aspirin adversely affected liver function at a mean dose of 6.84 tablets of aspirin per day, which is a possible daily dose of 2.1 g presuming that 300 mg aspirin tablets were given. A further study described a partially reversible decline in renal function with 2 g daily of aspirin. One study reported no increase in adverse events with 975 g aspirin daily, however the study duration was only one week.For paracetamol, no studies were identified for inclusion.
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DMBA administration to the rats led to tumorigenesis in the lungs, had no effects on COX-1 expression, while elevating the COX-2 levels and suppressing apoptosis. The treatment with NSAIDs led to the amelioration of these effects. However, etoricoxib which is a COX-2 specific inhibitor, was found to be more effective than the traditional NSAID, indomethacin.