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Dried pulverized bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn (TA) was administered orally to Wistar albino rats (120-150 g) in two doses [500 and 750 mg/kg in 2% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)], 6 days per week for 12 weeks. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed either for determination of baseline changes in cardiac endogenous antioxidant compounds [superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT)] or the hearts were subjected to oxidative stress associated with in vitro ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI). There was significant increase in the baseline contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (a measure of lipid peroxidation) with both doses of TA. However, only in the 500 mg/kg treated group, this was accompanied by a simultaneous increase in SOD, GSH and CAT levels, but not in the 750 mg/kg treated group, where only CAT was raised. Significant rise in myocardial TBARS and loss of SOD, CAT and GSH (suggestive of increased oxidative stress) occurred in the vehicle-treated hearts subjected to in vitro IRI. Only hearts, harvested from the 500 mg/kg rats treated rats, were significantly protected from oxidative stress, when subjected to in vitro IRI. The results suggest that crude bark of TA augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents oxidative stress associated with IRI of the heart.
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Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of eight clinically isolated strains of enteropathogenic bacteria, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella paratyphi, S. typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, S. sonnei and Vibrio cholerae were assessed by disc-diffusion method. Antibacterial activities of 8 solvent-extracts of leaves and bark of five medicinal plants were monitored by the agar-well diffusion method. The microbroth dilution method was used to assess minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Qualitative phytochemical analyses of active plant extracts were carried out.
Medicinal plants have been used in patients with congestive heart failure, systolic hypertension, angina pectoris, atherosclerosis, cerebral insufficiency, venous insufficiency and arrhythmia since centuries. A recent increase in the popularity of alternative medicine and natural products has revived interest in traditional remedies that have been used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
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Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method.
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Despite the sub-therapeutic, intra oral, bioavailability of polyenes, echinocandins and ketoconazole, they are likely to produce a persistent antifungal effect by suppressing phospholipase production, which is a key virulent attribute of this common pathogenic yeast.
Antifungal activity was determined by agar diffusion test on 65 isolates of C. albicans and 21 isolates of C. dubliniensis for each toothpaste. A uniform quantity of toothpaste was filled into wells punched into Sabouraud dextrose agar medium plates inoculated with the test isolates, incubated at 37°C; inhibition zone diameters were read after 24 h.
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Insight of evidence that some complications of diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycemia, we investigated the effect of T. arjuna bark extract on serum, liver and kidney marker enzymes in alloxan - induced diabetic rats. T. arjuna was administered orally at a doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 30 days, after which serum liver and kidney tissues were assayed for the degree of pathological changes by means of markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) resulted in a significant reduction in serum and tissue of liver and kidney marker enzymes when compared with control rats T. arjuna at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited higher efficacy.
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Green nanoparticle synthesis was achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extracts reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments to the anticancer activities to determine the effect of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three medicinal plants on human liver (HepG2) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell lines. The synthesis of AgNPs using Plumbago zeylanica (Pz), Semecarpus anacardium (Sa) and Terminalia arjuna (Ta) plant extracts in the reaction mixture was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy. FTIR results clearly illustrated that the plant extracts containing prominent peaks of functional groups and biomolecules viz., tannins, phenols, flavonoids and triterpenoids those act as capping agents and involved in the stabilization of the synthesised silver nanoparticles. Synthesized AgNPs were spherical and cuboid in shape which is determined by SEM. Average size of the AgNPs were between 80-98, 60-95 and 34-70 nm for PzAgNPs, SaAgNPs and TaAgNPs, respectively. Further, the synthesized AgNPs were characterized by XRD, EDX, DLS and Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, the synthesized AgNPs exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxicity against human liver and prostate cancer cell lines. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of HepG2, PC3 and Vero cells were found to be 70.97, 58.61, 96.41; 10.04, 42.77, 83.86; and 28.42, 41.78, 69.48 μg/ml for PzAgNPs, SaAgNPs and TaAgNPs at 48 h incubation. An induction of apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, Hoechst, Rhodamine and AO/EtBr staining. The present results strongly suggested that the AgNPs synthesized using P. zeylanica, S. anacardium and T. arjuna extracts showed potential anticancer activity of HepG2 and PC3 cell lines.
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To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 'Hartone'--a proprietary herbal product primarily containing Terminalia arjuna in stable angina pectoris patients.
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Arjuna extract did not improve LVEF in CHF patients over 12 weeks, although there was improvement in functional capacity, antioxidant reserves and symptom-related QoL domains in some patients.
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India is currently facing the silent epidemic of ischemic heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, and stroke. Both diabetes and ischemic heart disease appear in Indian people a decade earlier compared to whites. The recent evidence that certain medicinal plants possess hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, and immunomodulating properties on account of their rich flavonoid and/or other glucose-lowering active constituents merits scientific scrutiny in this regard.
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Little apparent digoxin concentration was observed when aliquots of drug-free serum pools were supplemented with Danshen or bark of Arjuna tree extract. When aliquots of serum digoxin pool were further supplemented with these extract, we observed statistically significant negative interference but such differences may not be clinically significant.
Chronic and acute overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a positive role in the development of cardiovascular diseases under pathophysiological conditions. However, very little is known about carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced cardiac oxidative stress. The present study was conducted to find out CCl(4) induced oxidative insult in cardiac tissue and the cardioprotective effect of the 70% ethanol extractable active constituents of the bark of Terminalia arjuna (TA) against that stress in mice. Oral administration of CCl(4) at a dose of 1ml/kg body weight for 2 days significantly reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as depleted the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the cardiac tissue. In addition, extent of lipid peroxidation and the level of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were increased under the same experimental conditions. Oral treatment of the active constituents of TA at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight for 7 days prior to CCl(4) administration significantly restored the activities of all antioxidant enzymes as well as increased the level of GSH and decreased the level of lipid peroxidation end products. In addition, FRAP assay showed that the active constituents of TA enhanced the cardiac intracellular antioxidant activity. Histological studies also supported the cardioprotective role of the active constituents. The active constituents-induced protective effect was compared with a known antioxidant, vitamin C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the CCl(4) induced cardiac oxidative stress and cardioprotective action of the active phytoconstituents of Terminalia arjuna against that oxidative insult.
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Smokers have impaired endothelium-dependent but normal endothelium-independent vasodilation as determined by brachial artery reactivity studies. Further, Terrminalia arjuna therapy for two weeks leads to significant regression of this endothelial abnormality amongst smokers.
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Adherence of Candida has been implicated as the initial process in the pathogenesis of oral candidosis. Candidal germ tubes and its relative cell-surface hydrophobicity (CSH) are contributory attributes. Candida dubliniensis is currently documented as an opportunistic pathogen allied with recurrent oral candidosis. Oral candidosis can be treated with polyene and azole antifungals such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole and fluconazole. However, the intraoral concentration of these drugs fluctuates and becomes sub-therapeutic because of the diluent effect of saliva and cleansing effect of the oral musculature. Hence, intraorally, the pathogenic yeast may undergo a brief exposure to antifungal drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of brief exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these antifungals on the germ tube formation and CSH of C. dubliniensis. After determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of the drugs, 20 oral isolates of C. dubliniensis were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these antifungals for 1 h. Following this brief exposure, the drugs were removed, and following subsequent incubation in a germ tube inducing medium and exposure to bi-phasic hydrocarbon assay, the germ tube formation and CSH of these isolates was quantified respectively. Compared with controls, exposure to amphotericin B almost completely suppressed the ability to form germ tubes with a mean percentage reduction of 95.91% (P < 0.0001), whereas ketoconazole and fluconazole also significantly inhibited germ tube formation but to a lesser degree with a mean percentage reduction of 18.73% and 12.01% respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, exposure to amphotericin B and ketoconazole elicited a significant suppression on CSH with a mean percentage reduction of 33.09% and 21.42%, respectively (P < 0.001), whereas exposure to fluconazole did not elicit a significant suppression on CSH (9.21%; P > 0.05). In clinical terms it appears that, even a short exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these drugs, a situation all too familiar in the oral environment, would continue to exert an antifungal effect by suppressing the pathogenic potency of C. dubliniensis.
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The incidence of chronic illnesses has increased worldwide. Diabetes is one such illness and 80% of the diabetic population lives in the developing world. There is a rapidly growing trend towards the use of Complementary and Alternative Medical practices in Diabetes. Sri Lanka is a developing Asian nation with a rich culture of Ayurvedic and native medical culture. The objective of this study was to find the prevalence of use of CAMs in a diabetic population attending a large multiethnic diabetes facility in a University unit and to assess whether there is an increase in the incidence of hypoglycaemic episodes among users of CAMs.
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Terminalia arjuna is an important medicinal plants widely used in the preparation of Ayurvedic formulations used against several ailments. The present investigation was aimed at the fractionation of crude extracts from the bark of T. arjuna in order to isolate and purify the antimutagenic factors present. The antimutagenicity assay was performed to check the modulatory effect of these fractions against NPD, sodium azide, and 2AF, using the Ames Salmonella his+ reversion assay. Most of the phenolic fractions exhibited mutagen specificity against direct-acting mutagens, being effective in suppressing the frameshift mutagen NPD but failing to inhibit sodium azide (base pair substitution)-induced his+ revertants. ET-1 fraction triterpenoid diglycoside showed a marked effect against sodium azide but was ineffective against NPD. In the case of the indirect-acting mutagen 2AF, all the fractions were found to be quite potent in modulating its mutagenicity in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The results indicate that the bark of T. arjuna harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that should be investigated further.
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The antimutagenic effect of benzene, chloroform, acetone and methanol fractions from Terminalia arjuna, a well-known medicinal plant, was determined against Acid Black dye, 2-aminofluorene (2AF) and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) in TA98 Frameshift mutagen tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium. Among the different fractions, the antimutagenic effect of acetone and methanol fractions was more than that observed with other fractions. Co-incubation and pre-incubation modes of experimentation did not show much difference in the antimutagenic activity of the extracts. Moreover, these fractions inhibited the S9-dependent mutagens, 2AF and Acid Black dye more effectively than the direct-acting mutagens. Studies are under way to isolate and elucidate the nature of the antimutagenic factor in acetone and methanol fractions.
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Ancient Indian Medical knowledge known as Ayurveda goes back to a immemorial past. The Vedas and Puranas refer various materials of medical importance including herbs, plants and trees etc. The ancient medical scientists have mentioned the properties of the Arjuna, and recommended mainly for the management of Hirta/Rudhira vikaras, Vrana, Prameha, Visa Vikaras, Asrugdhara, Kshetriya/Shukra dosha etc. The modern medical/Botanical scientists have also carried out so many researches on Arjuna and do not find any difference with the ancestery knowledge.
Livwin is found effective in uncomplicated patients of acute viral hepatitis. Epigastric pain and diarrhea were reported with Livwin treatment.
Free radicals and associated oxidative stress induced by alloxan are implicated in eliciting pathological changes in diabetes mellitus. Terminalia arjuna bark, an indigenous plant used in ayurvedic medicine in India, primarily as a cardiotonic is also used in treating diabetes, anemia, tumors and hypertension. The present study examined the effect of ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) of Terminalia arjuna stem bark in alloxan induced diabetic rats and its lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and nonenzymatic activity was investigated in the liver and kidney tissues. The extract produced significant (P<0.05) reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO). The effect of oral T. arjuna at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight was more than the 250 mg/kg body weight. The extract also causes a significant (P<0.05) increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, reduced glutathione, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, total sulfhydryl groups (TSH) and non protein sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) in liver and kidney of alloxan induced diabetic rats, which clearly shows, the antioxidant property of T. arjuna bark. The result indicates that the extract exhibit the antioxidant activity through correction of oxidative stress and validates the traditional use of this plant in diabetic animals.
Arjunolic acid, a new triterpene and a potent principle from the bark of Terminalia arjuna, has been shown to provide significant cardiac protection in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats. To further explore the mechanism of action of arjunolic acid, antiplatelet activity, anticoagulant assays, electrocardiographic changes, serum marker enzymes, antioxidant status, lipid peroxide and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been measured and the results are compared with a potent cardioprotective drug, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Administration of isoproterenol produces electrocardiographic changes such as decreased R amplitude and increased ST segment elevation and has resulted in an increase in serum marker enzyme levels as well as a decrease in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels. Arjunolic acid at an effective dosage of 15 mg/kg body wt. (pre and post treatment), when administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), effects a decrease in serum enzyme levels and the electrocardiographic changes get restored towards normalcy. Arjunolic acid treatment is also shown to prevent the decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, ceruloplasmin, alpha-tocopherol, reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid, lipid peroxide, MPO and the cardioprotection is confirmed by the histopathological studies. This study shows that the cardioprotection of arjunolic acid pre and post treatment could possibly be due to the protective effect against the damage caused by myocardial necrosis.