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Calan (Verapamil Hydrochloride)

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Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Cartia XT, Cardizem, Cardizem LA, Nifedical XL , Propranolol, Procardia, Procardia XL


Also known as:  Verapamil Hydrochloride.


Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders.

It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Calan is also known as Verapamil, Calaptin, Isoptin, Verelan, Bosoptin, Covera-HS.


Take Calan orally.

Do not take Calan in large amounts.

Do not crush, chew, break, or open a controlled-delivery or extended-release tablet or capsule.

Swallow the whole pill.

It is important to use verapamil regularly to get the most benefit.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Calan suddenly.


If you overdose Calan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Calan overdosage: slow heartbeat, fainting fit.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Calan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Calan if you are allergic to Calan components.

Be careful with Calan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Calan if you have poor heart condition, low blood pressure, recent heart attack.

Be careful with Calan if you suffer from kidney, liver disease, congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophy.

Be careful with Calan if you take medications such as any other blood pressure medications; buspirone (BuSpar); carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol); cimetidine (Tagamet, Tagamet HB); cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps); lithium (Eskalith, LithoBid); lovastatin (Mevacor); phenobarbital (Solfoton); rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater); theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24, Uniphyl); a sedative such as midazolam (Versed) or triazolam (Halcion); an antibiotic such as clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (E-Mycin, E.E.S., Ery-Tab, Erythrocin), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), telithromycin (Ketek), or voriconazole (Vfend); a beta-blocker such as atenolol (Tenormin), bisoprolol (Zebeta, Ziac), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol), propranolol (Inderal, InnoPran), sotalol (Betapace), timolol (Blocadren), and others; a heart rhythm medication such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), disopyramide (Norpace), flecainide (Tambocor), or quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, Quin-Release); HIV/AIDS medicine such as amprenavir (Agenerase), atazanavir (Reyataz), delavirdine (Rescriptor), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), or ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Calan.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

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We investigated the potential of chronic administration of an oral daily dose (10 mg/kg) of the dietary flavonoid quercetin to prevent hypertension and oxidative stress induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt in rats. We have compared its effects to those produced by the well-known anti-hypertensive drug verapamil, administered orally (20 mg/kg/day). Quercetin and verapamil treatments reduced systolic blood pressure of DOCA-salt rats in approximately 67.6 and 63.3% respectively, producing no effect in control animals. Both drugs reduced significantly hepatic and renal hypertrophy induced by DOCA-salt administration, while only quercetin prevented cardiac hypertrophy. Decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine of aortic rings from DOCA-salt-treated rats was improved by quercetin, but verapamil only enhanced it in the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD) plus catalase. Increased plasma and heart thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total glutathione (GSH) levels in liver and heart, decreased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and liver and kidney glutathione transferase (GST) activities were observed in DOCA-salt-treated rats compared to the control animals. The antihypertensive effect of quercetin was accompanied by normalisation of plasma TBARS values, improvement of the antioxidant defences system in heart and liver, restoring total GSH levels in both organs and altered liver GST and GPX activities, and improving kidney GST activity. Verapamil treatment only restored GSH levels in heart, having no effect on other alterations induced by DOCA-salt chronic administration in the antioxidant defences analysed. In conclusion, quercetin shows both antihypertensive and antioxidant properties in this model of mineralocorticoid hypertension, while verapamil exhibits only antihypertensive effects.

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Management of MdDS as vestibular migraine can improve patients' symptoms and increase the QOL. Nearly all the patients suffering from MdDS had a personal or family history of migraine headaches or had signs or symptoms suggestive of atypical migraine.

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Sustained and/or dysregulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines is sufficient to produce tissue injury and provoke overt cardiac decompensation. The important question that remains to be addressed is whether or not it will be possible to modulate the inappropriate or maladaptive consequences of innate immune activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the mammalian heart. CCBs, such as nifedipine, amlodipine, diltiazem, and verapamil, promote the relaxation of cardiac and smooth muscle cells by inhibiting calcium influx through calcium channels and calcium release from intracellular stores, and are commonly used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Recently, several in-vitro studies have shown that, besides the effects they exert on muscle cells, CCBs also suppress the activation of various participants in immune reactions, including T cells, mast cells and macrophages, suggesting that they can be immunosuppressant.

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The extent of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation, which is dependent on an intact endothelium, is time-dependent, and inversely related to [Ca(2+)](o) in a range of 0.02-2 mmol/L. ACh-induced relaxations were not significantly altered by the magnitude of the precontraction induced by PGF(2alpha). Nitroprusside-induced relaxations, which are independent of the endothelium, are also attenuated by reduced [Ca(2+)](o). Relaxant responses to ACh were significantly more susceptible to reduced [Ca(2+)](o) than nitroprusside-induced relaxations. A maximally effective relaxing concentration of D600, an L-type Ca channel blocker methoxyverapamil, (10(-5) mol/L) attenuated ACh-induced relaxations, whereas nitroprusside-induced relaxations were unaffected by D600.

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Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a group of pharmaceuticals widely prescribed to lower blood pressure and treat heart diseases. They have been frequently detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and downstream river waters, thus inducing a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. However, little is known about the behavior and fate of CCBs under UV irradiation, which has been adopted as a primary disinfection method for WWTP effluents. This study investigated the degradation kinetics and pathways of three commonly-used CCBs, including amlodipine (AML), diltiazem (DIL), and verapamil (VER), under UV (254 nm) irradiation. The chemical structures of transformation byproducts (TBPs) were first identified to assess the potential ecological hazards. On that basis, a generic solid-phase extraction method, which simultaneously used four different cartridges, was adopted to extract and enrich the TBPs. Thereafter, the photo-degradation of target CCBs was performed under UV fluences typical for WWTP effluent disinfection. The degradation of all three CCBs conformed to the pseudo-first-order kinetics, with rate constants of 0.031, 0.044 and 0.011 min(-1) for AML, DIL and VER, respectively. By comparing the MS(2) fragments and the evolution (i.e., formation or decay) trends of identified TBPs, the degradation pathways were proposed. In the WWTP effluent, although the target CCBs could be degraded, several TBPs still contained the functional pharmacophores and reached peak concentrations under UV fluences of 40-100 mJ cm(-2).

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The calcium channel blocker, verapamil stimulates procollagenase synthesis in keloids and hypertrophic scars.

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Recurrent stereotyped prolonged attacks with sensory and motor elements can predate the development of intracerebral hemorrhage in individuals with clinically probable CAA. When evaluating patients with such attacks, neurologists need to consider CAA as a possible mimic of transient ischemic attacks. We suggest a trial of migraine prophylaxis for symptomatic management.

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Some environmental pollutants, including cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn), can act as endocrine disruptors in fish, either in vivo or through a direct action on steroidogenic cells, as has been demonstrated in vitro. We have previously characterized Cd uptake in head kidney (homologue of mammalian adrenal) cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and have provided evidence for a Cd/Ca interaction. Here, we pursued our investigation of metal competition for uptake. Our results show that inorganic speciation conditions favour Cd uptake with optimal level of accumulation for Cd2+ compared to chlorocomplexes (CdCl(n)(2-n)). Calcium uptake was studied for the first time in the fish head kidney cells and Ca was found to be less efficiently accumulated compared to Cd. A specific saturable mechanism of transport was characterized for Ca uptake but voltage-gated or La-sensitive cationic channels are unlikely to contribute appreciably. A concentration-dependent reciprocal inhibition was observed between Ca and Cd, whereas, Zn proved to inhibit Cd uptake exclusively. Additive inhibitory effect on Cd uptake was obtained with co-exposure to Ca and Zn. We conclude that Cd, but not Zn, may decrease Ca availability to the head kidney tissue. Also, Zn may partially protect against Cd toxicity but Zn would not protect against Cd-induced perturbation of Ca homeostasis.

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MEDLINE search of English-language articles, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, manual review of cited references, pharmaceutical files, and investigator correspondence was performed. Independent review of 66 articles identified 14 randomized, parallel-group studies for inclusion. Independent, duplicate assessments were made of patient outcomes and trial characteristics (including study design, treatment dosage and schedule, duration of treatment, inclusion criteria, and sample size). Standard meta-analytic techniques were employed for analysis and interpretation of results.

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All patients completed the treatment protocol (12 sessions) and a total number of 348 sessions of iontophoresis were performed. After treatment, 3 patients (10.7%) continued with pain, but it disappeared in 25 of them (89.3%). A decrease of the size of the plaque was observed in 13 patients (44.8%), even disappearance in 4 patients (13.8%). No patient had curvature decrease after treatment. However, EF (IIEF score) and ability for intercourse improved in 3 (10.3%) and 4 patients (13.8%) respectively.

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L-type calcium channels can modulate neuronal transduction in the spinal cord. However, their role in noxious information processing in animals that are physiologically intact has not been elucidated. We evaluated the effects of L-type calcium channel blockers diltiazem and verapamil on somatic and visceral nociception at the level of the spinal cord. Intrathecal catheters were inserted at the L4-5 level in Sprague-Dawley rats. The tail flick (TF) test and colorectal distension (CD) test were used to assess somatic and visceral antinociceptive effects, respectively. Motor function was assessed by posture and muscle tone in the limbs. TF latency and CD threshold were measured before and for 180 min after the intrathecal administration of verapamil (50, 100, 300, and 500 microg), diltiazem (100, 300, 500, and 1000 microg), or isotonic sodium chloride solution. The percent maximal possible effect (%MPE) was calculated by transforming response threshold in TF and CD tests. Intrathecally administered diltiazem or verapamil increased both TF latency and CD threshold in a dose-dependent fashion. Isotonic sodium chloride solution, diltiazem 100 microg, and verapamil 50 microg did not increase %MPE in either test. Diltiazem 300 or 500 microg or verapamil 300 or 500 microg significantly (P < 0.05) increased %MPE, with the peak effects 5 min after administration and short-duration antinociception. %MPE was 100% until 15 min after the administration of diltiazem 1000 microg, and significant antinociception continued until 180 min in the TF test. Motor paralysis was observed after the administration of the larger dose of each drug. We demonstrated that intrathecally administered L-type calcium channel blockers diltiazem or verapamil produced both somatic and visceral antinociception and motor block dose-dependently.

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We investigated anaerobic threshold (< theta(L)) gas exchange kinetics and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2,max) among older men with reduced left ventricular end-diastolic filling (LVDF). Ten men (mean age, 73 years) with LVDF impairment and low fitness, but without other cardiovascular dysfunction were studied. Treatments compared to control included: 5 days, high intensity exercise training protocol; 5 days, calcium channel blockade (240 mg verapamil); 21 days, detraining/washout; and 5 days, combined treatments. Results indicated no changes in resting left ventricular systolic function with any treatment. Significant resting diastolic function changes included increased early:late flow velocity (control, 0.87; training, 1.28; verapamil, 1.32), and a decreased isovolumic relaxation time (control, 0.10 s; training, 0.08 s; verapamil, 0.08 s). The combined treatments were not additive. Sub-threshold oxygen uptake kinetics (tauVO2, s) were significantly faster following either training or verapamil (tauVO2,control, 62+/-12; tauVO2,training, 44+/-9; tauVO2,verapamil, 48+/-10) and combined treatments (tauVO2, 41+/- 8). V O2,max (ml kg(-1) min(-1)) was significantly increased (control, 21.8+/-2.2; training, 27.3+/-2.2; verapamil, 25.2+/-3.4; combined treatments, 26.9+/-2.3). Increasing ventricular preload with either exercise training or calcium channel blockade was coincident with faster tauVO2 and increased VO2,max.

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Inappropriate sinus tachycardia is a disease which is relatively rarely found and sometimes difficult to treat. Up to now it has been mostly treated with a beta-blocker or verapamil. If this did not work sinus node modulation was considered. Since the relatively new selective IF-stream blocker ivabradine has been approved for the therapy of chronic stable angina pectoris, a new therapeutic option is available. As ivabradine is well tolerated and only few side effects are known, it may become a new therapeutic step between medication and the invasive sinus node modulation. We report the case of a young female patient with inappropriate sinus tachycardia where a sustained therapeutic success was achieved with ivabradine medication as an alternative therapeutic trial after various ineffective medications.

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A PCR-based method for targeted gene deletion by kanMX4 module was used to construct complete deletion mutants of six individual open reading frames from chromosome II: YBR128c, YBR131w, YBR133c, YBR137w, YBR138c and YBR142w. The ORFs were deleted in two diploid strains, FY1679 and W303. Sporulation and tetrad analysis revealed that only one ORF, YBR142w, encoding a putative DEAD-box RNA helicase, is an essential gene. A systematic phenotypic analysis of the deleted mutants was carried out. Homozygous diploids ybr128cDelta/ybr128cDelta and ybr131wDelta/ybr131wDelta did not sporulate. The ybr131cDelta mutant whether haploid or homozygous diploid, in addition displayed an increased sensitivity to Caffeine, Calcium and Zinc, and to emphasize this phenotype we named the gene CCZ1. ORF YBR133c was independently reported by others as Histone Synthetic Lethal (HSL7) (Ma et al., 1996). We found that the aberrant morphology characteristic for ybr133cDelta (hsl7Delta) cells was observed in W303 but not in FY1679 genetic background. Furthermore, we observed that deletion of YBR133c had a pleiotropic effect under a wide range of conditions, including increased sensitivity to calcium, caffeine, calcofluor white, vanadate and verapamil. The effects of the deletion were reinforced in W303 background. We found no phenotypic effects of the two remaining deletions, ybr137wDelta and ybr138cDelta.

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Verapamil treatment significantly increased the peak plasma concentration by 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4- to 4.0-fold) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity [AUC(0-infinity)] of fexofenadine by 2.5-fold (95% CI, 2.0- to 3.3-fold). No changes in any plasma pharmacokinetic parameters of fexofenadine were found during cimetidine treatment. AUC(0-infinity) was slightly but significantly increased during probenecid treatment by 1.5-fold (95% CI, 1.1- to 2.4-fold). Renal clearance of fexofenadine was significantly decreased during cimetidine treatment to 61% (95% CI, 50%-98%) and during probenecid treatment to 27% (95% CI, 20%-58%) but not during verapamil treatment.

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The aim of this study was to determine whether sphingoid bases that originated from various dietary sources, such as mammals, plants, and fungi, are substrates for P-glycoprotein in differentiated Caco-2 cells, which are used as a model of intestinal epithelial cells. In Caco-2 cells, the uptake of sphingosine, the most common sphingoid base found in mammals, was significantly higher at physiological temperatures than those of cis/trans-8-sphingenine, trans-4, cis/trans-8-sphingadienine, 9-methyl-trans-4, trans-8-sphingadienine, or sphinganine. Verapamil, a potent P-glycoprotein inhibitor, increased the cellular accumulation of sphingoid bases, except for sphingosine, in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation with 1 microM digoxin for 48 h caused up-regulation of multidrug-resistance (MDR)1 mRNA and decreased the accumulation of sphingoid bases in Caco-2 cells, except for sphingosine. Thus P-glycoprotein probably contributes to the selective absorption of sphingosine from dietary sphingolipids in the digestive tract.

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Both A549 parental cells and A549 derived radioresistant cells were resistant to DDP, but sensitive to VDS, 5-Fu, HCP, MMC and ADM. The inhibitory rates of VPL to these two types of cell were 98% and 25% respectively (P < 0.001). In addition, without drugs added, the absorbance value (A value) of A549 parental cells was 2-folds higher than that of their radioresistant cells (P < 0.001). As to the MCF7/VCR cells, they were resistant to DDP and VDS, but slight sensitive to MMC, ADM, 5-Fu, and HCP with 80% of inhibitory rate to VPL. The subsequent RT-PCR demonstrated that the Mdr1/beta2-MG and MRP/beta2-MG of all A549 cells were about 0 and 0.7 respectively, and those of MCF7/VCR cells were 35 and 4.36.

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Intravesical instillation chemotherapy with ADM plus VR was found to have a significantly greater beneficial effect than with ADM alone for preventing recurrence after TUR of superficial bladder cancer.

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A compartmental model with combined zero- and first-order absorption, including lag time and biophase distribution best described the PK of MHD. A distributional process appeared to underlie the increased brain MHD concentrations observed following seizure activity and efflux transport inhibition, as reflected by changes in the volume of distribution of the biophase compartment. In contrast, no changes were observed in plasma PK.

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1. We compared the binding profiles and contractile mechanisms of putative muscarinic M1 agonists McN-A-343 and AHR-602 with those of carbachol in smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia caeci. 2. McN-A-343 and AHR-602, as well as carbachol, completely displaced the atropine-sensitive binding of [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate to muscarinic receptors present in the membrane preparation. The potency order for the affinity of these agents for muscarinic receptors was carbachol > McN-A-343 > AHR-602. 3. In the presence of 2.2 mM extracellular Ca2+, McN-A-343 and AHR-602 induced contraction corresponding to 79 and 85%, respectively, of the maximal contraction to 0.1 mM carbachol. Contractions induced by these agents were mediated via activation of the muscarinic receptor subtype that had a high affinity for 4-DAMP (M3 selective) but a low affinity for pirenzepine (M1 selective) and AF-DX 116 (M2 selective). These contractions were inhibited by an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, verapamil. 4. In Ca(2+)-free solution containing 2 mM EGTA, carbachol elicited a transient contraction whereas no contraction was observed in response to McN-A-343 and AHR-602. Application of McN-A-343 or AHR-602 inhibited the carbachol-induced contraction in Ca(2+)-free solution, and this inhibition was surmounted by a higher concentration of carbachol. 5. The EC50 value for carbachol-induced contraction in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ was approximately 175 times lower than that in the absence of Ca2+. After treatment with propylbenzilylcholine mustard, carbachol induced contraction only in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. 6. The results suggest that in the taenia caeci there is a greater receptor reserve for muscarinic M3 receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx than for M3 mediated Ca2+ release. The compounds McN-A-343 and AHR-602 are agonists of the Ca2+ influx pathway, but do not appear to stimulate the Ca2+ release pathway.

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Diabetic nephropathy management should include the use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or an angiotensin receptor blocker with additional antihypertensive medications to reduce proteinuria and cardiovascular events. Some studies suggest that adding a nondihydropyridine rather than a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (CCB) may more effectively lower proteinuria. We hypothesized that a trandolapril/verapamil SR (T/V) fixed-dose combination (FDC) was superior to a benazepril/amlodipine (B/A) FDC for reducing albuminuria in 304 hypertensive diabetic nephropathy patients when treated for 36 weeks. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups in the primary end point; adjusted percentage change in urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), which increased (mean T/V, 29.29%; mean B/A, 8.49%; difference, 20.80%; P=.34); or in change in absolute UACR, which decreased (mean [g/g] T/V, -0.11; mean [g/g] B/A, -0.08; difference -0.03; P=.78). There were significant reductions in log UACR (mean change in T/V, -0.28; P<.01; mean change in B/A, -0.31; P<.001) and diastolic blood pressure in both groups and in systolic blood pressure in the B/A group. T/V was not superior to B/A for reducing UACR. Both ACEI/CCB FDCs may reduce albuminuria; in the case of T/V, this appears to be independent of systolic blood pressure reduction in patients who had previously been treated and had baseline blood pressure levels of 142/77 mm Hg.

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P-glycoprotein (Mdr1p) is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump that is overexpressed in multidrug-resistant cells and some cancers. Mdr1p is also expressed in normal tissues like the kidney, where it can mediate transepithelial drug transport. A human urinary compound that reverses multidrug resistance and blocks [3H]azidopine photolabeling of P-glycoprotein was purified to homogeneity and identified by 1H-NMR and mass spectrometry as the synthetic surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE). Multidrug-resistant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) C5 cells accumulated less [3H]NPE than parental drug-sensitive Aux-B1 cells, and Mdr1p substrates, verapamil and cyclosporin A, increased this surfactant's accumulation in C5 cells. NPE blocked the net transepithelial transport (basolateral to apical) of [3H]cyclosporin A in epithelia formed by Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Net transepithelial transport (basal to apical) of [3H]NPE was demonstrated in MDCK cells and was inhibited by cyclosporin A. These findings show NPE is a Mdr1p substrate excreted into urine by kidney P-glycoprotein. NPE is a widely used surfactant and a known hormone disrupter that is readily absorbed orally or topically. The current findings indicate the function of kidney Mdr1p may be to eliminate exogenous compounds from the body.

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Betel nuts are widely ingested in many countries, including Taiwan. They stimulate various autonomic and CNS reactions, but there have been no reports of cardiac toxicity. We treated 2 patients with cardiac dysrhythmias thought due to betel nut chewing. In case 1, a 44-y-old previously healthy male presented with chest tightness, dyspnea, diaphoresis and palpitation immediately after chewing 1 betel quid. He soon became breathless and died despite immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In Case 2, a 28-y-old man suffered palpitations, epigastralgia, and chest distress following consumption of 4 betel quid. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia was noted and terminated by repeated verapamil administration. The pharmacological properties of betel nuts and the time sequence of these cases raise the possibility of betel nut-induced cardiac dysrhythmias. The number of betel nut chewers in Taiwan continues to increase, suggesting there may be other cases of betel nut-related cardiac toxicities in the future.

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calan sr medication 2016-08-10

ME was studied on gastrointestinal transit in vivo including buy calan gastric emptying and small intestinal motility in normal and neostigmine-induced mice, as well as on the isolated tissue preparations of rat jejunum in vitro.

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To formulate and evaluate a pharmacodynamic model that characterizes the effects of S-verapamil on the circadian 24-hour buy calan ambulatory blood pressure (ABP).

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The activities of inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were studied in the plasma membrane of Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes. It was shown that the specific activity of PPase was greater than that of ATPase in the promastigote plasma membrane. We characterized H+-PPase present in the plasma membrane of L. donovani and investigated its possible role in the survival of promastigote and amastigote. PPase activity was stimulated by K+ and sodium orthovanadate and inhibited by pyrophosphate analogs (imidodiphosphate and alendronate), KF, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), thiol reagents (p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate (PCMBS), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), and phenylarsine oxide (PAO)), the ABC superfamily transport modulator verapamil, and also by the F(1)F(o)-ATPase inhibitor quercetin. ATPase activity was stimulated by K+ and verapamil, inhibited by DCCD, PCMBS, buy calan NEM, sodium azide, sodium orthovanadate, and quercetin, and was unaffected by PAO. We conclude that there are significant differences within promastigote, amastigote, and mammalian host in cytosolic pH homeostasis to merit the inclusion of PPase transporter as a putative target for rational drug design.

calan 240 mg 2017-04-05

The purpose of this review is to discuss the evolution of OROS technology and examine the many therapeutic buy calan areas where OROS products are being used.

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Patients with Peyronie's had significantly lower bFGF mRNA and bFGF protein expression in the plaques after buy calan EMDT. Also, overexpression of TGF-beta protein and the TGF-beta receptor was identified in the EMDT plaques compared with the therapy-naive plaques.

calan dosage forms 2015-10-01

Previous studies with p-aminohippurate (PAH) and fluorescein (FL) have shown that cellular uptake and tubular secretion of organic anions is driven by indirect coupling to sodium. Here we used killifish proximal tubules and laser-scanning confocal microscopy to study the transport of a larger organic anion, fluorescein-methotrexate (FL-MTX, mol mass 923 Da). When tubules were incubated in medium containing 2 microM FL-MTX, dye accumulated in both cells and tubular lumens. At steady state, luminal fluorescence was 4-5 times higher than cellular fluorescence. Ouabain (0.1 mM) did not affect cellular or luminal fluorescence, and replacement of medium sodium by N-methylglucamine had only a modest effect; preincubation with glutarate had no effect. KCN did not affect cellular uptake but abolished secretion into the lumen. Uptake buy calan and secretion of FL-MTX were inhibited by micromolar concentrations of other organic anions (MTX, folate, probenecid, bromocresol green, bromosulfophthalein), but 1 mM PAH had a relatively small effect. FL-MTX secretion into the lumen was inhibited by leukotriene C4, cyclosporine A, and verapamil, none of which affected FL transport. Thus a substantial component of FL-MTX secretion is Na independent and ouabain insensitive. Both the basolateral and luminal steps in the Na-independent pathway differ from those usually associated with FL and PAH secretion.

calan 5 mg 2017-02-24

Chemical analysis was carried out through buy calan GC-EIMS, 13C NMR and Kovats Retention Indices while pharmacological study was carried out in isolated tissues preparations.

calan tablets 2016-12-07

To explore the appropriate temperature of the kalium-verapamil-propranolol (KVP) cardioplegia by buy calan observation of the effect on the function of the immature rat heart.

calan reviews 2015-02-19

In the field of stem cell research, SP (side population) phenotype is used to define the property that cells maintain a high efflux capability for some fluorescent dye, such as Hoechst 33342. Recently, many researches proposed that SP phenotype is a phenotype shared by some stem cells and some progenitor cells, and that SP phenotype is regarded as a candidate purification marker for stem cells. In this research, murine fertilized ova (including conjugate and single nucleus fertilized ova), 2-cell stage and 8-cell stage blastomeres, morulas and blastocysts were isolated and directly stained by Hoechst 33342 dye. The results show that fertilized ovum, blastomere and morula cells do not demonstrate any ability to efflux the dye. However, the inner cell mass (ICM) cells of blastocyst exhibit SP phenotype, which buy calan is consistent with the result of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro. These results indicate that the SP phenotype of ICM-derived ESCs is an intrinsic property and independent of the culture condition in vitro, and that SP phenotype is one of the characteristics of at least some pluripotent stem cells, but is not shared by totipotent stem cells. In addition, the result that the SP phenotype of ICM cells disappeared when the inhibitor verapamil was added into medium implies that the SP phenotype is directly associated with ABCG2. These results suggest that not all the stem cells demonstrate SP phenotype, and that SP phenotype might act as a purification marker for partial stem cells such as some pluripotent embryonic stem cells and multipotent adult stem cells, but not for all stem cells exampled by the totipotent stem cells in the very early stage of mouse embryos.

calan sr dosage 2017-11-21

Rabeprazole as a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is mainly reduced to rabeprazole thioether via a buy calan nonenzymatic pathway, with minor CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 involvement. The aim of this study was to compare possible effects of clarithromycin and verapamil as inhibitors of CYP3A4 on the pharmacokinetics of rabeprazole among CYP2C19 genotypes.

calan pill 2016-09-09

A case of verapamil-responsive incessant ventricular tachycardia in a 4-year-old girl is reported. Oral verapamil alone failed in maintaining stable sinus rhythm. With association of oral verapamil and betablockers (nadolol) the patient remained asymptomatic without recurrence of ventricular tachycardia over a follow-up of 1 year. In case of failure of monotherapy with verapamil or betablockers alone, an association of both can be effective and safe also in pediatric age. Radiofrequency catheter ablation should be reserved, especially in pediatric age, only to patients with impaired ventricular function who are not responsive to medical buy calan therapy.

calan 80 mg 2015-06-05

TAX-2'-Et can circumvent P-gp-associated cellular efflux of TAX. TAX-2'-Et is converted into TAX by the Ra-CES, supporting its potential use as a theoretical GDEPT strategy for cancer cells expressing high levels of P-gp. The TAX-2'-Et prodrug efficiently increased the amount of intracellular TAX, which mediates tumor buy calan cell death.

calan eeze review 2016-11-29

In a previous study, 83% of 14 patients noted that their symptoms of Peyronie's disease Buspar Reviews 2012 had arrested or improved after intralesional injection of verapamil. This nonrandomized, prospective study further investigates the use of verapamil in a larger, thoroughly characterized patient population.

calan drug classification 2015-11-04

Based on our findings, this type of autonomic stimulation (especially with i.v. administration of diltiazem or verapamil) can Trileptal Generic Oxcarbazepine be an effective technique in reducing heart beats, thus obtaining relatively quiet surgical field for coronary anastomosis in CABG without cardiopulmonary bypass.

calan 120 mg 2015-05-16

The SP cells accounted for 3.3% in MCF-7 cells, however, the rate dropped to 0.4% when verapamil was added into the process of seperation. The level of Let-7a/b/c in SP cells were lower than that in NSP cells, and among let-7 miRNAs, let-7b/c showed the most obvious difference. The expressions of t-Ras and t-ERK showed no Viagra Prescription Cost difference between SP and NSP cells, nevertheless, the expressions of p-Ras, p-ERK were higher in SP cells than in NSP cells.

calan 40 mg 2016-12-18

Cymbopogon citratus, commonly known as lemongrass, has been shown to have antioxidant, antimicrobial and chemo-protective properties. Citral, a monoterpenoid, is the major constituent of C. citratus that gives off a lemony scent and is postulated to be responsible for most of its actions. In addition, C. citratus has been traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal discomforts, however, the scientific evidence for this is still lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the extracts of various parts of C. citratus (leaves, stems and roots) and citral on the visceral smooth muscle activity of rabbit ileum. The effect of the test substances were tested on the spontaneous contraction, acetylcholine (ACh)- and KCl-induced contractions. Citral at doses between 0.061 mM to 15.6 mM and the extract of leaves at doses between 0.001 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL significantly reduced the spontaneous, ACh- and KCl-induced ileal contractions. When the ileum was incubated in K(+)-rich-Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution, it showed only minute contractions. However, the strength of contraction was increased with the addition of increasing concentrations of CaCl(2). The presence of citral almost abolished the effect of adding CaCl(2), while the leaf extract shifted the calcium concentration-response curve to the right, suggesting a calcium antagonistic effect. These results were similar to that elicited by verapamil, a known calcium channel blocker. In addition, the spasmolytic effect of citral was observed to be reduced by the nitric oxide Singulair Drug synthase inhibitor, L-NAME. In conclusion, citral and the leaf extract of C. citratus exhibited spasmolytic activity and it appeared that they may act as calcium antagonists. Furthermore, the relaxant effect of citral, but not that of the leaf extract may be mediated by nitric oxide suggesting the presence of other chemical components in the leaf extract other than citral.

calan 180 mg 2016-04-27

Our study undoubtedly will lead to an improved Cozaar Dose Maximum understanding of EAEC-pathogenesis.

calan medication 2016-06-14

Calcium pretreatment prior to intravenous calcium-channel blocker administration should be considered in patients in whom further reductions in blood pressure may precipitate hypoperfusion or worsen underlying cardiovascular status. A dose of calcium gluconate 1 g (ionized calcium 90 Prandin Generic Cost mg) administered over three minutes is recommended for preventing or lessening the hypotensive effect of verapamil without affecting the antiarrhythmic effects of verapamil.

calan generic name 2016-03-30

Understanding the basis of the substrate specificity of cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is important for determining the role of this enzyme in drug metabolism and for predicting new substrates. Pharmacophores were generated for 16 structurally diverse CYP2B6 substrates with Catalyst after overlapping the reaction sites. Two pharmacophores were determined for the CYP2B6 binding site. Both include two hydrophobes and one hydrogen bond acceptor. The three-dimensional structure of CYP2B6 was then modeled based on the crystal structure of CYP2C5. Benzyloxyresorufin and 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin, the two lowest K(m) substrates in the training set, were then docked in the active site of CYP2B6. The pharmacophores were combined with the CYP2B6 model by comparing the docking results and the mapping of the two substrates with the pharmacophores. The results indicated that the active site of CYP2B6 complements the pharmacophores. The pharmacophores and the CYP2B6 model were used in conjunction to predict the K(m) values of substrates in a test set of five compounds and yielded satisfactory predictions for benzphetamine, cinnarizine, bupropion, and verapamil but not lidocaine. The CYP2B6 model, the pharmacophores, and the combination of the model with these pharmacophores provide insight Tofranil Brand Name into the interactions of CYP2B6 with substrates. The pharmacophores may be used as queries to search a database to predict new substrates for CYP2B6 when the reaction site is known (N- or O-dealkylation). For C-hydroxylation, the CYP2B6 model is helpful in evaluating the possible reaction sites in order for the pharmacophores to predict corresponding K(m) values.

calan drug 2015-09-28

 Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a progressive and fatal disease of unidentified pathogenesis. IPAH is pathologically characterized as sustained vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling of the pulmonary artery. In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) triggers vasoconstriction and stimulates cell proliferation leading to vascular remodeling. However, dihydropyridine-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel blockers are only effective in very few patients with IPAH (<10%). It is unclear why dihydropyridine Ca(2+) channel blockers are not therapeutically effective in a majority of IPAH patients. We have previously shown that extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR) is upregulated in PASMCs from IPAH patients, and it contributes to enhanced [Ca(2+)]cyt responses and augmented cell proliferation. In this study, the effects of dihydropyridine Ca(2+) channel blockers on [Ca(2+)]cyt responses mediated by CaSR were examined in IPAH-PASMCs. Nifedipine (dihydropyridines) enhanced the CaSR-mediated increase in [Ca(2+)]cyt in IPAH-PASMCs, but not in PASMCs from normal subjects. Nicardipine (dihydropyridines) and Bay K 8644 (a dihydropyridine Ca(2+) channel activator) also augmented the CaSR-mediated [Ca(2+)]cyt increase in IPAH-PASMCs. In contrast, non-dihydropyridine Ca(2+) channel blockers such as diltiazem ( Cymbalta 60mg Dose benzothiazepines) and verapamil (phenylalkylamines) had no effect on the [Ca(2+)]cyt response in IPAH-PASMCs. Finally, in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats, nifedipine caused further increase in right ventricular systolic pressure and thus right ventricular hypertrophy. In conclusion, dihydropyridine Ca(2+) channel blockers could exacerbate symptoms of pulmonary hypertension in IPAH patients with upregulated CaSR in PASMCs.

calan sr medication 2015-01-13

Meningioma cells taken from human patients were mixed with Matrigel and injected into the subcutaneous space in the flank of nude mice. These animals were treated with calcium channel antagonists in their drinking water. Tumor volumes were measured over time; comparison was made between control and treatment groups. Daily weights, average daily water consumption, and serum calcium channel antagonist levels were determined. Comparison of histology and proliferation index was made between control and treatment groups.

calan tab 2016-02-15

We investigated anaerobic threshold (< theta(L)) gas exchange kinetics and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2,max) among older men with reduced left ventricular end-diastolic filling (LVDF). Ten men (mean age, 73 years) with LVDF impairment and low fitness, but without other cardiovascular dysfunction were studied. Treatments compared to control included: 5 days, high intensity exercise training protocol; 5 days, calcium channel blockade (240 mg verapamil); 21 days, detraining/washout; and 5 days, combined treatments. Results indicated no changes in resting left ventricular systolic function with any treatment. Significant resting diastolic function changes included increased early:late flow velocity (control, 0.87; training, 1.28; verapamil, 1.32), and a decreased isovolumic relaxation time (control, 0.10 s; training, 0.08 s; verapamil, 0.08 s). The combined treatments were not additive. Sub-threshold oxygen uptake kinetics (tauVO2, s) were significantly faster following either training or verapamil (tauVO2,control, 62+/-12; tauVO2,training, 44+/-9; tauVO2,verapamil, 48+/-10) and combined treatments (tauVO2, 41+/- 8). V O2,max (ml kg(-1) min(-1)) was significantly increased (control, 21.8+/-2.2; training, 27.3+/-2.2; verapamil, 25.2+/-3.4; combined treatments, 26.9+/-2.3). Increasing ventricular preload with either exercise training or calcium channel blockade was coincident with faster tauVO2 and increased VO2,max.

calan overdose 2016-11-18

Electromotive drug administration is a safe and noninvasive treatment modality. Verapamil was detected in 71.5% of tunica albuginea specimens after electromotive drug administration with a wide range of verapamil levels. To our knowledge whether these levels affect change in Peyronie's disease plaque, resulting in improvement in penile deformity, is unknown and requires further placebo controlled trials.

calan 240 mg 2017-07-20

1. The sigma-drug binding site of guinea-pig liver is carried by a protein which shares significant amino acid sequence similarities with the yeast sterol C8-C7 isomerase (ERG2 protein). Pharmacologically-but not structurally-the sigma 1-site is also related to the emopamil binding protein, the mammalian sterol C8-C7 isomerase. We therefore investigated if sterol C8-C7 isomerase inhibitors are high affinity ligands for the (+)-[3H]-pentazocine labelled sigma 1-binding site. 2. Among the compounds which bound with high affinity to native hepatic and cerebral as well as to yeast expressed sigma 1-binding sites were the agricultural fungicide fenpropimorph (Ki 0.005 nM), the antihypocholesterinaemic drugs triparanol (Ki 7.0 nM), AY-9944 (Ki, 0.46 nM) and MDL28,815 (Ki 0.16 nM), the enantiomers of the ovulation inducer clomiphene (Ki 5.5 and 12 nM, respectively) and the antioestrogene tamoxifen (Ki 26 nM). 3. Except for tamoxifen these affinities are essentially identical with those for the [3H]-ifenprodil labelled sterol C8-C7 isomerase of S. cerevisiae. This demonstrates that sigma 1-binding protein and yeast isomerase are not only structurally but also pharmacologically related. Because of its affiliations with yeast and mammalian sterol isomerases we propose that the sigma 1-binding site is localized on a sterol isomerase related protein, involved in postsqualene sterol biosynthesis.

calan dosage 2015-11-08

Efficient and accurate safety assessment of compounds is extremely important in the preclinical development of drugs especially when hepatotoxicity is in question. Multiparameter and time resolved assays are expected to greatly improve the prediction of toxicity by assessing complex mechanisms of toxicity. An integrated approach is presented in which Hep G2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes are compared in frequently used cytotoxicity assays for parent compound toxicity. The interassay variability was determined. The cytotoxicity assays were also compared with a reliable alternative time resolved respirometric assay. The set of training compounds consisted of well known hepatotoxins; amiodarone, carbamazepine, clozapine, diclofenac, tacrine, troglitazone and verapamil. The sensitivity of both cell systems in each tested assay was determined. Results show that careful selection of assay parameters and inclusion of a kinetic time resolved assay improves prediction for non-metabolism mediated toxicity using Hep G2 cells as indicated by a sensitivity ratio of 1. The drugs with EC(50) values 100 microM or lower were considered toxic. The difference in the sensitivity of the two cell systems to carbamazepine which causes toxicity via reactive metabolites emphasizes the importance of human cell based in-vitro assays. Using the described system, primary rat hepatocytes do not offer advantage over the Hep G2 cells in parent compound toxicity evaluation. Moreover, respiration method is non invasive, highly sensitive and allows following the time course of toxicity. Respiration assay could serve as early indicator of changes that subsequently lead to toxicity.

calan dosage forms 2017-03-16

In 24 dogs, pacing and recording electrodes were sutured onto the right atrium. After a 5-day recovery period, rapid atrial pacing at 400 ppm was started, followed 2 days later by oral verapamil (8 mg/kg per day) in eight dogs (After group; A). In another eight dogs, oral verapamil administration was begun 1 week before the initiation of rapid pacing (Before group; B). In the remaining eight dogs, only rapid atrial pacing was started, without oral verapamil (Control group; C). We measured the effective refractory period (ERP) and conduction velocity (CV), and calculated wavelength (WL) at cycle lengths 200 and 300 ms on the day before (P0), and after 2 (P2), 7 (P7), 14(P14) days of rapid pacing.