Generic Casodex is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of prostate cancer. Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Bicalutamide.
Generic Casodex is a perfect remedy in struggle against prostate cancer.
Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Casodex is also known as Bicalutamide, Cosudex, Calutide, Kalumid, Bicalox.
Generic name of Generic Casodex is Bicalutamide.
Brand name of Generic Casodex is Casodex.
Take Generic Casodex tablets orally with or without food.
Take Generic Casodex at the same time every day with water.
Do not crush or chew it.
This medicine is only for men.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Casodex and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.
The most common side effects associated with Casodex are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Casodex if you are allergic to Generic Casodex components.
Use contraception and avoid vaccinations.
Try to be careful using Generic Casodex if you take warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin-substitute products, aspirin.
Be very careful with Generic Casodex if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease.
Do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
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We evaluated changes in bone mineral density (BMD), fat-free mass (FFM) and serum lipid levels during bicalutamide 150 mg monotherapy compared with medical castration for 2 years.
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To assess the effects of non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy compared with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists or surgical castration monotherapy for treating advanced stages of prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer patients at increased risk for relapse after prostatectomy were treated in a neoadjuvant study with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in combination with cixutumumab, an inhibitory fully human monoclonal antibody against IGF receptor 1 (IGF-IR).
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QALYs and costs related to monoHT witk cyproterone acetate (CYP) (42 patients); bicalutamide (BIC) (41 patients); LHRH-a (96 patients) and complete androgenic blockade (CAB) with: CYP (CYP CAB) (50 patients); BIC (BIC CAB) (46 patients) were compared via a cost-utility analysis (CUA) adopting the Italian National Healthcare Service (INHS) viewpoint.
In 1989, Crawford and colleagues suggested that combined androgen blockade with castration plus antiandrogen therapy provided significantly improved survival compared with castration alone. Since then, some studies have supported these results, whereas others have not. To resolve this discrepancy, the Prostate Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group conducted a metaanalysis of 27 randomized trials to evaluate whether combined androgen blockade has benefits compared with castration alone. The results published in 2000 showed that combined androgen blockade using a nonsteroidal antiandrogen treatment (nilutamide or flutamide) improved survival compared with castration alone, whereas combined androgen blockade using a steroidal antiandrogen agent (cyproterone acetate) reduced survival compared with castration alone. In 2004, an analysis was carried out to evaluate the nonsteroidal antiandrogen agent bicalutamide in the combined androgen blockade setting, by incorporating the data from a trial of combined androgen blockade with bicalutamide versus combined androgen blockade with flutamide with the Prostate Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group metaanalysis data for combined androgen blockade with flutamide versus castration. This analysis showed that combined androgen blockade with bicalutamide was associated with a 20% reduction in the risk of death compared with castration alone. The survival benefit associated with combined androgen blockade using a nonsteroidal antiandrogen agent should be weighed against the potential for increased toxicity and expense compared with castration alone. Studies have shown that bicalutamide has a better tolerability profile than flutamide or nilutamide. Furthermore, cost-benefit analyses of combined androgen blockade with bicalutamide suggest it is a cost-effective option versus castration alone and versus combined androgen blockade with flutamide. In summary, the present evidence suggests that combined androgen blockade with a nonsteroidal antiandrogen agent should be a first-line therapy option in patients with advanced disease.
Hypoxia is a feature of many human malignancies, and leads to aggressive clinical behavior and recurrence after treatment. Here, we show for the first time that androgen withdrawal reduces prostate cancer hypoxia in patients. Oxygen measurements were done in 248 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer prior to radiotherapy, and showed hypoxia of potential biological and clinical significance. In 22 of these patients, prostate oxygen levels were measured both before and after 30 to 145 days of the androgen antagonist bicalutamide. There was a significant reduction in tumor hypoxia with androgen withdrawal (P=0.005). The median pO(2) increased from 6.4 to 15 mm Hg, and the hypoxic proportion decreased from 40% to 31%. However, the response was heterogeneous, with improvement in 12 patients, stable oxygen readings in 9 patients and worsening hypoxia in 1 patient. Among the responding patients, the median pO(2) increased from 4.9 to 33 mm Hg, and the hypoxic proportion decreased from 51% to 23%. There was no apparent relationship between the change in oxygenation and baseline prostatic volume, T category, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen levels, the duration of treatment with bicalutamide, or the change in prostate-specific antigen levels with bicalutamide. These results might, in part, explain the improved patient outcome that has been observed in clinical trials of radiotherapy and hormones, and suggest a role for novel therapeutic agents that block the molecular response to hypoxia in prostate cancer either alone or in combination with other established treatments.
The results suggest that patients converted into pT0 after PPNET do not represent a subgroup with an extremely favorable prognosis. However our results have to be confirmed by the assessment of larger cohorts of pT0 patients with a longer follow-up. The presented data do not allow drawing any conclusions on the prognostic impact of PPNET in general.
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For this purpose, the effectiveness of erlotinib, a selective EGFR inhibitor, in a wide range of prostate cancer cells (wild type or engineered to overexpress peculiar proteins including androgen receptor and PTEN).
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In the male rat, androgens are involved in the feedback regulation of gonadotropin synthesis and secretion. Specific androgen-receptor blockade by the nonsteroidal antiandrogens, flutamide and Casodex, has proven to be a valid tool for studying androgen effects in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of antiandrogen administration at the pituitary level by evaluating the changes in gonadotropes through quantitative immunohistochemistry, and by comparing these alterations with the effect of androgen deprivation by castration either with or without subsequent androgen replacement. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (23 days old) were randomly divided into 5 groups for the following treatments: (a) controls; (b) flutamide-injected (10 mg/rat/day in a gelatin vehicle); (c) Casodex-injected (10 mg/rat/day in an oil vehicle); (d) castrated, and (e) castrated and dihydrotestosterone propionate-replaced (40 microg/rat/day in an oil vehicle). Groups were then sacrificed after 10 days of maintenance under each condition. Pituitaries were fixed in Bouin's fluid and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections (4 micrometer) were obtained at different levels and immunostained by means of the primary murine monoclonal antibodies anti-FSH and anti-LH and a peroxidase-mediated EnVision System (Dako). Measurements of volume density (VD) and individual mean cell area were made by means of an image-analysis system (Imaging Technology, Optimas). Serum FSH and LH levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serum gonadotropin levels, VD, and mean cell area increased significantly in the flutamide-treated, Casodex-treated, and castrated groups (p < 0.05). Androgen replacement in the castrated rats, however, reduced VD, mean cell area, and serum gonadotropins to levels comparable to those of controls. We conclude that either androgen blockade by antiandrogens or castration produce an enhancement in the gonadotrope cell population in prepubertal rats, as shown by an increase in both VD and mean cell area, as well as an elevation in FSH- and LH-immunoreactive cells. These observations correlate well with the changes found in the levels of circulating gonadotropins as measured by RIA.
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In Trial 23, 3,292 men with T1b-4, N0-Nx (N+ not allowed) M0 prostate cancer who had undergone radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy at 96 specialist referral centers in the United States (2,974) and Canada (318) were randomized 1:1 to 150 mg bicalutamide daily or placebo in addition to standard care for 2 years.
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Reduced sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is a novel mechanism relevant to resistance to bicalutamide in prostate cancer. Inability of TRAIL to cause programmed cell death might be caused by multiple perturbations in the TRAIL-signaling pathway.
Patients with diagnosis of prostate cancer and under hormonal therapy (LHRH-a and/or antiandrogen, previous orchidectomy) were eligible for this study. Adverse events were reported (graduated according to NCI-CTC v2.0, when pertaining) only in patients having received at least three months of hormonal treatment.
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Preclinical data suggest that a reciprocal feedback mechanism between PI3K and androgen receptor signaling is a potential mechanism behind the clinical inefficacy of mTOR inhibitors in CRPC, indicating combinatorial targeting of PI3K, mTORC1/2, and the androgen receptor might be more effective. Comprehensive analysis of preclinical data to assess clinical trial targets and efficacy may reduce the number of unproductive trials and identify potentially beneficial combinatorial therapies for resistant disease.
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The cortisol/cortisone-responsive AR (AR(ccr)) has two mutations (L701H and T877A) that were found in the MDA PCa human prostate cancer cell lines established from a castrated patient whose metastatic tumor exhibited androgen-independent growth. Cortisol and cortisone bind to the AR(ccr) with high affinity. In the present study, we characterized the structural determinants for ligand binding to the AR(ccr). Our data revealed that many of the C17, C19, and C21 circulating steroids, at concentrations that are found in vivo, functioned as effective activators of the AR(ccr) but had little or no activity via the wild-type AR or GRalpha. Among the synthetic glucocorticoids tested, dexamethasone activated both GRalpha and AR(ccr), whereas triamcinolone was selective for GRalpha. In MDA PCa 2b cells, growth and prostate-specific antigen production were stimulated by potent AR(ccr) agonists such as cortisol or 9alpha-fluorocortisol but not by triamcinolone (which did not bind to or activate the AR(ccr)). Of the potential antagonists tested, bicalutamide (casodex) and GR antagonist RU38486 showed inhibitory activity. We postulate that corticosteroids provide a growth advantage to prostate cancer cells harboring the promiscuous AR(ccr) in androgen-ablated patients and contribute to their transition to androgen-independence. We predict that triamcinolone, a commonly prescribed glucocorticoid, would be a successful therapeutic agent for men with this form of cancer, perhaps in conjunction with the antagonist casodex. We hypothesize that triamcinolone administration would inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, thus suppressing endogenous corticosteroids, which stimulate tumor growth. Triamcinolone, by itself, would not activate the AR(ccr) or promote tumor growth but would provide glucocorticoid activity essential for survival.
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A 58-year-old man visited our hospital with a chief complaint of epigastric pain. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a tumor in the left lobe of the liver accompanied by portal vein tumor thrombus, and Vp3 hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed. Prostate cancer with multiple bone metastases was also identified, and synchronous double cancer of the prostate and liver was diagnosed. The treatment strategy was to prioritize surgery for the hepatocellular carcinoma, for which curative resection was becomingnearly impossible. Left hepatic lobectomy was performed, and the postoperative course was favorable. Combined androgen blockade(CAB)with leuprorelin acetate and bicalutamide performed to treat the prostate cancer produced a significant decline in prostate-specific antigen(PSA)levels, causingthe metastatic bone lesions to disappear and relievingsymptoms. The patient has experienced no recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma for 2 years 6 months since the initial treatment, and PSA levels have remained below the limits of detection. Few reports have described synchronous double cancer of the prostate and liver. In the present case, both cancers were advanced, but multimodal therapy combiningsurg ery(local treatment)and hormone therapy(systemic treatment)performed in accordance with the respective disease stages produced favorable results.
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DHEAS inhibited growth of ER,PR-negative, AR-positive breast cancer cells. DHEAS was cytotoxic to these breast cancer cells via the apoptosis pathway. DHEAS may be an effective treatment for a population previously excluded from hormone therapy.
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Between May 1998 and January 2004, 81 patients received androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for cytoreduction prior to interstitial brachytherapy alone. Fifty-six patients received LHRHa and 25 patients received B. Prostate volumes were measured prospectively prior to initiating therapy, and then intraoperatively at the time of implant by a single, blinded ultrasonographer. Patient-reported quality of life data were obtained prospectively, and postimplant urinary toxicity (catheter dependency and need for surgical intervention) was recorded during follow-up. Median follow-up was 53 (range 23-78) months.
The majority of available antiandrogens have been reported to possess agonist activity to induce prostate-specific antigen, which might result in antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome. Here we report the identification of 3 beta-acetoxyandrost-1,5-diene-17-ethylene ketal (ADEK) from dehydroepiandrosterone metabolites and derivatives as a potent antiandrogen. We found ADEK could interrupt androgen binding to the androgen receptor (AR) and suppress androgen-induced transactivations of WT AR and a mutant AR in prostate cancer cells. ADEK inhibited prostate-specific antigen expression as well as growth in LNCaP prostate cancer cells stimulated by androgen. Importantly, ADEK had only marginal agonist effects, as compared with commonly used antiandrogens such as hydroxyflutamide and bicalutamide, leading to a lower possibility of inducing withdrawal response. Moreover, ADEK could block an adrenal androgen androstenediol-induced AR transactivation that hydroxyflutamide and bicalutamide failed to block. These unique antiandrogenic activities make ADEK a potential therapeutic compound that might be able to inhibit AR-mediated prostate cancer progression. Further in vivo studies might facilitate the development of a better antiandrogen for the treatment of prostate cancer.
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Fourteen patients with hormone-resistant prostate cancer were treated with nilutamide 150 mg/day (n = 12) or 300 mg/day (n = 2). Seven had been treated with one prior antiandrogen (all with bicalutamide), five with both bicalutamide and flutamide, and two had received bicalutamide and prior chemotherapy.
Forty-one patients with advanced prostate cancer received bicalutamide (150 mg/day). Finasteride (5 mg/day) was added at first PSA nadir. Serum PSA was measured every 2 weeks until disease progression. Questionnaires were administered to assess sexual function.
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In vitro, many prostate cancer cell lines upregulated PD-L1 expression in response to inflammatory cytokines, consistent with adaptive immune resistance. In these cell lines, no association between PTEN loss and PD-L1 expression was apparent. In primary prostate tumors, PD-L1 expression was rare, and was not associated with PTEN loss.
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Patients received 50 mg. bicalutamide daily in an open label multicenter North American trial.
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