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Ten male albino guinea pigs (300-350 g in weight) were randomly allocated into two groups: the primal group was exposed to 4- kHz octave band noise at 102 dB SPL for 3 hrs (group 1, n=5); the latter pretreated with 50 mg/ kg celecoxib for 3 days, then exposed to noise (group 2, n=5). Before exposure and one hr after noise exposure, threshold shifts were evaluated with auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and finally the animals were euthanized for histological evaluation.
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Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
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We report a sulfonamide/sulfamate inhibition study of the α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 22.214.171.124) present in the gammaproteobacterium Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2, a mesophilic hydrothermal vent-isolate organism, TcruCA. As Thiomicrospira crunogena is one of thousands of marine organisms that uses CA for metabolic regulation, the effect of sulfonamide inhibition has been considered. Sulfonamide-based drugs have been widely used in a variety of antibiotics, and bioelimination of these compounds results in exposure of these compounds to marine life. The enzyme was highly inhibited, with Ki values ranging from 2.5 to 40.7nM by a variety of sulfonamides including acetazolamide, methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dichlorophenamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, benzolamide and benzenesulfonamides incorporating 4-hydroxyalkyl moieties. Less effective inhibitors were topiramate, zonisamide, celecoxib, saccharin and hydrochlorothiazide as well as simple benzenesulfonamides incorporating amino, halogeno, alkyl, aminoalkyl and other moieties in the ortho- or para-positions of the aromatic ring (Kis of 202-933nM). The active site interactions between TcruCA and three clinically-used CA inhibitors, acetazolamide (Diamox®), dorzolamide (Trusopt®), and brinzolamide (Azopt®) are studied using molecular docking to provide insight into the reported Ki values. Comparison between various enzymes belonging to this family may also bring interesting hints in these fascinating phenomena.
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Reduction of the basal prostaglandin secretion in the mucous coat of the stomach is a risk factor of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs gastropathy appearance. The use of selective COX-2 inhibitors makes it possible to reduce the risk of gastropathy appearance in this group of patients.
No direct effects of celecoxib on healthy normal cartilage were found. Both PBMC and IL-1beta plus TNF-alpha induced strong inhibition of cartilage proteoglycan synthesis and significant enhancement of the release of proteoglycans, diminishing proteoglycan content. Celecoxib was able to reverse these adverse effects up to complete normalization.
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A retrospective analysis of the Veterans Integrated Service Network 17 Veterans Affairs (VA) database was conducted. Medicare data and Texas Department of Health mortality data were incorporated to capture events occurring outside the VA healthcare network. Patients >or=35 years of age who received celecoxib, rofecoxib, ibuprofen, etodolac and naproxen from 1 January 1999 through 31 December 2001, were included. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the relationship between cardiovascular risk and NSAID use, including selective COX-2 inhibitor use, while adjusting for various risk factors.
36 hospitals in a 5-county area.
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The inducible COX-2 enzyme is over-expressed in human breast cancer and its over-expression generally correlates with angiogenesis, deregulation of apoptosis and worse prognosis. This observation may explain the beneficial effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and COX-2 inhibitors on breast cancer treatment. Here, we evaluated the antiproliferative activity of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and its nitro-oxy derivative on human breast cancer cells characterized by low and high COX-2 expression, respectively. In ERα(+) MCF-7 cells celecoxib and its derivative induce a strong inhibition of cell growth, inhibition that is associated with the reduction of ERα expression and activation. These effects may be directly associated with ERK and Akt suppression and with PP2A and PTEN induction. In this cell line the drugs exert only weak effect on COX-2 level while they are able to reduce aromatase expression. On the contrary, in ERα(-) MDA-MB-231 cells, both drugs induce a marked inhibition of COX-2, inhibition that is associated with the reduction of aromatase expression and of cell proliferation. In both cell lines the effects of the drugs are associated with the suppression of cell invasion.
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IL-1alpha transgenic (Tg) mice exhibit chronic inflammatory arthritis and subsequent osteopenia, with IL-1-induced GM-CSF playing an important role in the pathogenesis. This study analyzed the mechanisms underlying osteopenia in Tg mice, and the therapeutic effects of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib on such osteopenia. Inhibited osteoclast formation was observed in RANKL-treated bone marrow cell (BMC) cultures from Tg mice and coculture of Tg-derived BMCs and wild-type-derived primary osteoblasts (POBs). FACS analysis indicated that this inhibition was attributable to a decreased number of osteoclast precursors within Tg-derived BMCs. Moreover, in coculture of Tg-derived POBs and either Tg- or wild-type-derived BMCs, osteoclast formation was markedly inhibited because Tg-derived POBs produced abundant GM-CSF, known as a potent inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation. Histomorphometric analysis of Tg mice revealed that both bone formation and resorption were decreased, with bone formation decreased more prominently. Interestingly, administration of celecoxib resulted in further deterioration of osteopenia where bone formation was markedly suppressed, whereas bone resorption remained unchanged. These results were explained by our in vitro observation that celecoxib dose-dependently and dramatically decreased osteogenesis by Tg mouse-derived POBs in culture, whereas mRNA expressions of GM-CSF and M-CSF remained unchanged. Consequently, blockade of PGE(2) may exert positive effects on excessively enhanced bone resorption observed in inflammatory bone disease, whereas negative effects may occur mainly through reduced bone formation, when bone resorption is constitutively down-regulated as seen in Tg mice.
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Celecoxib concentrations trended higher in women taking 400 mg (median 1025.0 ng/mL) compared to 200 mg bid (median 227.3 ng/mL), and in post- (534.6 ng/mL) compared to premenopausal (227.3 ng/mL) women. In postmenopausal women treated with the higher (400 mg bid) celecoxib dose, uPA concentrations increased, while PAI-1 and PGE2 decreased. In women taking the higher dose, both PAI-1 (r = -.97, p = .0048) and PGE2 (r = -.69, p = .019) in NAF and uPA in plasma (r = .45, p = .023) were correlated with celecoxib concentrations.
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Collectively, the results highlight the potential of the SLH microparticles in enhancing the bioavailability of CEL in a dose-linear manner as facilitated by supersaturated solubilisation of CEL in the intestinal milieu.
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The current in vitro study indicates that inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma cells by cyclooxygenase-2 specific inhibitor celecoxib may involve in COX-dependent mechanisms and PGE(2) pathway. Celecoxib as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent might be effective primarily on COX-2-expressing cholangiocarcinoma.
The present study evaluated the involvement of interleukin(IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, interferon(IFN)-γ, prostaglandins of the E2 series, endothelins, substance P and opioids within the central nervous system in polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C)-induced fever in rats. Poly I:C injection induced a febrile response which was reduced by intracerebroventricular administration of the antibodies against TNF-α, IL-6, or IFN-γ, or by IL-1 or μ receptor antagonists. Intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin or oral administration of celecoxib also reduced Poly I:C-induced fever. Poly I:C increased prostaglandin E2 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of the animals which was also reduced by indomethacin. The intracerebroventricular injection of ETB or NK1 receptor antagonists did not alter Poly I:C-induced fever. These data suggest the involvement of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, prostaglandin E2, and opioids but not endothelins and substance P on Poly I:C-induced fever.
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Result has shown that celecoxib was similar to MgSO4 as a medication to prevent preterm labor; it was recommended to be prescribe to prevent preterm labor, because it was cheaper than magnesium sulfate.
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Stable hypertensive patients without a history of heart failure and newly treated with celecoxib, rofecoxib, ibuprofen, naproxen, or diclofenac between January 1, 1999, and September 30, 2000, were identified from the LifeLink Integrated Claims Solutions employer database. The incidence rate of inpatient and outpatient heart failure claims was determined based on patients' time of exposure to study drugs after adjusting for confounding factors. The heart failure costs of managing inpatient and outpatient events were estimated as the total healthcare costs for patients with heart failure claims minus the total healthcare costs among matched control groups without heart failure claims. Healthcare costs were computed for the 0 to 30 days and 31 to 90 days following the initial outpatient or inpatient claim. Finally, the excess incidence rate of patients with inpatient and outpatient heart failure claims, relative to celecoxib, were multiplied by the heart failure cost of an inpatient and outpatient event to determine the incremental costs of heart failure associated with each of the study drugs relative to celecoxib.
The choice of NSAID depended largely on indication and on previous gastrointestinal history, in line with the recommendations of the French health authorities. Possible knowledge of CV risk associated with COX-2 inhibitors did not influence prescribing.
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Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is well known as a mediator of inflammatory symptoms such as fever, arthritis, and inflammatory pain. In the present study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of our selective PGE2 synthesis inhibitor, compound I, 2-methyl-2-[cis-4-([1-(6-methyl-3-phenylquinolin-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl]carbonyl amino)cyclohexyl] propanoic acid, in rat yeast-induced acute and adjuvant-induced chronic inflammatory pain models. Although this compound suppressed the synthesis of PGE2 selectively, no analgesic effect was shown in both inflammatory pain models. Prostacyclin (PGI2) also plays crucial roles in inflammatory pain, so we evaluated the involvement of PGI2 signaling in rat inflammatory pain models using prostacyclin receptor (IP) antagonist, RO3244019. RO3244019 showed no analgesic effect in inflammatory pain models, but concomitant administration of compound I and RO3244019 showed analgesic effects comparable to celecoxib, a specific cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2 inhibitor. Furthermore, coadministration of PGE2 receptor 4 (EP4) antagonist, CJ-023423, and RO3244019 also showed an analgesic effect. These findings suggest that both PGE2 signaling, especially through the EP4 receptor, and PGI2 signaling play critical roles in inflammatory pain and concurrent inhibition of both signals is important for suppression of inflammatory hyperalgesia.
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Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (RRP) can be a devastating condition for a child to endure, and pulmonary involvement may have terminal consequences. Adjuvant therapies have been trialed and reported over the years; however, these chemotherapy options have not been successful. Bevacizumab (Avastin, Genetech Inc., South San Francisco, CA) is a vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) inhibitor that has shown promise in the management of papillomatosis. Most research has focused on intralesional injections of this antiangiogenic drug. The systemic use of bevacizumab is not as well described. This is a case report of a 12-year-old female diagnosed with severe laryngotracheal papillomatosis near birth who underwent a tracheostomy tube placement at 1 year of age. She required weekly debridements to prevent tracheal obstruction. When lung involvement was diagnosed at 1 year of age, cidofovir was started intravenously. Over the course of the past 10 years, the patient was managed with celecoxib (Celebrex, Pfizer, New York, NY), anti-reflux medications, zithromycin, propranolol, Gardasil (Merck and Co., Kenilworth, NJ), and a 7-year course of interferon-alpha. Intravenous bevacizumab was started when the patient's pulmonary status deteriorated. There was remarkable improvement in her laryngotracheal disease within 6 weeks of therapy. Following 3 months of bevacizumab, the patient's disease was completely resolved at the laryngeal level and nearly gone in the trachea, and she was decannulated. A computed scan was performed following 5 months of intravenous bevacizumab, and the pulmonary RRP nodules completely resolved. The patient had no major or minor complication from the chemotherapy to date. Systemic Bevacizumab is a promising modality of adjuvant therapy for significant papillomatosis. Laryngoscope, 2016.
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An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Lilacs (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) and Embase databases. A manual search was also performed. Only randomized controlled trials were included, and these were selected and assessed by two researchers with regard to the risk of bias.
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All COX-2 inhibitors reduced proliferation of the glioma cell lines irrespective of their COX-2 expression level. Incubation with 200 microM NS-398 24 h before radiation enhanced radiation-induced cell death of D384 cells and 750 microM Meloxicam resulted in radiosensitization of D384 and U87 cells. No radiosensitization was observed with COX-2 inhibitor administration after radiotherapy. Treatment of D384 with NS-398 (200 microM) or Celecoxib (50 microM) and U87 with NS-398 (200 microM) after radiation resulted even in radioprotection.
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To study possible toxic effects of indomethacin, diclofenac, and celecoxib (NSAIDs) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as well as potentially protective effects of these substances in oxidatively stressed human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) and in intact mouse lenses in culture.
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In a well-defined fast-track setup for total hip and knee arthroplasty, with a multimodal analgesic regimen consisting of intra-operative local anaesthetic infiltration and oral celecoxib, gabapentin and paracetamol for 6 days postoperatively, we conducted a prospective, consecutive, observational study. The purpose was to describe the prevalence and intensity of subacute postoperative pain and opioid related side effects, use of analgesics and functional ability 1-10 and 30 days postoperatively. Fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty with early discharge (< 3 days) resulted in acceptable levels of pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting with concomitant low use of opioids in > 95% of patients after discharge before day 10 after total hip arthroplasty. However, after total knee arthroplasty 52% patients reported moderate pain (VAS 30-59 mm), and 16% severe pain (VAS > or = 60 mm) when walking 1 month after surgery with a concomitant increase in the use of strong opioids. These results emphasise the need for improvement in analgesia after discharge following total knee arthroplasty, to facilitate rehabilitation.
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The η-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 126.96.36.199) were recently discovered as the sixth genetic class of this metalloenzyme superfamily, and are so far known only in protozoa, including various Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria. We report here an inhibition study of the η-CA from Plasmodium falciparum (PfCA) against a panel of sulfonamides and one sulfamate compound, some of which are clinically used. The strongest inhibitors identified were ethoxzolamide and sulthiame, with KIs of 131-132 nM, followed by acetazolamide, methazolamide and hydrochlorothiazide (KIs of 153-198 nM). Brinzolamide, topiramate, zonisamide, indisulam, valdecoxib and celecoxib also showed significant inhibitory action against PfCA, with KIs ranging from 217 to 308 nM. An interesting observation was that the more efficient PfCA inhibitors are representative of several scaffolds and chemical classes, including benzene sulfonamides, monocyclic/bicyclic heterocyclic sulfonamides and compounds with a more complex scaffold (i.e., the sugar sulfamate derivative, topiramate, and the coxibs, celecoxib and valdecoxib). A comprehensive inhibition study of small molecules for η-CAs is needed as a first step towards assessing PfCA as a druggable target. The present work identifies the first known η-CA inhibitors and provides a platform for the development of next generation novel PfCA inhibitors.
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These results suggest that endogenous PGs derived from COX-1 play a crucial role in gastric mucosal defense during CRS, and this action is mainly mediated by PGI2 /IP receptors and partly by PGE2 /EP4 receptors.