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In the in vitro release profile, an initial burst release was observed over the first 24 hours, followed by sustained release through the 14-day time point. In the rabbit model, ciprofloxacin was continuously released from the stent up to 3 weeks at doses >50 ng/mL. Histologic examination found no evidence of inflammation, epithelial ulceration, or bony reaction upon euthanization of the animals at 21 days. Computed tomography also demonstrated no signs of mucosal edema or opacification in the sinus.
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Helicobacter pylori infection of the human stomach is associated with disease-causing inflammation that elicits DNA damage in both bacterial and host cells. Bacteria must repair their DNA to persist. The H. pylori AddAB helicase-exonuclease is required for DNA repair and efficient stomach colonization. To dissect the role of each activity in DNA repair and infectivity, we altered the AddA and AddB nuclease (NUC) domains and the AddA helicase (HEL) domain by site-directed mutagenesis. Extracts of Escherichia coli expressing H. pylori addA(NUC)B or addAB(NUC) mutants unwound DNA but had approximately half of the exonuclease activity of wild-type AddAB; the addA(NUC)B(NUC) double mutant lacked detectable nuclease activity but retained helicase activity. Extracts with AddA(HEL)B lacked detectable helicase and nuclease activity. H. pylori with the single nuclease domain mutations were somewhat less sensitive to the DNA-damaging agent ciprofloxacin than the corresponding deletion mutant, suggesting that residual nuclease activity promotes limited DNA repair. The addA(NUC) and addA(HEL) mutants colonized the stomach less efficiently than the wild type; addB(NUC) showed partial attenuation. E. coli DeltarecBCD expressing H. pylori addAB was recombination-deficient unless H. pylori recA was also expressed, suggesting a species-specific interaction between AddAB and RecA and also that H. pylori AddAB participates in both DNA repair and recombination. These results support a role for both the AddAB nuclease and helicase in DNA repair and promoting infectivity.
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In an effort to identify factors producing a finest mist from Jet-Nebulizers we designed 2 mouthpieces with 4 different internal designs and 1-3 compartments.
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For acute pouchitis, ciprofloxacin was more effective than metronidazole, while budesonide enemas and metronidazole were similarly effective. For chronic pouchitis, VSL#3 was more effective than placebo. For the prevention of pouchitis, VSL#3 was more effective than placebo. Larger RCTs are needed to determine the optimal agent(s) for the treatment and prevention of pouchitis.
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Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are rapidly evolving group of β-lactamase enzymes produced by the Gram negative bacteria. In this study, we determined the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli isolates and prevalence of TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes in ESBL positive E. coli isolated from the patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in North-East India. A total of 85 multidrug-resistant isolates of E. coli obtained from clinical samples; urine (n = 80), sputum (n = 3), body fluid (n = 1), vaginal discharge (n = 1) were screened for resistance to third generation cephalosporins. ESBL production in resistant isolates was determined by double disk synergy test (DDST) and phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT). ESBL positive isolates were subjected to PCR for detection of TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes. Imipenem was found to be most effective against E. coli (susceptible isolates 96.47%) while ciprofloxacin was the least effective antibiotic (resistant isolates 60%). Among 33 ESBL positive isolates confirmed via PCT, preponderance in female population (60.6%) was noted. The most prevalent gene was bla(SHV) (63.04%) followed by bla(TEM) and bla(CTX-M) (60.86 and 54.34%, respectively) in ESBL positive E. coli. Most of the extensively used antibiotics, appear to be ineffective against the ever-mutating bacteria. This resistance urges cautious antimicrobial management on priority. Further, it helps in effectively designing the chemotherapeutic regimen for patients of a particular geographic area.
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This study aimed to correlate the multidrug resistance (MDR) and sequence type (ST) clones of community-associated (CA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to identify the genes responsible for clindamycin and mupirocin resistance in S. aureus isolates from paediatric hospitals in mainland China. A total of 435 S. aureus isolates were collected. Compared with CA meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), the resistance rates of CA-MRSA to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and tetracycline were higher (19.0 vs 2.6 %, P<0.001; 14.7 vs 3.1 %, P<0.001; 14.7 vs 3.1 %, P<0.01; and 46.0 vs 13.3 %, P<0.001, respectively). Compared with hospital-associated (HA)-MRSA, the resistance rates of CA-MRSA to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, rifampicin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were lower (19 vs 94.8 %, P<0.001; 14.7 vs 84.4 %, P<0.001; 5.5 vs 88.3 %, P<0.001; 46 vs 94.8 %, P<0.001; and 1.8 vs 9.1 %, P<0.01, respectively). The resistance rates of CA-MRSA, HA-MRSA and CA-MSSA to clindamycin (92.0, 77.9 and 64.1 %, respectively) and erythromycin (85.9, 77.9 and 63.1 %, respectively) were high. The MDR rates (resistance to three or more non-β-lactams) were 49.6, 100 and 14 % in the CA-MRSA, HA-MRSA and CA-MSSA isolates, respectively. Five of seven ST clones in the CA-MRSA isolates, namely ST59, ST338, ST45, ST910 and ST965, had MDR rates of >50 % (67.9, 87.5, 100, 50 and 83.3 %, respectively). The constitutive phenotype of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) resistance (69 %) and the ermB gene (38.1 %) predominated among the MLS(B)-resistant CA S. aureus strains. The resistance rate to mupirocin was 2.3 % and plasmids carrying the mupA gene varied in size between 23 and 54.2 kb in six strains with high-level resistance as determined by Southern blot analysis. The present study showed that resistance to non-β-lactams, especially to clindamycin, is high in CA-MRSA isolates from Chinese children and that the profile of resistance is related to clonal type. This study revealed distinctive patterns of MLS(B)-resistant genes among CA S. aureus isolates.
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Focal intracranial infections caused by Salmonella species in adults are exceedingly uncommon. Structural brain injury with coexisting immunocompromised status appears to predispose adults to this rare manifestation of Salmonella infection. We report a case of Salmonella brain abscess in a patient with myasthenia gravis on chronic azathioprine therapy without any prior structural brain lesion. We reviewed world literature and discuss their analysis of Salmonella brain abscess in adult population in the postantibiotic era.
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Preoperative antibiotics reduced the positivity of the cultures before the use of PVPI in both groups, although in Group A this reduction was not significant (Group A - p=0.07 and Group B - p=0.04). The number of positive cultures was reduced in all groups after the use of povidone-iodine and on the 14th postoperative day (p<0.05). In t4 there was a reduction in the frequency of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus in Group A compared with Group B (p<0.05); the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was also reduced in all groups, when compared with t0.
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Seventeen strains of Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 52 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and 11 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) isolated from the wound secretion, venous catheters, blood, urine and stool etc. were collected from burn patients hospitalized in our department from January 2004 to December 2006. The distribution and the drug resistance profile of bacteria were analyzed, and the homology analysis was performed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).
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We created a questionnaire with the aim of evaluating surgeon compliance with the guidelines for antibiotic use in the perioperative period in intra-abdominal surgical infections. We discuss the problems emerging from non-adherence to these guidelines.
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Single-dose ciprofloxacin is not effective for treating cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 with diminished susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid disc-diffusion testing effectively screens for such isolates.
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Little is known about the incidence of clinically overt infections with MRSA in animals. The cases described here illustrate the complexities involved in the pharmacological management of EMRSA-15 infections, which is compounded by the universal resistance to beta-lactams, and by the strain's fluoroquinolone resistance and frequent inducible resistance to clindamycin. Such complexities indicate there is a need to develop specific empirical antimicrobial treatment strategies and antibiotic susceptibility testing protocols in countries where EMRSA-15 is dominant.
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Contamination of drinking or recreational water by human or animal faecal waste is a major public health threat. In this study, we determine the incidence of Enterococcus species and six virulence factors of Enterococcus faecium which were isolated from surface water and wells. Results from this study suggest that the presence of Ent. faecium in natural and well waters was found to be significant in rural areas of Tehran. Resistant to erythromycin among Ent. faecium was relatively high and the incidence of acm and asa1 among our isolates was common overall.
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The currently available anti-Toxoplasma agents have serious limitations. This systematic review was performed to evaluate drugs and new compounds used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Data was systematically collected from published papers on the efficacy of drugs/compounds used against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) globally during 2006-2016. The searched databases were PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, ISI Web of Science, EBSCO, and Scopus. One hundred and eighteen papers were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review, which were both in vitro and in vivo studies. Within this review, 80 clinically available drugs and a large number of new compounds with more than 39 mechanisms of action were evaluated. Interestingly, many of the drugs/compounds evaluated against T. gondii act on the apicoplast. Therefore, the apicoplast represents as a potential drug target for new chemotherapy. Based on the current findings, 49 drugs/compounds demonstrated in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of below 1 μM, but most of them were not evaluated further for in vivo effectiveness. However, the derivatives of the ciprofloxacin, endochin-like quinolones and 1-[4-(4-nitrophenoxy) phenyl] propane-1-one (NPPP) were significantly active against T. gondii tachyzoites both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, these compounds are promising candidates for future studies. Also, compound 32 (T. gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 inhibitor), endochin-like quinolones, miltefosine, rolipram abolish, and guanabenz can be repurposed into an effective anti-parasitic with a unique ability to reduce brain tissue cysts (88.7, 88, 78, 74, and 69%, respectively). Additionally, no promising drugs are available for congenital toxoplasmosis. In conclusion, as current chemotherapy against toxoplasmosis is still not satisfactory, development of well-tolerated and safe specific immunoprophylaxis in relaxing the need of dependence on chemotherapeutics is a highly valuable goal for global disease control. However, with the increasing number of high-risk individuals, and absence of a proper vaccine, continued efforts are necessary for the development of novel treatment options against T. gondii. Some of the novel compounds reviewed here may represent good starting points for the discovery of effective new drugs. In further, bioinformatic and in silico studies are needed in order to identify new potential toxoplasmicidal drugs.
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Confirmation of the diagnosis utilizing molecular techniques and drug susceptibility testing allowed for successful treatment of this prosthetic infection.
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We performed a retrospective review of all patients with malignant otitis externa (MOE) treated in our center between July 2004 and December 2012 to evaluate the current epidemiology in our region and to ascertain causative factors associated with the perceived increase in the number of cases diagnosed. Eleven patients were identified (5 men and 6 women), with a mean age of 77 years (range: 38 to 97 years). Diabetes was present in 36%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the causative organism in 64% of cases; all pathogens were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We noted a significant increase in the diagnostic frequency of MOE during the study period (p = 0.0027) No obvious causative factors were identified. Due to the mortality associated with this condition, further studies are required to establish national trends.
E. coli was isolated from 207 (94.5%) of 219 poultry meat products. The most common phylogenetic groups were D (50.7%), A (37.7%), and B2 (7.7%). Based on virulence factor gene PCR, 23.2% of the strains were classified as ExPEC. Two ExPEC strains (1%) belonged to [O1] B2 svg+ (specific for virulent subgroup) group, which has been implicated in multiple forms of ExPEC disease. None of the ExPEC strains was resistant to ciprofloxacin or cephalosporins. One isolate (2.1%) showed resistance to nalidixic acid.
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Periprosthetic infection after breast reconstruction is not an uncommon complication, with incidence up to 24%. These infections are often treated empirically without knowing the causative bacteria or its sensitivities to various antibiotics. Even if cultures are obtained, results may not be available for several days.
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A high frequency of co-resistance between ESBL-producing E. coli and non-beta-lactam antibiotics was seen. On the other hand, very high susceptibility was seen for amikacin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin. These data support the replacement of gentamicin and tobramycin, normally used in Sweden, with amikacin, for severe infections.
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Among 130 participants, N. gonorrhoeae was the most frequent pathogen detected (106; 82.8%), followed by C. trachomatis (15; 11.7%), M. genitalium (6; 4.7%), and T. vaginalis (2; 1.6%). Four (6.1%) of the 66 gonococci isolated were resistant to fluoroquinolones, whereas all viable isolates were susceptible to kanamycin, cefixime, and ceftriaxone.
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In an attempt to fabricate floating beads of ciprofloxacin, drugloaded alginate beads were prepared by simultaneous external and internal gelation. The effect of blending of alginate with gellan, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, starch, and chitosan on the bead properties were evaluated. Beads were spherical with incorporation efficiency in the range of 52.81 +/- 2.64 to 78.95 +/- 1.92%. Beads exhibited buoyancy over a period of 7-24 hr based on the formulation variables. In vitro release of ciprofloxacin from the alginate beads in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) (0.1 N HCl, pH 1.2), was influenced significantly (p < 0.001) by the properties and concentration of additives. Among the polymers incorporated into alginate beads. Hydroxy propyl methylcellulose (HPMC) provided an extended release over 7 hr. The drug release predominately followed Higuchi's square root model.
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Two prebiopsy protocols were compared. CiproAlone required ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily starting 1 day before biopsy and continuing for 3 days after biopsy (4 days total). Diabetic patients were prescribed ciprofloxacin for 4 days after biopsy. CiproCeft required 1 dose of oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg 1 hour before the biopsy and ceftriaxone 1 g intramuscular at the time of the biopsy. Hospitalization rates between the CiproAlone vs CiproCeft protocols were examined.
Shigella is an important cause of gastroenteritis in local Indian population, as well as of traveler's diarrhea in the international visitors to India. These patients often require appropriate antimicrobial therapy; however, rapid development of antimicrobial resistance poses a major hurdle in achieving this goal.
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cats and dogs as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Rectal swabs from 83 dogs and 71 cats were examined. Samples were obtained from the animals aged between 2 weeks and 24 months living in shelters, private households, farms and from veterinary clinics located in Bydgoszcz region during routine check-up. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 4.81% dogs and 9.86% cats, respectively. C. jejuni was predominant in this study. All strains were isolated in autumn and winter from the animals living in farms and private houses. All the animals positive for Campylobacter prevalence had access to small water basins, accidental source of food and had contact with wild birds, poultry or their feaces. Isolates characterization revealed high prevalence of Campylobacter virulence genes-flaA, cadF and cdtB. 91% of isolated strains were susceptible to erythromycin. 81% among isolated strains were susceptible to azithromycin, 64% to tetracycline and 36% to ciprofloxacin. For 2 C. jejuni strains isolated from cats Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling indicated 80% homology between them.
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The meningococcal strains isolated in Brazil during 2006-2008 were globally susceptible to all antibiotics currently used in treatment or chemoprophylaxis of meningococcal disease in Brazil.
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To investigate infective bacterial diseases in selected sub metros within the GAR.
A prospective study was conducted in Johannesburg, South Africa. Men from the three groups were screened for urethritis pathogens using molecular tests. Culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and, initially, trichomoniasis was performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was undertaken for ciprofloxacin on all gonococcal isolates; ciprofloxacin resistant isolates were screened for ceftriaxone resistance.
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A total of 22 of 34 MRSA isolates (64.7%) from patients with CF belonged to clonal complex (CC) 5 and contained SCCmec II, so-called health-care associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains. Nine of 34 MRSA strains (26.5%) were CC 8, and contained SCCmec IV, so-called community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains. The CA-MRSA strains tended to be isolated from newly colonized CF patients. In contrast, CC8 isolates predominated among the non-CF patients (294 of 331 patients; 88.8%). MRSA isolates from children with CF were more likely to be resistant to clindamycin (65% vs 19%, respectively) and ciprofloxacin (62% vs 17%, respectively) compared with strains from non-CF patients (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the rate of pvl+ isolate recovery from children with CF undergoing a surveillance culture (7 of 23 children) compared with those with pulmonary exacerbation (3 of 11 children; p = 1.0).
Antibiotics have been identified as one category of medications that may cause decreased white blood cell/absolute neutrophil counts when combined with clozapine. Our study supports the use of either ciprofloxacin or moxifloxacin as agents that may have less risk of reductions in white blood cell/absolute neutrophil counts than are seen with penicillins, cephalosporins, and other antibiotics that may ultimately require interruption or discontinuation of clozapine therapy.