cleocin 150 mg
A total of 394 nonduplicate isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes collected from 1979 to 1998 and 267 nonduplicate isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae collected from October, 1998, to May, 1999, in Taiwan were evaluated. Among the 220 erythromycin-resistant (MIC, > or =1 microg/ml) S. pyogenes isolates, 35% had an M phenotype and 65% had an ML phenotype (inducible resistance [iML], 0.5%, and constitutive resistance [cML], 64.5%). Among the 243 erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates, the majority (65.4%) had an ML phenotype (iML, 0.4%, and cML, 65%) and 34.6% had an M phenotype. A substantial upsurge in the incidence of M-phenotype erythromycin-resistant isolates was found with time for S. pyogenes (0% in 1979-1984 and 100% in 1997-1998), and an increasing incidence of M-phenotype among erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae was also noted (<20% before 1994 and 45.4% in 1999). All S. pyogenes and all but four S. pneumoniae isolates exhibiting a cML or iML phenotype had harbored the ermAM gene. The presence of the mefA gene was demonstrated in all isolates of S. pyogenes and the mefE gene in all but four S. pneumoniae isolates exhibiting the M phenotype. Due to the increasing susceptibility of S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae isolates to clindamycin, susceptibility tests of these two organisms to macrolides and clindamycin should be performed simultaneously in the clinical microbiology laboratory, particularly in areas with high rates of macrolide resistance.
Randomized trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment, or comparing two or more antibiotic regimens in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis or intermediate vaginal flora.
A retrospective descriptive study was made, involving the consecutive inclusion of all patients with odontogenic infection requiring admission to our hospital in the period between January 2007 and December 2008.
High morbidity and mortality rates are associated with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) because of development of multidrug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has the ability to colonize and form biofilms on biomaterials which is causing resistance towards antimicrobials and thus making them difficult to eradicate from the infected hosts.
cleocin ovules dosage
The two treatment regimens were compared in a multicentre, single-blind, randomized 12-week investigation of patients with moderate to severe acne vulgaris.
buy cleocin cream
Despite decline obtained for some antibiotic agents resistance during 2001-2015, antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive pathogens still remained high in Southern China. This study may aid in the guidance for appropriate therapeutic strategy of infections caused by nosocomial pathogens.
cleocin drug classification
cleocin iv dose
Campylobacter is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis and can be acquired through contact with farm animals or the consumption of raw milk. Because of concerns over the role of food-producing animals in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance to humans, we evaluated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter isolates from dairy farms and the genetic mechanism conferring the observed resistance. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance was completed on 912 isolates from conventional and 304 isolates from organic dairy farms to eight drugs (azithromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline) with microbroth dilution. Resistance to seven of eight drugs was very low and did not differ by farm type. However, tetracycline resistance was common in Campylobacter isolated from both organic and conventional dairy farms, with 48 and 58% of isolates affected, respectively. By multiplex PCR, we determined that tetracycline resistance was highly associated with the carriage of tetO in Campylobacter isolates (X2 = 124, P < 0.01, kappa = 0.86).
Of the 44 isolates of S. pneumoniae, only 5 (11.4%) were susceptible to penicillin. All strains were resistant to erythromycin but susceptible to ofloxacin and vancomycin. The resistance rate of the isolates to clindamycin and trimoxazole was more than 90%. The S. pneumoniae isolates showed a high susceptibility to amoxicillin, imipenem and ceftriaxone, with a resistance rate of 0, 2.6% and 3.9%, respectively. The sequence analysis showed that more than 99% nucleotide sequence of pbp2B gene of five penicillin-susceptible isolates was the same as penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae R6, without any amino acid replacement. Site mutation was found in the remaining 39 penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates with a nucleotide mutation rate ranging from 13.2% to 23.1% and amino acid replacement rate from 6.5% to 10.9%. The 39 penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates were classified into 4 types according to the mutation site between Ser391 and Thr492 of pbp2B: type I (n=30), type II (n=7), type III (n=1) and type IV (n=1). No TEM gene was detected in all the 44 S. pneumoniae isolates.
cleocin loading dose
Major changes in the updated recommendations include the following: (1) emphasis that most cases of endocarditis are not attributable to an invasive procedure; (2) cardiac conditions are stratified into high-, moderate-, and negligible-risk categories based on potential outcome if endocarditis develops; (3) procedures that may cause bacteremia and for which prophylaxis is recommended are more clearly specified; (4) an algorithm was developed to more clearly define when prophylaxis is recommended for patients with mitral valve prolapse; (5) for oral or dental procedures the initial amoxicillin dose is reduced to 2 g, a follow-up antibiotic dose is no longer recommended, erythromycin is no longer recommended for penicillin-allergic individuals, but clindamycin and other alternatives are offered; and (6) for gastrointestinal or genitourinary procedures, the prophylactic regimens have been simplified. These changes were instituted to more clearly define when prophylaxis is or is not recommended, improve practitioner and patient compliance, reduce cost and potential gastrointestinal adverse effects, and approach more uniform worldwide recommendations.
cleocin 600 mg
The Sartorius score dramatically improved at the end of treatment (median = 29, interquartile range = 14.5, vs. median = 14.5, interquartile range = 11; p < 0.001), as did other parameters of severity as well as the quality of life score. Eight patients (6.9%) stopped the treatment because of side effects.
cleocin elixir dosage
In total, 97 CVAD implantations were analysed in 89 paediatric oncology patients (Broviac in 94%). The detailed analysis of PAP revealed lower Cefuroxim doses than requested (30 vs. 50 mg/kg). In addition, Cefotaxim was used in 1 case and in 3 cases Clindamycin was given without a medical history of Penicillin hypersensitivity. In the retrospective audit group PAP was administered in 22% for≤24 h); this was the case in 91% of the prospective group (p<0.001). No SSI was detected.
A statistical analysis of 58 reports involving 101 clinical trials and over 4,000 patients revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the cure rates between single-agent and combination therapy. Also, there was no difference in the cure rates between antibiotic regimens that cover Chlamydia trachomatis and those that do not. However, there was a difference in cure rates when regimens with good antianaerobe activity were compared to those with poor coverage of anaerobes. There was a statistically significantly higher cure rate when "newer" regimens (mainly the second and third generations of cephalosporins and newer penicillins) were compared to "older" regimens (mainly penicillin and tetracycline). In 91 comparisons there were no statistically significant differences between regimens with a > 90% cure rate. Optimum therapy is discussed in terms of the cure rate, coverage of known pathogens and antibiotic toxicity. The original and revised recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control for the treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease are also reviewed.
cleocin dosage forms
Fifty-three patients were enrolled into this survey between 1 September 2005 and 31 December 2006. Double and triple tests are defined as performing ODPT with two and three antibiotics consecutively on the same day.
cleocin cream dosage
Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was the most common pattern found, and further studies are required to clarify its resistance mechanism. A certain tetracycline resistance was expected, but interestingly all strains remained sensitive. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were influenced using topical formulations. Mutation A2059G was related to high resistance to erythromycin. Antibiotic resistance is increasing, and new strategies are needed.
cleocin buy online
Infected root canal or acute apical abscess exudates can harbour several species, including Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Streptococcus, Treponema, Olsenella and not-yet cultivable species. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess resistance rates to antimicrobial agents in clinical studies that isolated bacteria from acute endodontic infections. Electronic databases and the grey literature were searched up to May 2015. Clinical studies in humans evaluating the antimicrobial resistance of primary acute endodontic infection isolates were included. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A random-effect meta-analysis was employed. The outcome was described as the pooled resistance rates for each antimicrobial agent. Heterogeneity and sensitivity analyses were performed. Subgroup analyses were conducted based upon report or not of the use of antibiotics prior to sampling as an exclusion factor (subgroups A and B, respectively). Data from seven studies were extracted. Resistance rates for 15 different antimicrobial agents were evaluated (range, 3.5-40.0%). Lower resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and amoxicillin; higher resistance rates were detected for tetracycline. Resistance rates varied according to previous use of an antimicrobial agent as demonstrated by the subgroup analyses. Heterogeneity was observed for the resistance profiles of penicillin G in subgroup A and for amoxicillin, clindamycin, metronidazole and tetracycline in subgroup B. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that resistance rates changed for metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline and amoxicillin. These findings suggest that clinical isolates had low resistance to β-lactams. Further well-designed studies are needed to clarify whether the differences in susceptibility among the antimicrobial agents may influence clinical responses to treatment.
cleocin reviews bv
Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase. CT scan of abdomen revealed acute pancreatitis and small bowel ileus. He was started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Initial blood cultures were positive for C. perfringens on day five. Metronidazole and clindamycin were added to the regimen. Repeat CT (day 7) revealed pancreatic necrosis. The patient developed profound circulatory shock requiring multiple vasopressors, renal failure requiring dialysis, and bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Hemodynamic instability precluded surgical intervention and he succumbed to multiorgan failure. Interestingly, our isolate was beta lactamase producing. We review the epidemiology, risk factors, presentation, and management of C. perfringens bacteremia. This case indicates a need for high clinical suspicion for clostridial sepsis and that extended spectrum beta lactam antibiotic coverage may be inadequate and should be supplemented with use of clindamycin or metronidazole if culture is positive, until sensitivities are known.
cleocin suspension strength
The roles of group C and F streptococci in causing endemic pharyngitis are still controversial, although group C streptococci are implicated in the outbreaks of pharyngitis and associated disorders.
The topical combination of benzoyl peroxide 5% and clindamycin 1% is effective in the treatment of progressive macular hypomelanosis.
cleocin brand name
Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) is potentially a new emerging pathogen with most strains susceptible to many antimicrobials except for beta-lactam antibiotics. We retrospectively reviewed MRSA isolates during a 20-month study period (January 1998 through August 1999) and investigated those that were clindamycin susceptible. Patients were not considered to harbor CA-MRSA if they had been admitted to a hospital within the preceding 2 years or if their isolate had been obtained more than 72 h after admission. There were 2,817 S. aureus isolates, with 1,071 (38%) being MRSA. Of these 1,071 isolates, 161 were clindamycin susceptible; these were recovered from 81 patients. Of these 81 patients, 20 appeared to have community-acquired strains, but only 2 could be confirmed as having CA-MRSA.
We screened titles and abstracts , obtained full reports of relevant trialsand independently appraised them for eligibility. A data extraction form was used to extract data from the four included studies. For dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived for each study using RevMan (versions 4.2 and 5). We did not perform meta-analysis due to significant differences in the probiotic preparations and trial methodologies.
cleocin maximum dose
The 585-nm flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser improves the appearance of hypertrophic erythematous facial scars and ulcers in patients with severe acne excoriée. Proper diagnosis of underlying impulse-control disorders and ongoing psychodynamic therapy is necessary to maintain improvement.
cleocin normal dosage
Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis and surgical technological advances have greatly reduced, but not totally eliminated surgical site infection (SSI) posthysterectomy. We aimed to identify risk factors for SSI posthysterectomy among women with a high prevalence of gynecologic malignancies, in a tertiary care setting where compliance with the Joint Commission's Surgical Care Improvement Project core measures is excellent.
cleocin gel reviews
The evidence provided from the present small study survey and a review of the orthopedic data could provide the opportunity to develop guidelines for the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative antibiotic management for TMJ TJRs and spur additional research into this important area of patient management.
cleocin topical dosage
A total of 352 individual strains, belonging to 69 different species, were isolated. Eighty three percent of the strains were strict anaerobes and 47.5% of the isolated bacteria were Gram-negative. Porphyromonas gingivalis was found in 20 root canals and was most frequently found in symptomatic cases. Statistically, the presence of P. gingivalis was related to purulent exudates and pain on palpation (both P < 0.05). All P. gingivalis strains were sensitive to amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, cephaclor, clindamycin, benzylpenicyllin, metronidazole and tetracycline. The lowest range of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (0.026-0.125 microg mL(-1)) was observed against amoxicillin + clavulanate and clindamycin. The lowest MIC 90 was observed against clindamycin (0.064 microg mL(-1)). One strain was resistant to erythromycin and eight strains were resistant to azythromycin.
cleocin gel price
The treatment of recurrent furunculosis is poorly documented and represents a public health challenge. The medical care of this disease is often disappointing, especially as the disease evolution is uncertain and relapses occur. We report the efficacy and safety of our CMC regimen: skin disinfection (chlorhexidine), local nasal antibiotic (mupirocin), and systemic antibiotic (clindamycin).