Generic Combivir is used for treating HIV infection in combination with other medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Lamivudine\Zidovudine.
Generic Combivir is an antiviral combination. Lamivudine and Zidovudine are both nucleoside analogues that work together to slow the growth of HIV by blocking an enzyme needed by the virus to reproduce.
Generic Name of Generic Combivir is Lamivudine plus Zidovudine.
Combivir is also known as Lamivudine, Zidovudine, Duovir.
Brand name of Generic Combivir is Combivir.
Generic Combivir is available in tablets which should be taken orally.
Take Generic Combivir with or without food.
Continue to use Generic Combivir even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.
Take Generic Combivir at the same time each day.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Combivir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep the container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Combivir are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Be careful with Generic Combivir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Combivir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are allergic to Generic Combivir components.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are taking stavudine, zalcitabine, or other medicines containing lamivudine or zidovudine.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you have severe kidney problems, decreased liver function, abnormal liver function tests, or high levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis).
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you weigh less than 66 lbs (30 kg) .
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you are significantly overweight.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you take interferon alfa or ribavirin because serious liver problems may occur; stavudine because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Combivir; clarithromycin, doxorubicin, rifampin, or zalcitabine because they may decrease Generic Combivir 's effectiveness; acetaminophen, ganciclovir, ibuprofen, methadone, probenecid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, valproic acid, vancomycin, or zalcitabine because they may increase the risk of Generic Combivir 's side effects or toxic effects.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
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There is a significant decrease in aminotransferase serum levels following the initiation of antiretroviral treatment in HIV infected patients.
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It is effective for the virus with different genotype. The results will form a scientific foundation for the development of therapeutic strategies for HIV infection in China.
There is a lack of standardized programs for HIV counselling and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in the setting of sexual assault.
Four cytokines showed a difference in expression between the treatment arms, all in a proinflammatory direction for the ABC arm: CD40LG 1.82-fold, (p=.027); IL-8 3.16-fold (p=.020); LTA 2.82-fold, (p=.008); and CCL5 -1.67-fold, (p=.035). At 12-months postpartum, 6-months after antiretroviral discontinuation, cytokine expression was similar by treatment arm.
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Dissolution testing has a very vital importance for a quality control test and prediction of the in vivo behavior of the oral dosage formulation. This requires the use of a powerful analytical method to get reliable, accurate and precise results for the dissolution experiments. In this context, new signal processing approaches, continuous wavelet transforms (CWTs) were improved for the simultaneous quantitative estimation and dissolution testing of lamivudine (LAM) and zidovudine (ZID) in a tablet dosage form. The CWT approaches are based on the application of the continuous wavelet functions to the absorption spectra-data vectors of LAM and ZID in the wavelet domain. After applying many wavelet functions, the families consisting of Mexican hat wavelet with the scaling factor a=256, Symlets wavelet with the scaling factor a=512 and the order of 5 and Daubechies wavelet at the scale factor a=450 and the order of 10 were found to be suitable for the quantitative determination of the mentioned drugs. These wavelet applications were named as mexh-CWT, sym5-CWT and db10-CWT methods. Calibration graphs for LAM and ZID in the working range of 2.0-50.0 µg/mL and 2.0-60.0 µg/mL were obtained measuring the mexh-CWT, sym5-CWT and db10-CWT amplitudes at the wavelength points corresponding to zero crossing points. The validity and applicability of the improved mexh-CWT, sym5-CWT and db10-CWT approaches was carried out by the analysis of the synthetic mixtures containing the analyzed drugs. Simultaneous determination of LAM and ZID in tablets was accomplished by the proposed CWT methods and their dissolution profiles were graphically explored.
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We evaluated the emergence of drug resistance in patients failing first-line regimens containing one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) administered with zidovudine (ZDV) + lamivudine (the ZDV group) or non-thymidine analogues (non-TAs) (tenofovir or abacavir, + lamivudine or emtricitabine; the non-TA group).
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Fifty-three HIV-1 infected pregnant women who had received 4-12 weeks of antenatal AZT followed by Nevirapine during delivery and Combivir [AZT + 3TC] for 1 week postpartum (group-1, n = 48) or who come at the time of delivery and received Nevirapine followed by Combivir for 1 week (group-2, n = 5) were recruited. Samples were collected prior to the start of the prophylaxis and 5-8 weeks postpartum. In addition, a third sample was collected between 26-65 weeks postpartum from 7 women. Amplification of HIV-1 pol gene and drug resistance analysis was done.
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While it appears that protease inhibitors in combination therapies are saving lives, questions continue: (1) which combinations of protease inhibitors and other antiretroviral agents are most effective in restoring immune function, (2) how these combinations can be used most effectively, and (3) what is the best time to start using them? An evaluation is presented on the immunological value of specific drug cocktail combinations and a comparison of the best and worst drug combinations and the reasons for this assessment. It indicates that Norvir is the most effective of all four protease inhibitors in preventing opportunistic infections, lymphomas, and cancers. D4T and 3TC are the safest and most effective of the nucleosides for preventing or remitting opportunistic infections when used with protease inhibitors. Rescriptor is the most therapeutic of the two non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in increasing absorption of protease inhibitors. The best drug combination therapies are listed as follows: Norvir plus Rescriptor; Norvir plus D4T; Norvir plus 3TC; Norvir, Rescriptor, and D4T; Norvir, Rescriptor, and 3TC; Norvir, D4T, and 3TC; and Crixivan or Viracept plus Rescriptor plus either D4T or 3TC. The worst drug combination therapies are listed as follows: AZT plus ddI (used in combination with a protease inhibitor); AZT or ddI or Combivir (used in combinations with a protease inhibitor); and any two protease inhibitors used together in any person with active hepatitis or elevated liver enzymes or impaired kidney function.
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Our data suggest that didanosine/lamivudine/efavirenz is a combination with an efficacy comparable to zidovudine/lamivudine/efavirenz as first-line therapy for HIV infection. The risk of treatment change was significantly higher among patients treated with zidovudine/lamivudine/efavirenz than in those starting therapy with didanosine/lamivudine/efavirenz.
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Evidence from randomized controlled trials supports the use of triple therapy. Research is required on the effectiveness of quadruple therapy in comparison to this and the relative effectiveness of specific highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) combinations.
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One hundred and fifty hospitalised patients.
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been advocated for the management of primary HIV-1 infection. We investigated the use of a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen in this setting.
The NOD.c3c4 mouse model develops autoimmune biliary disease characterized by spontaneous granulomatous cholangitis, antimitochondrial antibodies and liver failure. This model for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has evidence of biliary infection with mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV), suggesting that the virus may have a role in cholangitis development and progression of liver disease in this mouse model. We tested the hypothesis that MMTV infection is associated with cholangitis in the NOD.c3c4 mouse model by investigating whether antiretroviral therapy impacts on viral levels and liver disease.
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Aggressive treatment has been advocated for the management of primary HIV infection (PHI), but the composition and the optimal duration of therapy are still to be determined. In addition, time to undetectable viral load (VL), rate and duration of VL suppression as well as subsequent therapeutic choices remain issues widely debated. We evaluated the rate and duration of VL suppression in 12 consecutive patients with PHI given triple-drug treatment with zidovudine, lamivudine and indinavir (highly active antiretroviral therapy, HAART) at onset of the acute illness and subsequently switched to a simplified 2-NRTI-based regimen once VL suppression was maintained for at least 6 months. Throughout the study, no patient discontinued treatment because of symptoms attributed to the study medications. In the study population, undetectable VL was achieved after a median of 84 days (range: 67-135) on HAART and was maintained for a median of 194 days (range: 179-205) before simplification. After switching to simplified maintenace, undetectable VL was maintained in all patients for at least 6 months. Only one patient experienced virological failure, plasma HIV-RNA remaining suppressed for a median foliow-up of 33 months (15-54) and T-CD4+ being steadily higher than 500/mL in the remaining patients. Our results suggest that simplification of HAART in patients promptly treated during PHI and maintaining undetectable VL for at least 6 months before simplification may be a valid option capable of controlling viral replication and maintaining an optimal immunological profile for a prolonged time.
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Utilization and payment data from 1991 to 2005 are provided by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Descriptive summary analyses were used to assess quarterly prescription numbers and amounts of payment.
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The HIV/AIDS epidemic, which was first reported on in 1981, progressed in just 10 years to a disease afflicting 10 million people worldwide including 1 million in the US. In 1987, AZT was approved for treating HIV/AIDS. Unfortunately, its clinical usefullness was severly limited by associated toxicities and the emergence of resistance. Three other drugs that were approved in the early 1990s suffered from similar liabilities. In 1990, the Liotta group at Emory University developed a highly diastereoselective synthesis of racemic 3'-thia-2',3'-dideoxycytidine and 3'-thia-2',3'-5-fluorodideoxycytidine and demonstrated that these compounds exhibited excellent anti-HIV activity with no apparent cytotoxicity. Subsequently, the enantiomers of these compounds were separated using enzyme-mediated kinetic resolutions and their (-)-enantiomers (3TC and FTC, respectively) were found to have exceptionally attractive preclinical profiles. In addition to their anti-HIV activity, 3TC and FTC potently inhibit the replication of hepatitis B virus. The development of FTC, which was being carried out by Burroughs Wellcome, had many remarkable starts and stops. For example, passage studies indicated that the compound rapidly selected for a single resistant mutant, M184V, and that this strain was 500-1000-fold less sensitive to FTC than was wild-type virus. Fortunately, it was found that combinations of AZT with either 3TC or FTC were synergistic. The effectiveness of AZT-3TC combination therapy was subsequently demonstrated in four independent clinical trials, and in 1997, the FDA approved Combivir, a fixed dose combination of AZT and 3TC. In phase 1 clinical trials, FTC was well tolerated by all subjects with no adverse events observed. However, the development of FTC was halted by the aquistition of Wellcome PLC by Glaxo PLC in January 1995. In 1996, Triangle Pharmaceuticals licensed FTC from Emory and initiated a series of phase I/II clinical studies that demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the drug. In August 1998, FTC was granted "Fast Track" status, based primarily on its potential for once daily dosing. While the outcomes of two subsequent phase III trials were positive, a third phase III clinical trial involving combinations of 3TC or FTC with stavudine and neviripine had to be terminated due to serious liver-related adverse events. Although analysis of the data suggested that the liver toxicity was due to neviripine, the FDA decided that the study could not be used for drug registration. Ultimately, in January 2003, Gilead Sciences acquired Triangle Pharmaceuticals and completed the development of FTC (emtricitabine), which was approved for once a day, oral administration in July 2003. A year later, Truvada, a once a day, oral, fixed dose combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate received FDA approval and quickly became the accepted first line therapy when used with a third antiretroviral agent. In July 2006, the FDA approved Atripla, a once a day, oral, fixed dose combination of emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate, and efavirenz, which represented the culmination of two decades of research that had transformed AIDS from a death sentence to a manageable chronic disease.
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The current worldwide spread of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) to the heterosexual population has resulted in approximately 800,000 children born yearly to HIV-1-infected mothers. In the absence of anti-retroviral intervention, about 25% of the approximately 7,000 children born yearly to HIV-1-infected women in the United States are HIV-1 infected. Administration of zidovudine (AZT) prophylaxis during pregnancy reduces the rate of infant HIV-1 infection to approximately 7%, and further reductions are achieved with the addition of lamivudine (3TC) in the clinical formulation Combivir. Whereas clinically this is a remarkable achievement, AZT and 3TC are DNA replication chain terminators known to induce various types of genotoxicity. Studies in rodents have demonstrated AZT-DNA incorporation, HPRT mutagenesis, telomere shortening, and tumorigenicity in organs of fetal mice exposed transplacentally to AZT. In monkeys, both AZT and 3TC become incorporated into the DNA from multiple fetal organs taken at birth after administration of human-equivalent protocols to pregnant dams during gestation, and telomere shortening has been found in monkey fetuses exposed to both drugs. In human infants, AZT-DNA and 3TC-DNA incorporation as well as HPRT and GPA mutagenesis have been documented in cord blood from infants exposed in utero to Combivir. In infants of mice, monkeys, and humans, levels of AZT-DNA incorporation were remarkably similar, and in newborn mice and humans, mutation frequencies were also very similar. Given the risk-benefit ratio, these highly successful drugs will continue to be used for prevention of vertical viral transmission, however evidence of genotoxicity in mouse and monkey models and in the infants themselves would suggest that exposed children should be followed well past adolescence for early detection of potential cancer hazard.
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A 40-year-old male Caucasian presented with atypical, bilateral lesions of the limbal conjunctiva due to MC. Before the induction of HAART, nodules in the left eye were excised whilst the single lesion in the right eye was left untouched.
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No differences in any analyses were observed between a standard of care regimen (zidovudine/lamivudine and efavirenz) and the quad regimen (zidovudine/lamivudine/abacavir and efavirenz).
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Abacavir (ABC) may be associated with a small, increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected adults, possibly related to cytokine-mediated inflammation.
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In the equivalence study, treatment-naive patients were assessed for HIV-1 RNA, CD4 cell count and genotype. The same assessments plus phenotype were made in the intensification study. Serious adverse events were recorded in the equivalence study and all adverse events in the intensification study.
An observational, open-label study was performed to assess changes of lopinavir/ritonavir plasma concentrations during pregnancy.
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Currently approved drugs in the nucleoside analog class are described, including AZT, ddI, and ddC. Information on each drug, such as the name of the drug, the dosage normally prescribed, and cost of treatment is listed. Potential side effects and drug interactions are also detailed. In addition, contact information is provided.
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Case 1 A 41-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 diagnosed 16 years prior to his consultation was referred for an 8-month history of multiple painless lumps in his mouth. He had A2 status (CD4 cell count of 273 cells/mm(3) and viral load of 43,000 copies/L) and was taking treatment with lamivudine/zidovudine (combivir) and efavirenz. Physical examination showed multiple small mucosal-colored and lobulated papulonodules located in the palate and lower gingiva and a whitish verrucous plaque on the lower labial mucosa (Figure 1a). The lesions were diagnosed clinically as focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) and further confirmed by classical histopathological findings (Figure 1b). He had previously received unspecified treatment; thus, topical 5% imiquimod cream was initiated every night. Mild erosion and ulceration developed in the upper labial mucosa, which were managed with lubrication (petrolatum ointment). After 2 weeks, all of the small lesions disappeared and the largest plaque resolved 1 week later (Figure 1c). A small residual mass in the area of biopsy, suggesting a scar, remained on the lower lip. The area was removed surgically and corresponded to fibrosis histologically, with no evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. CD4 cell count (694 cells/mm(3)) and viral load (<40 copies/L) did not show remarkable changes after imiquimod administration. No serious side effects were observed and the patient has remained free of disease after 1 year of follow-up.
Trizivir was clinically equivalent to Combivir-ABC and may be substituted for the latter to simplify treatment and reduce pill burden.
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With the FDC tablet, the geometric mean (90% CI) area under the curve (AUC) for ZDV, 3TC and NVP was 1.58 (1.49-1.68), 7.78 (7.38-8.19) and 68.88 (62.13-76.36) μg•h/ml, respectively. Rules for NVP therapeutic inadequacy were defined a priori, and despite lower NVP exposure with the tablet (P<0.001), the levels remained therapeutically adequate. ZDV AUC was similar between formulations. 3TC exposure was significantly higher with the tablet but comparable to historical data in adults and children taking branded tablets. While receiving the tablet, NVP AUC in children with CYP2B 516 GG (45%), GT (45%) and TT (10%) genotypes were 67.0, 74.5 and 106.4 μg•h/ml, respectively (P=0.04).
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Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) or human T-cell leukemia virus-type 1 (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy is caused by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. It is a slow, progressive spastic paraparesis with significant morbidity and causing profound repercussions on quality of life. No therapies have been found to persistently improve the outcome in these patients. We present a patient with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/TSP (HAM/TSP) who was treated with Combivir (lamivudine-zidovudine, GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK). She was walker-dependent for several years but, soon after treatment with lamivudine-zidovudine, was able to walk using only a cane. The role of lamivudine-zidovudine should be investigated further in this patient population.
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In umbilical cords from six of nine infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers taking Combivir moderate to severe mitochondrial morphological damage was observed (P = 0.011), while none of seven unexposed infants showed similar damage. Compared to unexposed infants, statistically significant mtDNA depletion was observed in umbilical cord (P = 0.006) and cord blood (P = 0.003) from drug-exposed infants.
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