Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors and are used to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) due to their pleiotropic effects. Recently, greater focus has been placed on the role of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in cardiovascular disease research. However, insufficient data exist on the relationships between statins, SIRT1 protein levels, and SIRT1 gene variants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of statins, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, in CAD patients by analysing the associations between SIRT1 gene variants, rs7069102C>G and rs2273773C>T, and SIRT1/endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) expression, as well as total antioxidant and oxidant status, and the oxidative stress index. SIRT1 expression was significantly higher, and eNOS expression was significantly lower in CAD patients when compared with controls. Statin treatment reduced SIRT1 expression and increased eNOS expression, similar to the levels found in the control population, independent from the studied SIRT1 gene variants. Oxidative stress parameters were significantly increased in CAD patients, and were decreased by statin treatment, demonstrating the antioxidative effects of statins on atherosclerosis. These results indicate that statin treatment could produce its protective effect on cardiovascular disease through the inhibition of SIRT1 expression. This is the first study reporting on the effect of statins, specifically atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, on SIRT1 expression in CAD patients.
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in clinical practice. The efficacy of statins in the primary prevention of VTE remains unproven.
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We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented to the outpatient lipid clinic for his scheduled follow-up with severely low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of new onset. Diagnostic workup showed that he was infected by visceral leishmaniasis. He was treated with liposomal amphotericin B and serum lipid levels returned to usual values.
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Rosuvastatin reduced arterial pressure in SHR rats, but not in WKY/L-NAME rats. Total peripheral resistance decreased with rosuvastatin in both hypertensive models, whereas cardiac output increased with rosuvastatin in WKY/L-NAME rats. Neither cardiac nor aortic mass was changed. Regional hemodynamics improved with rosuvastatin in both hypertensive models, as evidenced by increased blood flows and decreased vascular resistances. No effect on plasma lipids was observed.
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Absolute risk reductions and consequent number needed to treat (NNT) values were calculated across a range of end points, timeframes, and subgroups using data from Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER), a randomized evaluation of rosuvastatin 20 mg versus placebo conducted among 17 802 apparently healthy men and women with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <130 mg/dL and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein >or=2 mg/L. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to address the potential impact that alternative statin regimens might have on a similar primary prevention population. For the end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, or death, the 5-year NNT within JUPITER was 20 (95% CI, 14 to 34). All subgroups had 5-year NNT values for this end point below 50; as examples, 5-year NNT values were 17 for men and 31 for women, 21 for whites and 19 for nonwhites, 18 for those with body mass index 300).
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One hundred seventeen ambulatory care patients with dyslipidemia who were treated with atorvastatin.
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Co-administration of probe substrates midazolam, pioglitazone, omeprazole, and rosuvastatin following repeat dosing of vercirnon 500 mg BID demonstrated vercirnon had no clinically significant effect on CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19 enzyme activity or BCRP or OATP1B1 transporter activity.
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Guidelines published in 2011 by the European Atherosclerosis Society and the European Society of Cardiology recommend a goal of either low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <70 mg/dl (~1.8 mmol/l) or ≥ 50% reduction in LDL-C for patients at very high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of high-risk patients from the VOYAGER individual patient data meta-analysis treated with rosuvastatin 10-40 mg, atorvastatin 10-80 mg or simvastatin 10-80 mg who achieved this goal.
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A substantial proportion of those with elevated CRP did not achieve NCEP-based statin eligibility over 4.5 years of follow-up. These findings suggest that many patients with elevated CRP may not receive the benefits of statins if CRP is not incorporated into the NCEP screening strategy.
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become a chronic disease often associated with dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may contribute to metabolic disturbances, eventually leading to increased cardiovascular disease (CVR) in this population. Escalating interventions to decrease CVR include promoting a healthy lifestyle, such as quitting smoking, diet and regular exercise. If they do not achieve the goals, a change of cART should be considered, followed by or used concomitantly with the use of chemical therapies.
Although statins may provide potential therapeutic pathways for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), no studies have evaluated statins in combination with standard HF therapy, which would reflect clinical practice more closely. To address this question, we evaluated whether rosuvastatin added to a standard HF therapy provides additional improvement in cardiac structure and function in rats with hypertensive heart failure (SHHF).
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In dogs with HF, chronic therapy with HD RSV prevents progressive LV dysfunction and dilation. This benefit may be partly derived from normalization of TNF-alpha expression and partly from increased mobilization of BMSCs.
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Despite marked improvements in lipid and lipoprotein values, low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress, a relatively high dose of rosuvastatin did not change insulin sensitivity in subjects with FCH.
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Rosuvastatin treatment effectively lowered markers of monocyte activation in HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy.
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This historical cohort included patients with no prior CCD, aged 40-79 years, who initiated statin therapy with rosuvastatin 5 mg or simvastatin 20 mg in 2008-2009 in general practice. Follow-up started after a 1-year period used to select patients who regularly received the initial treatment. In an intention-to-treat analysis, patients were followed up to December 2011. In a per-protocol analysis, they were censored prematurely when they discontinued their initial treatment. Adjustment for baseline covariates (age, deprivation index, comedications, comorbidities, prior hospital admissions) was carried out by a Cox proportional hazards model. In the per-protocol analysis, estimation was done by "inverse probability of censoring weighting" using additional time-dependent covariates. Analyses were gender-specific.
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At baseline, 47% of the 2153 participants had elevated CRP. Among participants with elevated CRP, 29% met NCEP criteria for statins, compared with 28% without elevated CRP at baseline. By 1.5 years later, 26% and 22% (P = 0.09) of those with and without elevated CRP at baseline reached NCEP low-density lipoprotein cholesterol criteria and/or had started statins, respectively. These increased to 42% and 39% (P = 0.24) at 3 years and 59% and 52% (P = 0.01) at 4.5 years following baseline.
Rosuvastatin significantly reduced IL-6 levels in the osteoblast culture medium, both in unstimulated and IL-1β-stimulated cells. This effect was reversed by mevalonate or geranylgeraniol, but not farnesol. Moreover, the drug decreased both spontaneous and IL-1β-induced IL-6 mRNA expression in osteoblasts. Conversely, rosuvastatin did not affect OPG levels in the culture medium.
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We found that substitution of generic for proprietary atorvastatin was not associated with significant changes in plasma levels of total or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglycerides, but was associated with a small but significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase were also unchanged. Additionally, the changeover to generic atorvastatin was not associated with increased switching to another statin or more frequent changes in other lipid-lowering medications compared with the proprietary rosuvastatin group.
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Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is an important hepatic uptake transporter, of which the polymorphic variant OATP1B1*15 (Asn130Asp and Val174Ala) has been associated with decreased transport activity. Rosuvastatin is an OATP1B1 substrate and often concomitantly prescribed with oral antidiabetics in the clinic. The aim of this study was to investigate possible drug-drug interactions between these drugs at the level of OATP1B1 and OATP1B1*15. We generated human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells stably overexpressing OATP1B1 or OATP1B1*15 that showed similar protein expression levels of OATP1B1 and OATP1B1*15 at the cell membrane as measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In HEK-OATP1B1*15 cells, the V(max) for OATP1B1-mediated transport of E(2)17β-G (estradiol 17β-d-glucuronide) was decreased >60%, whereas K(m) values (Michaelis constant) were comparable. Uptake of rosuvastatin in HEK-OATP1B1 cells (K(m) 13.1 ± 0.43 μM) was nearly absent in HEK-OATP1B1*15 cells. Interestingly, several oral antidiabetics (glyburide, glimepiride, troglitazone, pioglitazone, glipizide, gliclazide, and tolbutamide), but not metformin, were identified as significant inhibitors of the OATP1B1-mediated transport of rosuvastatin. The IC(50) values for inhibition of E(2)17β-G uptake were similar between OATP1B1 and OATP1B1*15. In conclusion, these studies indicate that several oral antidiabetic drugs affect the OATP1B1-mediated uptake of rosuvastatin in vitro. The next step will be to translate these data to the clinical situation, as it remains to be established whether the studied oral antidiabetics indeed affect the clinical pharmacokinetic profile of rosuvastatin in patients.
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Sample size calculations for clinical trials generally use expected changes between groups, and variances obtained from the literature. However, this approach neglects the impact of differences in trial design. We studied the effects of variations in trial design on the required sample size.
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The median age was 45 years and 78% of patients were male. At baseline, participants consumed a mean (standard deviation) of 108 (70) g of fat daily, 19 (15.6) g of fibre, 266 (186) g of carbohydrates and 15.6 (5.9) g of protein; 45% of the sample consumed alcohol. Over time, alcohol consumption was associated with several markers of gut integrity and inflammation (all P < 0.05).