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To investigate the effects of SLBZP alone and in combination with Cytoxan (CTX) on tumor growth, malignant cell apoptosis and Akt/Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-КB) signaling in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving chemotherapy.
This study indicated the inefficacy of HDCA/CY/TBI in BMT/PBSCT for AML/MDS. Our results should be validated in large-scale prospective studies.
Open chest rats were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 3h, 12h or 24h of reperfusion. Rats were divided into sham group, I/R group and CP group, and each group included 3 timepoint subgroups (3h, 12h and 24h). Plasma TNF-α was measured by cytometric bead array (CBA) and immunohistochemistry was used to detect TNF-α in myocardium.
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At a median follow-up period of 51 months, 64 patients (12%) had developed LRR. Clinical stage T3 or T4, lymphovascular invasion, nuclear grade >3, and ≥4 positive lymph nodes metastasis were positively correlated with LRR. The nomogram for predicting LRR developed by using these four-clinicopathologic variables demonstrated high concordance. Patients with score 0-1 derived by the prediction model had significantly low LRR rate compared with patients with score 2 or higher (P < 0.001).
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The use of T-cell replete haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplant (haplo-HCT) has increased substantially since the introduction of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) regimens. Limited data exist concerning infectious complications of haplo-HCT utilizing mobilized peripheral blood (PB) hematopoietic cells.
The development and progression of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is closely related to bladder inflammation. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is associated with bladder inflammation in BPS/IC. We investigated the effect of specific inhibition of ICAM-1 using an anti-ICAM-1 antibody (AIA) on bladder inflammation in a rat model of severe non-bacterial cystitis (NBC) resembling BPS/IC by evaluating the bladder inflammation grade, mast cell infiltration and related cytokines and receptors. We also compared the effects of AIA with the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) inhibitor aprepitant. Our NBC model was established by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide combined with intravesical protamine/lipopolysaccharide, which resulted in severe bladder inflammation and increased mast cell infiltration, similar to the pathological changes of BPS/IC. Inhibition of ICAM-1 by AIA significantly decreased the bladder inflammation grade and mast cell counts, which was accompanied by a reduction of purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3), prostaglandin E2, EP1/EP2 receptors, TNF-α, NK1R, and ICAM-1. Moreover, AIA showed superior effects to those of celecoxib and aprepitant treatment in improving the bladder inflammatory response. Our results suggest that ICAM-1 may play a critical role in bladder inflammation in severe NBC and may be used as a novel therapeutic target in non-bacterial bladder inflammation such as BPS/IC.
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Forty children aged 1.5-12.3 years (15 were IgM-, 16 were IgM+, 9 were IgM++) received a cumulative CYC dose of 175 ± 30 mg/kg. The overall relapse-free survival time was 75 % at 12 months, 64 % at 24 months, 59 % at 36 months, and 56 % at 48 months, with no significant differences between the IgM groups (p = 0.80).
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A total of 358 cases of GTD were reviewed. Hydatidiform mole was diagnosed in 340 patients; of those 223 (66%) experienced spontaneous remission after evacuation. Of the 135 patients with persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), 99 (73%) had low-risk GTN, 32 (26%) had high-risk GTN and 4 had either placental site trophoblastic disease or epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. In the low-risk group the first-line treatment was methotrexate and the second-line treatment was actinomycin D, etoposide, cytoxan, and oncovin (EMA/CO), with a complete response rate of 100%. High-risk patients whose WHO prognostic scores were 7-13 were treated initially with EMA/CO. Patients whose scores were >13 were treated with EMA/PE, where platinum and etoposide replaced oncovin and cytoxan. Salvage therapy in patients with relapse or resistant disease were treated with a wide variety of chemotherapy regimens. The complete response rate was 98.2%. Compliance was 100%. Three patients died. In all cases the outcome was related with inadequate initial treatment.
Our results suggest that the addition of bevacizumab to neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy does not provide clinical benefit to patients with non-metastatic HER2-negative inflammatory breast cancer. Longer follow-up and correlative studies to identify patients who might benefit from bevacizumab are needed.
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Candida albicans (one strain) and C. tropicalis (three strains) were tested in time-kill studies. Cyclophosphamide-treated mice were inoculated intravenously with each strain. One day after inoculation, antifungals were administered intravenously once daily for 1 or 3 days.
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We retrospectively reviewed 15 patients referred for HBOT for haemorrhagic cystitis (HC). HBOT was performed for 130 min/day at a pressure of 2.4 atmospheres. We evaluated patient demographics, type of radio- and chemotherapy and characteristics of haematuria. The effect of HBOT was defined as complete or partial resolution of hematuria according to the RTOG/EORTC grade and Gray score.
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Tissue microarray was constructed from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples of aggressive B cell lymphomas diagnosed between 2009 and 2012, including 129 cases of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 5 cases of B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma (BCLU), 7 cases of Burkitt lymphoma and 4 cases of high-grade follicular lymphoma with diffuse large B cell lymphoma component. Interphase fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was performed with a panel of probes including myc, bcl-2/IgH and bcl-6 to document related gene translocation and copy number changes. Medical record review was performed and follow-up data was recorded.
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In China, the adjuvant epirubicin and docetaxel (ED) regimen is widely used as a substitute for the epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel (EC-D) regimen in patients with operable breast cancer. However, their equivalence has not yet been demonstrated. This retrospective study compared these two adjuvant regimens as regards feasibility, safety and efficacy. Data on consecutive patients who received either ED (70/75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks for 6 cycles) or EC-D (70/600 mg/m(2) epirubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by 75 mg/m(2) docetaxel every 3 weeks for 4 cycles each) as their adjuvant chemotherapy in our center from January 2009 to January 2014, were analyzed. A total of 374 patients was enrolled, among whom 250 patients received the ED regimen, and 124 patients received the EC-D regimen. The overall median follow-up time was 38.6 months. In total, 90 and 94.4% of patients in the ED and EC-D groups, respectively, completed full cycles of chemotherapy (P=0.174). There was no difference in efficacy in terms of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (DFS, P=0.919; OS, P=0.069). The incidence of neutropenia in the ED group was similar to that in the EC-D group (81.2 vs. 78.9%, P=0.660) with a similar utilization rate of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF; 76.9 vs. 75.2%, P=0.850). However, grade 3/4 gastrointestinal reactions were more frequently observed in the patients who received the EC-D regimen (42.0 vs. 29.2%, P=0.058). The findings of our study indicate that with similar feasibility, safety and mid-term efficacy, the adjuvant ED regimen for 6 cycles may be an alternative to the EC-D regimen in operable breast cancer.
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The primary goal of chemotherapy is to cure cancer and its symptoms. Hence, in recent years, there has been an increase in cancer paediatric survival rate. However, there have also been adverse side effects such as ototoxic hearing loss because of chemotherapy. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring whether the parents of children undergoing chemotherapy are aware of ototoxic effects of chemotherapy.
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Seventy two female albino rats were randomly allocated into Control and CTX group, The Experimental protocol was lasted for 12 weeks during which serum FSH and E2 were monitored twice at the end of the 2nd week (12 rats) and 8th week (6 rats). Stem cells identification and homing were evaluated by Flowcytometry and tagging of stem cells with iron oxide particles respectively. Also, histopathological examination was done to evaluate both degeneration (6 rats at 4th week) and regeneration (6 rats at 12th week) of ovarian tissue together with assessment of the levels of TNF-α in ovarian homogenate and IGF-I as a growth factor in ovarian tissue.
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The rats were randomly divided into five groups with 12 rats in each group: CP, normal saline (NS), CP + SJS, CP + NS, and treatment naïve. In the CP + SJS group, after the last injection of CP, SJS at a dose of 30 mg/kg was intragastrically administrated to rats once a day for 14 days; in CP + NS group, saline solution instead of SJS was administrated as control. In the treatment naïve group, rats were normally fed for 21 days as controls. We found a statistically significant reduction of the CatSper1 channel, which is associated with an impairment of sperm motility in the epididymal spermatozoa of CP-induced asthenozoospermic rats. Soluble granules of SJS could dramatically restore the CP-induced down-regulation of CatSper1 in epididymal spermatozoa, which greatly improved the sperm motility in the asthenozoospermic rats.
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of boron (B) on cyclophosphamide (CYC) induced oxidative stress in rats. Totally, thirty Wistar albino male rats were fed standard rodent diet and divided into 5 equal groups: physiological saline was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the control group (vehicle treated), to the second group only 75 mg kg(-1) CYC was given i.p. on the 14th d, and boron was administered (5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) to the other groups for 14 d and CYC (75 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on the 14th d. CYC caused increase of malondialdehyde and decrease of glutathione levels, decrease of superoxide dismutase activities in erythrocyte and tissues, decrease of erythrocyte, heart, lung, and brain catalase, and plasma antioxidant activities. Also, CYC treatment caused to DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes. Moreover, B exhibited protective action against the CYC-induced histopathological changes in tissues. However, treatment of B decreased severity of CYC-induced lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity on tissues. In conclusion, B has ameliorative effects against CYC-induced lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity by enhancing antioxidant defence mechanism in rat.
Taxanes can cause fluid accumulation by increasing extracellular fluid (ECF). Taxane-based regimens are standard of care for early breast cancer, but it is unknown whether they increase the risk of lymphedema. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of lymphedema, generalized limb edema, and associated symptoms in women receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy.
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This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and end-organ disease in patients with lymphoma undergoing potentially curative or salvage therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 534 patients with lymphoma treated at an Asian tertiary cancer center between January 2007 and December 2010. Overall, 48 patients (9.0%) experienced CMV infection, with 12 patients (25.0%) being further diagnosed with CMV end-organ disease. Many patients with CMV infection were male, with poor performance status, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and advanced disease, and received rituximab use. Moreover, patients receiving rituximab and HyperCVAD (hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone) regimens had a high rate of CMV end-organ disease. In Asian patients with lymphoma receiving curative or salvage therapy, CMV infection was relatively common (9.0%). Most of these were likely to be reactivation in nature. A small group, especially those on rituximab or HyperCVAD, developed CMV end-organ disease (12/534). Such patients should be monitored closely for CMV end-organ disease. Alternatively, prophylaxis should be studied.
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Primary end point was reversal or progression of disability measured by change in the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 1.0 or greater (score range, 0-10). Secondary outcomes included changes in the Neurologic Rating Scale (NRS) score of 10 or greater (score range, 0-100), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) score, quality-of-life Short Form 36 questionnaire scores, and T2 lesion volume on brain magnetic resonance imaging scan.
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isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN54371254.
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Patients were randomly assigned either to receive three cycles of preoperative CT with epirubicin 120 mg/m(2) and ifosfamide 9 g/m(2) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (arm A) or to receive the same three cycles of preoperative CT followed by two further cycles of postoperative CT (arm B). Noninferiority of the primary end point, overall survival (OS), was assessed by the CI of the hazard ratio (HR; arm A/arm B) obtained from the Cox model.
A five-compartment model, three for DOX and two for DOXol, with first-order distribution and elimination for both entities best described the data. Population estimates for parent drug (CL) and metabolite (CLm ) clearance were 62 l h(-1) and 27 l h(-1) , respectively. The fraction metabolized to DOXol (Fm ) was estimated at 0.22. While bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase showed an influence on the CL and CLm , the objective function value decrease was not statistically significant. A trend towards an association between the total area under the concentration-time curve (AUCtotal ), the area under the concentration-time curve for DOX (AUC) plus the area under the concentration-time curve for DOXol (AUCm ), and the neutropenia grade (P = 0.068) and the neutrophil counts (P = 0.089) was observed, according to an exponential relationship.
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High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), one of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), plays roles in not only inflammation but also processing of somatic pain. Given that no evidence for roles of HMGB1 in visceral pain signaling is available, we asked if HMGB1 participates in bladder pain accompanying cystitis caused by cyclophosphamide in mice, using the anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody and recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhsTM) that sequesters HMGB1 and promotes its degradation by thrombin. Cyclophosphamide, administered i.p., caused bladder pain-like nociceptive behavior and referred hyperalgesia accompanying cystitis symptoms including increased bladder weight, an indicator of edema, in mice. The cyclophosphamide-induced bladder pain and referred hyperalgesia, but not increased bladder weight, were prevented by i.p. preadministration of the anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody or rhsTM. HMGB1, given i.p., facilitated the bladder pain and referred hyperalgesia caused by a subeffective dose of cyclophosphamide, an effect blocked by rhsTM. In the cyclophosphamide-treated mice, HMGB1 levels greatly decreased in the bladder tissue, particularly in the urothelial cells, but did not change in the plasma. Low molecular weight heparin, known to inhibit the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), but not lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, an inhibitor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), blocked the cyclophosphamide-induced bladder pain and referred hyperalgesia. Thus, our data indicate involvement of HMGB1 in the cyclophosphamide-induced bladder pain signaling, but not cystitis itself, and suggest that targeting HMGB1 with rhsTM or blocking RAGE might serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for the management of bladder pain.
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Median age of the 138 evaluable patients was 58.5 years with a WHO performance status of 0, 1, or 2 in 56%, 36%, or 8% of the patients, respectively. By local assessment, 83 PET/CT scans (60%) were reported as positive and 55 (40%) as negative after two cycles of R-CHOP-14. Two-year EFS was significantly shorter for PET-positive compared with PET-negative patients (48% v 74%; P = .004). Overall survival at 2 years was not significantly different, with 88% for PET-positive versus 91% for PET-negative patients (P = .46). By using central review and the Deauville criteria, 2-year EFS was 41% versus 76% (P < .001) for patients who had interim PET/CT scans after two cycles of R-CHOP-14 and 24% versus 72% (P < .001) for patients who had PET/CT scans at the end of treatment.