Diamox is an FDA-approved medication used to treat certain types of glaucoma, congestive heart failure, certain types of seizures. Diamox also prevents altitude sickness.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Acetazolamide.
Diamox contains an active ingredient Acetazolamide, which belongs to class of drugs called carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.
Diamox effectively treats certain types of glaucoma (excessive pressure in the eyes) by reducing the amount of fluid in the eye, and thereby decreases pressure inside the eye.
Acetazolamide acts also as a diuretic ("water pill") and inhibits the protein in the body called carbonic anhydrase. This leads to reducing the build-up of certain fluids in the body, significantly alleviating the symptoms of congestive heart failure.
Acetazolamide is also used to treat certain types of seizures, and to treat or prevent altitude sickness.
Diamox is available in tablets.
The dosage depends on the disease and its prescribed treatmen.
250 mg to 1 gram per 24 hours in 2 or more smaller doses.
In secondary glaucoma and before surgery in acute congestive (closed-angle) glaucoma, the usual dosage is 250 mg every 4 hours or, in some cases, 250 mg twice a day.
The daily dosage is 8 to 30 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight in 2 or more doses. Typical dosage may range from 375 to 1,000 mg per day.
Congestive Heart Failure treatment:
The usual dosage is 250 mg to 375 mg per day or 5 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight, taken in the morning.
Diamox can be used by children.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Diamox suddenly.
If you overdose Diamox and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Diamox are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Diamox if you are allergic to Diamox components.
Be careful with Diamox if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Do not take Diamox if your sodium or potassium levels are low.
Do not take Diamox if you have kidney or liver disease, including cirrhosis.
Be careful with Diamox if you suffer from or have a history of emphysema or other breathing disorders.
Be careful with Diamox if you take high doses of aspirin.
Be careful with Diamox if you are taking Amitriptyline, Cyclosporine, Lithium, Methenamine, oral diabetes drugs such as Glyburide, Quinidine.
Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.
If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.
Do not stop taking Diamox suddenly.
diamox dosage pediatrics
87 histories from intracranial hypertension diagnosed patients with normal cerebral CT were reviewed, between 1999 and 2002. 41 BIH patients were selected.
diamox cost canada
A 63 year old woman was referred to the retina clinic after her vision failed to improve in her left eye after cataract surgery. X-linked retinoschisis was diagnosed in the patient after her retina exam revealed an area of retinoschisis and a foveal cyst. The OCT confirmed the macular cyst and the ERG showed loss of B waves. The florescein angiogram showed no significant perifoveal leakage. Her foveal cyst resolved after treatment with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The patient's son was examined and his ophthalmologic exam, ERG and imaging findings were consistent with X-linked retinoschisis. However, his bilateral foveal cysts did not respond to treatment with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. X-linked retinoschisis is a very rare disease in women due to its X-linked recessive inheritance and the foveal cysts associated with it can respond to carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.
diamox generic name
A 45-year-old healthy man wishes to climb Mount Kilimanjaro (5895 m) in a 5-day period, starting at 1800 m. The results of a recent exercise stress test were normal; he runs 10 km 4 or 5 times per week and finished a marathon in less than 4 hours last year. He wants to know how he can prevent becoming ill at high altitude and whether training or sleeping under normobaric hypoxic conditions in the weeks before the ascent would be helpful. What would you advise?
diamox recommended dosage
Klotho deficient (kl/kl) mice suffer from hyperphosphatemia with dramatic tissue calcification. Acetazolamide (ACM) treatment partially reversed the growth deficit of kl/kl mice. In kl/kl mice, ACM reversed tissue calcification despite continued hyperphosphatemia. ACM tripled the life span of kl/kl mice. In human aortic smooth muscle cells, low extracellular pH prevented osteogenic signaling.
Twelve patients were treated with acetazolamide for IIH during pregnancy, and there were no adverse pregnancy outcomes. A critical review of the English language literature on the subject failed to demonstrate any convincing evidence for any adverse effect on pregnancy for acetazolamide.
The possible role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was studied using an in vitro neonatal mouse calvarial culture system. PGE2 (10(-6) M) was effective in stimulating resorption, as assessed by calcium release into culture media. This enhanced resorption was accompanied by significant increases in calvarial carbonic anhydrase activity over control values at 48 and 96 h. At 48 h, bones treated with PGE2 had 20% more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. By 96 h, treated bones contained 79% more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. PGE2-induced bone resorption was inhibited by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide in a dose-dependent fashion from 10(-5) to 10(-4) M, with 77% inhibition observed at 10(-4) M. The acetazolamide analogue CL 13,850 (N-t-butylacetazolamide), which does not inhibit carbonic anhydrase, failed to inhibit PGE2-induced resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that carbonic anhydrase is a necessary component of the osteoclastic bone resorptive mechanism.
diamox generic brand
We report here on a rare case of a ruptured basilar tip aneurysm that was successfully treated with coil embolization in the bilateral cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions with abnormal vascular networks from the posterior circulation. A 43-year old man with a familial history of moyamoya disease presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the bilateral ICAs at the proximal portion and a ruptured aneurysm at the basilar artery bifurcation. Each meningeal artery supplied the anterior cranial base, but most of both hemispheres were supplied with blood from the basilar artery and the posterior cerebral arteries through a large number of collateral vessels to the ICA bifurcation as well as the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries. The perfusion computed tomography (CT) scans with acetazolamide (ACZ) injection revealed no reduction of cerebral blood flow and normal cerebrovascular reactivity to ACZ. An abdominal CT aortogram showed no other extracranial vessel abnormalities. A ruptured basilar tip aneurysm was successfully treated with coil embolization without complications. Endovascular embolization may be a good treatment option with excellent safety for a ruptured basilar tip aneurysm that accompanies proximal ICA occlusion with vulnerable collateral flow.
diamox dosage altitude
The study cohort consisted of 16 patients ≥70 years (mean = 74.3 years, SE 1.3). It was compared to a cohort of 34 patients <70 years (mean = 61.2 years, SE 1.0). Both groups underwent EC-IC bypass surgery after careful preoperative work-up. Both patient groups did not differ significantly in gender, vascular pathology, previous history of diseases/comorbidity or clinical symptoms. The number of patients which underwent stenting or other endovascular treatments of the internal or common carotid artery prior to EC-IC bypass surgery was significantly higher in the group of patients ≥70 years (37.5 vs. 0%, p < 0.001). Perioperative stroke rate was 0% in both groups and mild morbidity occurred in 18.8 and 14.7%, respectively (p = 0.699). One 84-year-old female patient died due to perioperative endocarditis. Initial bypass patency was 93.8% in patients above the age of 70 years and 97.1% in the younger group (p = 0.542). Secondary occlusion rate was low in both groups (≥70 years: 0% vs. <70 years 3.7%). No new neurologic deficit occurred in patients with a patent bypass during the follow-up period (median 18 ± 13.1 months). Two patients with an initially occluded bypass and one with a secondary bypass occlusion suffered from new neurological symptoms.
diamox cost uk
Acetazolamide treatment ameliorates the symptoms of AMS; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. To examine the effects of acetazolamide on oxygenation, CO2 responsiveness and ventilatory pattern during acute exposure to HA, we studied two groups of subjects at SL and following rapid (less than 8 h) transport to HA. Acetazolamide or placebo tablets were given to groups 1 and 2, respectively, in a double-blind manner after baseline SL measurements; treatment was continued during HA exposure. There was no difference in the ventilatory pattern at HA, between the two groups. While the Ve achieved in response to CO2 at HA vs SL was much greater in each group the percent change from baseline at HA versus that at SL was not significantly different. The beneficial effects of acetazolamide in AMS are associated with a higher level of ventilation at HA and better oxygenation: CO2 chemosensitivity is not affected by acetazolamide at HA.
acetazolamide diamox medication
Follow-up periods varied between 6 and 8 months (mean 6.8 months); all patients completed 6 months of follow-up. After intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection all patients showed good anatomic response. The baseline median central macular thickness was 418 microm (range 376-626 microm). At 1 month, the median central macular thickness had decreased to 224 microm (range 214-326 microm). At 3 and 6 months, the median central macular thicknesses were 275 microm (range 215-584 microm) and 312 microm (range 239-521 microm), respectively. Recurrent CMO was found in one patient at the 3-month follow-up and in two patients at the 6-month follow-up. Retreatment was performed in these patients. At the 1-month follow-up, no patient was found to have lost vision and two patients showed improvement. At the 3- and 6-month follow-ups, no patient had lost vision from baseline but no patient had maintained their improved visual acuity (VA).
diamox 250mg tablets
Revised diagnostic criteria define an opening cerebrospinal fluid pressure greater than 28 cm water as elevated in the pediatric population. Obesity is an important risk factor for primary and secondary PTC in post-pubertal children. Magnetic resonance imaging shows findings suggestive of elevated intracranial pressure in children with PTC, similar to those of adults with PTC. Diamox and weight loss are effective treatments for PTC patients with mild visual field loss. Severe papilledema, decreased vision, and optical coherence tomography measures at presentation identify patients at increased risk for subsequent visual loss.
1) A significantly decreased in proportion to the region of interest location depth only in the intact skull cases. 2) Despite inter- and intra-individual data scattering, in correspondence with TAMX increases after ACZ, significant beta increases were more frequently identified than increases of A.
diamox 60 mg
The authors report on seven patients with narrow-angle glaucoma treated for up to six months with Timolol eye drops. Prior to treatment with Timolol the patient's eyes had remained unregulated despite miotics therapy, or it had been impossible to continue with miotics due to subjective intolerance. Timolol eye drops achieved a significant lowering of pressure in all seven patients and satisfactory pressure stabilization was achieved either with Timolol eye drops alone or in combination with pilocarpine or Carbachol eye drops. In one patient who had unregulated glaucoma and who was on Carbachol/acetazolamide therapy, satisfactory stabilization was achieved by additional application of Timolol.
diamox er dosage
Comparison of the Type of WS infarct with the clinical course of onset showed that sudden onset was more frequent in Group C than in Group D (p < 0.05). The perfusion reserve in the affected MCA territory in Group D (20.1% +/- 15.6%) was significantly lower than that in Group C (43.8% +/- 10.8%; p < 0.01) and that in 20 hemispheres (10 control subjects) without a major arterial lesion (54.7% +/- 16.4%; p < 0.01). Among the Group D patients, the patients with Type A infarcts showed a significantly lower perfusion reserve compared with those with Type B infarcts (p < 0.05).
The mean IOP of 19.5 mmHg during acetazolamide treatment was further reduced to 16.8 mmHg after topical administration of latanoprost, i.e., a decrease of 2.9 +/- 2.8 mmHg (15%, P < 0.001). Administration of placebo to patients on acetazolamide resulted in an upward drift of 1.3 mmHg (6%, P = 0.03). A modest but statistically significant increase in conjunctival hyperemia was found in the latanoprost-treated group, but did not affect the masking.
diamox drug interactions
Benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) may lead to blindness and rarely deafness. We describe the case of a rapidly deteriorating 14-year-old African girl who presented with headaches associated with complete visual and hearing loss due to BIH. This was managed non-operatively with lumbar cerebrospinal fluid tap, weight reduction, nicotinic acid and acetazolamide. Response to treatment was quite dramatic with resolution of severe headaches and regaining of light perception 8 days after commencing treatment. By 3 months hearing recovered to normal and there was resolution of vision. This to the best of our knowledge is the first reported case of complete visual and hearing loss occurring in a patient with BIH, which was managed successfully non-operatively. When indicated, non-operative management is an effective treatment option even in malignant BIH.
diamox generic cost
Experiments were conducted on cats; inactivation of carboanhydrase with diamox prevented developmento f hypocapnia and disturbances of the rhythmic activity of the respiratory neurons associated with it in acute hypoxia. However, comparision of electrophysiological data, external respiration indices, of the acid-base balance, pO2 and pCO2 of arterial blood demonstrated that, preventing development of pathological Cheyne-Stokes respiration under conditions of hypoxia, inactivation of carboanhydrase with diamox caused dissociation of the thoracic and abdominal respiration and dyspnea. The latter led to shifts in the metabolic processes and to disturbance of the electrolyte metabolism at the cell level.
diamox 40 mg
A series of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides incorporating adamantyl moieties were prepared by reaction of aromatic/heterocyclic aminosulfonamides with the acyl chlorides derived from adamantyl-1-carboxylic acid and 1-adamantyl-acetic acid. Related derivatives were obtained from the above-mentioned aminosulfonamides with adamantyl isocyanate and adamantyl isothiocyanate, respectively. Some of these derivatives showed good inhibitory potency against two human CA isozymes involved in important physiological processes, CA I, and CA II, of the same order of magnitude as the clinically used drugs acetazolamide and methazolamide. The lipophilicity of the best CA inhibitors was determined and expressed as their experimental log k' IAM and theoretical ClogP value. Their lipophilicity was propitious with the crossing of the blood-brain barrier (log k' > IAM > 1.35). The anticonvulsant activity of some of the best CA inhibitors reported here has been evaluated in a MES test in mice. After intraperitoneal injection (30 mg kg(-1)), compounds A8 and A9 exhibited a high protection against electrically induced convulsions (> 90%). Their ED50 was 3.5 and 2.6 mg kg(-1), respectively.
diamox 100 mg
The visual prognosis associated with CRAO remains poor, and current therapeutic practices are of unproven benefit. The non-ophthalmologist in the A&E department should lie the patient flat and give a stat dose of intravenous acetazolamide in an attempt to improve the retinal perfusion pressure.
diamox 500 mg
Interlobular duct fragments from the pancreas of the rat were isolated by collagenase digestion and filtration, embedded in a matrix of rat-tail collagen, and cultured in a 1:1 mixture of Dulbecco's minimal essential and Ham's F12 media supplemented with cholera toxin (CT, 100 ng/ml) and epidermal growth factor (EGF, 10 ng/ml) in addition to supplements used previously, thereby improving the yield of ducts by a factor of two compared with previous results. The ducts were harvested by digestion of the collagen matrix with collagenase and were then dissociated by treatment with EDTA in divalent cation-free salt suspended in collagen and cultured as were the ducts. Numerous cysts appeared as a function of time and some of these enlarged dramatically. Some of the larger cysts exhibited secondary tubular processes extending into the surrounding collagen. The addition of bovine pituitary extract (BPE, 50 micrograms/ml) doubled the number of cysts, whereas omission of serum or CT + EGF reduced the number. BPE or forskolin could substitute effectively for CT. Agents that stimulate (secretin) or inhibit (e.g., ouabain or acetazolamide) fluid-electrolyte secretion in vivo had no effect on the number or average diameter of the cysts. The cysts were 83 to 88% epithelial with the balance of the cells being fibroblastic in appearance. Some cysts consisted only of epithelium. The proliferative capacity of the cystic epithelium was shown by the presence of mitotic figures and by an autoradiographic labeling index of 22 to 30% after a 24-h exposure to [3H]thymidine. The labeling index was reduced by the omission of CT + EGF. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the cysts exhibited morphologic features of duct epithelium in vivo, including apical microvilli, lateral interdigitations of the plasma membrane, and typical cytoplasmic organelles.
diamox dose glaucoma
After model establishment of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in the C57/BL6 strain, sustained hemodynamic impairment was induced by permanent unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion in animals aged 4 to 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 18 months. Functional and morphological outcome was assessed by laser speckle imaging before and during acetazolamide challenge on Days 0, 3, 7, and 14 and latex/carbon black angiography and immunohistochemistry on Day 21.
diamox 1500 mg
Logistic regression analysis demonstrated CBF reduction (z-score) to be the only significant variable for postoperative hyperperfusion on 3-D-SSP with thalamic normalization but no significant variable with the ROI method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated significant improvement in the predictive value of CBF reduction (z-score) on 3-D-SSP (area under the ROC curve = 0.93) in comparison with the ROI method (area under the ROC curve = 0.78) (P = 0.049). According to the optimal cutoff values provided by ROC analysis, patients were categorized into two groups: Type I (CBF decrease < 20%, n = 23) and Type II (CBF decrease > or = 20%, n = 23) on ROI analysis and Type A (z-score < or = 2, n = 40) and Type B (z-score > 2, n = 6) on 3-D-SSP. There was a significant difference in incidence of hyperperfusion between Type A (1 of 40) and Type B (5 of 6) on 3-D-SSP (P = 0.00003) but not between Type I (1 of 23) and Type II (5 of 23) on ROI analysis. Cerebral vasoreactivity did not show significant value in the prediction of hyperperfusion with either the ROI or the 3-D-SSP method.
diamox prescription cost
The IIHTT is the first randomized, double-masked placebo-controlled trial to study the effectiveness of medical treatment for patients with IIH.
• Primary Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): We would recommend a trial of Positive Airway Pressure (PAP), acetazolamide, or zolpidem based on thorough consideration of risks and benefits and incorporation of patient preferences.• Central Sleep Apnea Due to Cheyne-Stokes Breathing Pattern in Congestive Heart Failure (CSR-CHF): We would recommend PAP devices such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) to normalize sleep-disordered breathing after optimizing treatment of heart failure. Oxygen may also be an effective therapy. Acetazolamide and theophylline may be considered if PAP or oxygen is not effective.• Central Sleep Apnea due to High-Altitude Periodic Breathing: We would recommend descent from altitude or supplemental oxygen. Acetazolamide may be used when descent or oxygen are not feasible, or in preparation for ascent to high altitude. Slow ascent may be preventative.• Central Sleep Apnea due to Drug or Substance: If discontinuation or reduction of opiate dose is not feasible or effective, we would recommend a trial of CPAP, and if not successful, treatment with ASV. If ASV is ineffective or if nocturnal hypercapnia develops, bilevel positive airway pressure-spontaneous timed mode (BPAP-ST) is recommended.• Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: We would recommend an initial CPAP trial. If hypoxia or hypercapnia persists on CPAP, BPAP, BPAP-ST or average volume assured pressure support (AVAPS™) is recommended. Tracheostomy with nocturnal ventilation should be considered when the above measures are not effective. Weight loss may be curative.• Neuromuscular or chest wall disease: We would recommend early implementation of BPAP-ST based on thorough consideration of risks and benefits and patient preferences. AVAPS™ may also be considered. We recommend close follow up due to disease progression.
diamox dose pediatrica
The analogues carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS(2)) have been useful as substrate probes for enzyme activities. Here we explored the affinity of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase for its natural substrate CO(2), as well as COS and CS(2) (1) by in vitro kinetic metabolism studies using pure enzyme and (2) through mortality bioassay of insects exposed to toxic levels of each of the gases during carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Hydrolysis of COS to form hydrogen sulfide was catalysed rapidly showing parameters K(m) 1.86 mM and K(cat) 41 s(-1) at 25 degrees C; however, the specificity constant (K(cat)/K(m)) was 4000-fold lower than the reported value for carbonic anhydrase-catalysed hydration of CO(2). Carbonic anhydrase-mediated CS(2) metabolism was a further 65,000-fold lower than COS. Both results demonstrate the deactivating effect toward the enzyme of sulfur substitution for oxygen in the molecule. We also investigated the role of carbonic anhydrases in CO(2), COS and CS(2) toxicity using a specific inhibitor, acetazolamide, administered to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) larvae via the diet. CO(2) toxicity was greatly enhanced by up to seven-fold in acetazolamide-treated larvae indicating that carbonic anhydrases are a key protective enzyme in elevated CO(2) concentrations. Conversely, mortality was reduced by up to 12-fold in acetazolamide-treated larvae exposed to COS due to reduced formation of toxic hydrogen sulfide. CS(2) toxicity was unaffected by acetazolamide. These results show that carbonic anhydrase has a key role in toxicity of the substrates CO(2) and COS but not CS(2), despite minor differences in chemical formulae.
A series of polymethoxylated-pyrazoline benzene sulfonamides were synthesized, investigated for their cytotoxic activities on tumor and non-tumor cell lines and inhibitory effects on carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes (hCA I and hCA II). Although tumor selectivity (TS) of the compounds were less than the reference compounds 5-Fluorouracil and Melphalan, trimethoxy derivatives 4, 5, and 6 were more selective than dimethoxy derivatives 2 and 3 as judged by the cytotoxicity assay with the cells both types originated from the gingival tissue. The compound 6 (4-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl] benzene sulfonamide) showed the highest TS values and can be considered as a lead molecule of the series for further investigations. All compounds synthesized showed superior CA inhibitory activity than the reference compound acetazolamide on hCA I, and II isoenzymes, with inhibition constants in the range of 26.5-55.5 nM against hCA I and of 18.9-28.8 nM against hCA II, respectively.
diamox and alcohol
We have assessed the effects of five sulfonamides with widely varying inhibitory activity for carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the bone slice assay using disaggregated rat osteoclasts (OCs), and in the Maren assay where the catalytic activity of purified CA isozyme II (CA II) was measured. There was an excellent correlation between the relative potencies of the compounds in the two assays: ethoxzolamide (ETH) greater than acetazolamide (AZ) greater than M&B 21659 greater than M&B 9811 greater than M&B 7973. In the bone slice assay, ETH and AZ were found to be the most potent inhibitors of OC bone resorption, with IC50 values of 0.09 and 0.8 microM, respectively (from plan surface area of bone resorbed). These results support previous observations showing that OCs use CA II to generate protons during bone resorption and that CA II activity is essential for OCs to be able to resorb bone.
|Target Point||Shipping Method||Tracking||Delivery Time||Price|
|Not trackable||14-21 business days||USD 20.00 per order|
|Trackable, where available||5-9 business days||USD 30.00 per order|
Delivery time is:
no signature is required on delivery.
EMS - 5-9 business days, prices - USD 30.00, signature is required on delivery.
Your order will be packed safe and secure and dispatched within 24 hours.
This is exactly how your parcel will look like (pictures of a real shipping item). It has a look of a regular private letter and does not disclose its contents. Size - 9.4x4.3x0.3 inches (24x11x0.7cm).