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Voriconazole is a fluoropyrimidine derivative of fluconazole with an extended spectrum of activity, non-linear pharmacokinetic characteristics, available intravenously and orally with an excellent bioavailability, and a good penetration into tissues including the brain. It is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 and less than 1% is eliminated in the urine. Voriconazole has been studied extensively in numerous randomized clinical trials of invasive fungal infections and became the therapy of choice of invasive aspergillosis, fusariosis and scedosporiosis. Voriconazole is an alternative for invasive candidiasis refractory or resistant to fluconazole. Voriconazole has a good tolerability and acceptable safety profile and has added a new weapon to our therapeutic armamentarium against fungi.
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This paper describes the application of fully automated on-line solid phase extraction to the bioanalysis of three example compounds using the Symbiosis platform. The on-line assay performance is compared to off-line methodologies for the same compounds. The three example compounds possess a variety of physicochemical properties and different extraction modes were applied in off-line methods. These methods were developed through optimisation of solid phase or liquid-liquid extraction and chromatographic separation conditions for each of the analytes. Both on-line and off-line methods were evaluated for linearity, carryover, imprecision and inaccuracy. Experiments were also performed investigating modification of ionisation and selectivity against different batches of plasma. On-line and off-line methods were found to be comparable in performance. In conclusion, on-line methodology has distinct advantages for the analysis of large numbers of samples with a marked reduction in manual operation.
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The package insert of the antithrombotic agent warfarin warns users of its interaction with azole antifungals. However, information on the frequency or degree of these interactions is limited. In particular, the time to onset of azole-mediated prothrombin time prolongation, expressed as the international normalized ratio (INR), is poorly characterized. Therefore, we retrospectively examined the INR in 29 patients administered warfarin with fluconazole (FLCZ), voriconazole (VRCZ), or itraconazole (ITCZ). INRs in 18 patients taking FLCZ and in 5 patients taking VRCZ significantly increased from 1.40 to 2.94 and from 1.95 to 2.89, respectively. The warfarin sensitivity index (WSI), calculated as INR/daily warfarin dose, also significantly increased from 1.06 to 1.89 with FLCZ and showed an upward trend from 1.13 to 2.23 with VRCZ. ITCZ had no influence on the INR or WSI in 6 patients. The INRs observed when warfarin was coadministered with azoles (Y) correlated significantly with those observed in the absence of azoles (X): FLCZ, Y=4.94X-3.96, r(2)=0.80; VRCZ, Y=2.13X-1.27, r(2)=0.93. Moreover, in all 8 patients with closely monitored INRs, the WSI increased within 1 week of FLCZ or VRCZ coadministration. In conclusion, FLCZ and VRCZ augmented the anticoagulant activity of warfarin. The INR should be closely monitored within 1 week of initiating FLCZ or VRCZ coadministration with warfarin, especially in patients with high INRs.
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Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main causative agents of cryptococcosis, a systemic fungal disease that affects internal organs and skin, and which is acquired by inhalation of spores or encapsulated yeasts. It is currently known that the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex has a worldwide distribution, however, some molecular types seem to prevail in certain regions. Few environmental studies of Cryptococcus have been conducted in the Brazilian Amazon. This is the first ecological study of the pathogenic fungi C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 506 samples from pigeon droppings (n = 191), captive bird droppings (n = 60) and tree hollows (n = 255) were collected from June 2012 to January 2014 at schools and public buildings, squares, pet shops, households, the zoo and the bus station. Samples were plated on niger seed agar (NSA) medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. Dark-brown colonies were isolated and tested for thermotolerance at 37°C, cycloheximide resistance and growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. Molecular typing was done by PCR-RFLP. Susceptibility to the antifungal drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was tested using Etest(®) strips. In total, 13 positive samples were obtained: one tree hollow (C. gattiiVGII), nine pigeon droppings (C. neoformansVNI) and three captive bird droppings (C. neoformansVNI). The environmental cryptococcal isolates found in this study were of the same molecular types as those responsible for infections in Manaus.
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To compare the therapeutic effects of three different anti-fungal drugs (i.e., terbinafine, fluconazole and intraconazole) in the treatment of experimental vaginitis caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans) in mice, the fungal vaginitis model was established in female ICR mice by intravaginal inoculation of suspension of C. albicans after the animal had been pretreated with estradiol. Mice were divided at random into different groups and then respectively treated with terbinafine, fluconazole and intraconazole given by gastrogavage. The burden of the fungus in the vaginal lavage fluids in the mice of the different groups was measured dynamically at different time points after the beginning of the drug treatment. The fungal burdens in the vaginal lavage fluids taken at different time points from the mice treated with terbinafine were significantly higher than those taken at corresponding time points from mice treated with fluconazole or itraconazole (P<0.01). The fungal burdens in the vaginal lavage fluids taken from mice 1 week after the beginning of the treatment with terbinafine remained at a relatively high level. A dramatic drop in the fungal burden was noted in the vaginal lavage fluids taken on the 2nd day of the treatment from mice treated with itraconazole or fluconazole group and the fungal burden on the 3rd day of the treatment in these mice were at a very low level, suggesting that fluconazole or itraconazole were highly effective for the treatment. However, the difference in the therapeutic effect between the two drugs was not significant (P>0.05). Itraconazole or fluconazole, but not terbinafine, is very effective for the treatment of fungal vaginitis caused by C. albicans in mice.
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Eleven patients with AML have been transplanted from four centers, eight female, three male, median age 34 (range 19-60). Disease status, first CR 1/11, second CR 4/11, third CR1/11, relapse 5/11. Graft CD34+ > or = 5 x 10(6)/kg was achieved in all cases, median 13.72 x 10(6)/kg (Q1, Q3: 8.26, 17.72; min 5.59, max 22.22), and CD3+ was < 1 x 10(5)/kg in all cases, median of 0.49 x 10(4)/kg (Q1, Q3: 0.30, 2.20; min 0.22, max 4.10). Ten of the 11 patients have died, median survival 103.5 days (Q1, Q3: 61.0, 151.0; min 0, max 290.0). Survival to day +100 6/11 (55%). Four patients died of leukemic relapse, six of infection. Of six patients dying of infection, CMV was a definite cause in four. Of four dying with relapse, CMV was significant in one. Engraftment was assessed in 10 patients who survived >0 days. Granulocyte engraftment (> 0.5 x 10(9)/l) was achieved in all patients, median 11.5 days (Q1, Q3: 10, 17; min 8, max 70). Platelet engraftment (> 20 x 10(9)/l) was achieved in 8 of 10 patients, median 15 days (Q1, Q3: 9, 16; min 9, max 97). The two platelet non-engrafters died on days +45 and +61. Toxicity was low, with one toxic death (day 0), and the Bearman organ toxicity gradings were < or = grade 2 in all other patients. There were no instances of graft-vs.-host disease or graft rejection.
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Several guidelines have been published on the management of candidaemia. These guidelines vary in their recommendations, and the lack of consistency between the guidelines has implications for the management of candidaemia. We critiqued five guidelines, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Guidelines for the Management of Candidiasis, the Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Invasive Candidiasis in Adults, the Joint Recommendations of the German Speaking Mycological Society and the Paul-Ehrlich-Society for Chemotherapy, the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Candida Diseases, and the Brazilian Guidelines for the Management of Candidiasis. The recommendations in these guidelines vary in all major areas of management, including choice of initial therapy, species-specific therapy (Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis), transition to oral therapy (3 days as per IDSA but 10 days as per ESCMID), catheter removal and specialty referrals. We found that too much emphasis has been placed on themes such as predicting the infecting species (and therefore fluconazole susceptibility) or the need for investigations such as echocardiography. We also stress that guidelines fail to provide adequate information (due to lack of evidence) on the most relevant issues that clinicians face when managing candidaemia, such as the place for fluconazole in the treatment of C. glabrata, the clinical relevance of dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole, and the timing of step-down therapy.
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To investigate uptake of fluconazole into the interstitial fluid of human subcutaneous tissue using the microdialysis and suction blister techniques.
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If variation in azole resistance is due to inherent differences in strains of Candida albicans, as a predominantly clonal organism, then correlation between multilocus genotypes and drug resistance would be expected. A sample of 81 clinical isolates from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Toronto, Canada, plus 3 reference isolates were genotyped at 16 loci, distributed on all linkage groups, by means of oligonucleotide hybridizations specific for each of the alleles at each locus. These multilocus genotypes were significantly correlated with DNA fingerprints obtained with the species-specific probe 27A, indicating widespread linkage disequilibrium in the genome. There were 64 multilocus diploid genotypes and 77 DNA fingerprint types delineated in this sample. Neither the multilocus genotyping nor DNA fingerprinting alone identified all of the 81 types identified by the combination of these two methods. Multilocus genotypes were not predictive of fluconazole resistance, suggesting that resistance is gained or lost too quickly to be predicted by linkage with neutral markers.
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These in vitro findings imply that even a short period of exposure to antifungals may result in modulation of the growth and the virulent attributes of C. albicans, which however is largely dictated by the antimycotic agent in question. Whether such mechanisms operate in vivo needs to be clarified by further studies.
The two combinations tested significantly improved the survival of mice with respect to the control group and reduced the tissue burden significantly with respect to the control and their respective monotherapies in most organs tested. All animals that received the combination of micafungin with fluconazole at 80 mg/kg/day survived up to the end of the experiment.
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To compare the curative effects of three different antifungal regimens in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis.
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These data showed an excellent in vitro activity of caspofungin and micafungin against clinical strains of Candida species, including isolates with reduced susceptibility to azoles.
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Spontaneous oesophageal perforation or Boerhaave's syndrome is a life-threatening condition that usually requires early diagnosis and early surgical management. A 79-year-old man presented to the accident and emergency department with an ischaemic left big toe. He reported a 2-week history of worsening symptoms and a claudication distance in his left leg of 20-30 m. Three days post-revascularisation of the leg, the patient reported chest pain radiating to the back. CT angiography of the aorta indicated Boerhaave's syndrome. Following 35 days of conservative management in the intensive care unit and high dependency unit, the patient was stepped down to a surgical ward. A water-soluble contrast study demonstrated minimal leak through the perforated oesophagus. The patient was started on oral intake, which was well tolerated. This case highlights that conservative management may be appropriate.
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Widespread use of fluconazole for the prophylaxis and treatment of candidiasis has led to a reduction in the number of cases of candidemia caused by Candida albicans but has also resulted in the emergence of candidemias caused by innately fluconazole-resistant, non-C. albicans Candida species. Given the fulminant and rapidly fatal outcome of acute disseminated candidiasis, rapid identification of newly emerging Candida species in blood culture is critical for the implementation of appropriately targeted antifungal drug therapy. Therefore, we used a PCR-based assay to rapidly identify Candida species from positive blood culture bottles. This assay used fungus-specific, universal primers for DNA amplification and species-specific probes to identify C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, or C. glabrata amplicons. It also used a simpler and more rapid (1.5-h) sample preparation technique than those described previously and used detergent, heat, and mechanical breakage to recover Candida species DNA from blood cultures. A simple and rapid (3.5-h) enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA)-based format was then used for amplicon detection. One hundred fifty blood culture bottles, including 73 positive blood culture bottle sets (aerobic and anaerobic) from 31 patients with candidemia, were tested. The combined PCR and EIA methods (PCR-EIA) correctly identified all Candida species in 73 blood culture bottle sets, including bottles containing bacteria coisolated with yeasts and 3 cultures of samples from patients with mixed candidemias originally identified as single-species infections by routine phenotypic identification methods. Species identification time was reduced from a mean of 3.5 days by routine phenotypic methods to 7 h by the PCR-EIA method. No false-positive results were obtained for patients with bacteremias (n = 18), artificially produced non-Candida fungemias (n = 3), or bottles with no growth (n = 20). Analytical sensitivity was 1 cell per 2-microl sample. This method is simpler and more rapid than previously described molecular identification methods, can identify all five of the most medically important Candida species, and has the potential to be automated for use in the clinical microbiology laboratory.
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We have compared the effect of various media on the in-vitro activity of amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole against 93 clinical yeast isolates by a micro-broth dilution technique. The media used were: RPMI 1640 with 2% glucose, buffered with 0.165 M MOPS at pH 7.0; the same medium, but buffered at pH 7.4; and the same medium, but buffered at pH 7.4 with 0.15% sodium bicarbonate. The three media gave similar results with azole antifungals and flucytosine, but the medium buffered at pH 7.0 failed to detect different populations of yeasts with respect to amphotericin B susceptibility. In the case of the media buffered at pH 7.4, Candida krusei was significantly less susceptible to amphotericin B than Candida albicans or Torulopsis glabrata. We could not evaluate the results obtained with Candida parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans since these species did not grow adequately in all three media.
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Five pathogenic Candida species were compared in terms of their osmotolerance, tolerance to toxic sodium and lithium cations, and resistance to fluconazole. The species not only differed, in general, in their tolerance to high osmotic pressure (C. albicans and C. parapsilosis being the most osmotolerant) but exhibited distinct sensitivities to toxic sodium and lithium cations, with C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis being very tolerant but C. krusei and C. dubliniensis sensitive to LiCl. The treatment of both fluconazole-susceptible (C. albicans and C. parapsilosis) and fluconazole-resistant (C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. tropicalis) growing cells with subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole resulted in substantially elevated intracellular Na(+) levels. Using a diS-C3(3) assay, for the first time, to monitor the relative membrane potential (ΔΨ) of Candida cells, we show that the fluconazole treatment of growing cells of all five species results in a substantial hyperpolarization of their plasma membranes, which is responsible for an increased non-specific transport of toxic alkali metal cations and other cationic drugs (e.g., hygromycin B). Thus, the combination of relatively low doses of fluconazole and drugs, whose import into the tested Candida strains is driven by the cell membrane potential, might be especially potent in terms of its ability to inhibit the growth of or even kill various Candida species.
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The Antley-Bixler syndrome has been thought to be caused by an autosomal recessive gene. However, patients with this phenotype have been reported with a new dominant mutation at the FGFR2 locus as well as in the offspring of mothers taking the antifungal agent fluconazole during early pregnancy. In addition to the craniosynostosis and joint ankylosis which are the clinical hallmarks of the condition, many patients, especially females, have genital abnormalities. We now report abnormalities of steroid biogenesis in seven of 16 patients with an Antley-Bixler phenotype. Additionally, we identify FGFR2 mutations in seven of these 16 patients, including one patient with abnormal steroidogenesis. These findings, suggesting that some cases of Antley-Bixler syndrome are the outcome of two distinct genetic events, allow a hypothesis to be formulated under which we may explain all the differing and seemingly contradictory circumstances in which the Antley-Bixler phenotype has been recognised.
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Antifungal regimen should be considered for the majority of young adult men, presenting with chronic prostatitis/ chronic pelvic pain syndrome and incomplete response to antibiotics.
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a relatively common opportunistic infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and can also occur in patients with no underlying disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, diagnosis and misdiagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of CM at a tertiary care hospital.
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We searched independently and in duplicate 10 electronic databases from inception to May 2009. We selected any randomized trial assessing established antifungal therapies for confirmed cases of invasive candidiasis among predominantly adult populations. We performed a meta-analysis and then conducted a Bayesian mixed treatment comparison to differentiate treatment effectiveness. Sensitivity analyses included dosage forms of amphotericin B and fluconazole compared to other azoles.
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We report two clinical cases of disseminated dermatophytic pseudomycetoma caused by Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis in immunosuppressed patients.
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Pulmonary infection due to Blastoschizomyces capitatus is less common. It is an emerging fungal pathogen. We describe a case of Blastoschizomyces capitatus pneumonia in an otherwise healthy female and review the clinical presentation, microbiological characteristics, and treatment for B. capitatus infection.
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We describe a central venous catheter-related (Port-A-Cath; Smiths Industries Medical Systems [SIMS] Deltec, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.) infection caused by Rhodotorula glutinis in a 51-year-old man with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. He was treated with fluconazole for 8 weeks and had the catheter removed. Two isolates of R. glutinis recovered from blood specimens (one obtained via peripheral veins and one via the catheter) before administration of fluconazole and one recovered from the removed catheter 17 days after initiation of fluconazole therapy exhibited high-level resistance to fluconazole (MICs, >256 microg/ml). These three isolates were found to belong to a single clone on the basis of identical antibiotypes determined by the E test (PDM Epsilometer; AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) and biotypes determined by API ID32 C (bioMerieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) and their identical random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns.
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Results of this study indicated that the oils from medicinal plants could be used as potential anti FLU-resistant C. albicans agents.