Estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) rapidly modulates several signaling pathways related to cell growth, preservation, and differentiation. The physiological role of these nongenomic effects with regard to downstream outcomes, and the relationship with transcriptional estrogen activity are unclear. Furthermore, the ability of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) to trigger nongenomic actions is largely unknown. To determine whether estrogen receptor (ER) ligands exert nongenomic activity in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, and whether this activity affects transcription and DNA synthesis, we challenged human Ishikawa cells with E2 or partial ER agonists 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) and raloxifene (ral). Serum-starved Ishikawa cells exposed for 5 min to 0.1 nM E2 showed induced phosphorylation of MAPK (ERK1/2). Ral and 4-OHT each at 1 nM also stimulated ERK in a rapid transient manner. E2 and 4-OHT induced proto-oncogene c-fos mRNA expression in Ishikawa cells within 30 min, but ral had no effect. In contrast to nongenomic action, only E2 stimulated expression of an estrogen response element (ERE)-driven luciferase (LUC) reporter gene. To examine DNA synthesis, [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation was measured in serum-starved cultures exposed to E2 or partial agonists for 2 d. E2 at 1 nM stimulated thymidine uptake in an ERK-dependent manner, but 1 nM 4-OHT, 1 nM ral, and 0.1-nM concentrations of E2 had no significant effects. Taken together, these data indicate that both nongenomic and direct transcriptional ER effects are likely required to promote DNA synthesis.
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GPR30 is required for the proliferation of hFOB cells induced by estradiol or raloxifene. This proliferative effect was at least partly mediated via MAP kinase activation. These findings revealed a novel function of GPR30 in osteoblasts and might lead to a better understanding of how estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulators show their osteoprotective effects.
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175 bone biopsies of male and female osteoporotic patients (WHO criteria) were histologically classified in high- and low-turnover osteoporosis and associated with bone marker levels in serum and urine. Patients with any osteotropic therapy and with fractures were excluded.
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Recent genetic studies have identified common variation in susceptibility loci that stratify lifetime risks of breast cancer and may inform prevention and screening strategies. However, whether these loci have similar implications for women treated with tamoxifen or raloxifene (SERMs) is unknown. We conducted a matched case-control study of 592 cases who developed breast cancer and 1,171 unaffected women from 32,859 participants on SERM therapy enrolled on NSABP P-1 and P-2 breast cancer prevention trials. We formed a quantitative polygenic risk score (PRS) using genotypes of 75 breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms and examined the PRS as a risk factor for breast cancer among women treated with SERMs. The PRS ranged from 3.98 to 7.74, with a one-unit change associated with a 42 % increase in breast cancer (OR = 1.42; P = 0.0002). The PRS had a stronger association with breast cancer among high-risk women with no first-degree family history (OR = 1.62) compared to those with a positive family history (OR = 1.32) (P intx = 0.04). There was also suggestion that PRS was a stronger risk factor for ER-positive (OR = 1.59, P = 0.0002) than ER-negative (OR = 1.05, P = 0.84) breast cancer (P intx = 0.10). Associations did not differ by tamoxifen or raloxifene treatment, age at trial entry, 5-year predicted Gail model risk or other clinical variables. The PRS is a strong risk factor for ER-positive breast cancer in moderate to high-risk individuals treated with either tamoxifen or raloxifene for cancer prevention. These data suggest that common genetic variation informs risk of breast cancer in women receiving SERMs.
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In summary, GH secretion was blunted by tamoxifen in women in the face of reduced IGF-I feedback inhibition but not in men in whom the gonadal axis was stimulated. We conclude that potential blunting of GH secretion in men by SERMs was counteracted by concomitant central stimulation of GH secretion by testosterone. In therapeutic doses, tamoxifen may induce detrimental metabolic effects in women, but not men.
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Recent studies documented that estrogen have antioxidant properties in-vitro, there are conflicting results on the effect of estrogen in vivo. We aimed to investigate the effects of estradiol and Raloxifene on the antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] activities and MDA levels in brain and liver homogenates of ovariectomized female rats. Twelve weeks after ovariectomy, female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 26) were divided into three groups: (1) Ovariectomized placebo group (n = 6) was given physiologic saline. (2) Estrogen group (n = 10) was given Ethynyl estradiol, 0.1 mg/kg sc. (3) Raloxifene group (n = 10) was given raloxifene, 1 mg/kg sc during 8 weeks. Ten rats were used as naive controls without any treatment (Sham operated group, n = 10). Ovariectomy lead to an increase in the CAT activities in liver tissue samples compared to the sham group (p = 0.056, Mann-Whitney test). While estrogen treatment reversed to normal levels of CAT activities, raloxifene remained as ineffective. Superoxide dismutase activities and MDA levels in liver were remained unchanged in all groups. There was no significant change in the brain tissue SOD and CAT activities between the control ovariectomy, estrogen treated, and raloxifen treated groups. We determined an increase in MDA levels in brain of ovariectmised rat (p = 0.02). While raloxifene treatment reversed to normal levels of MDA (p = estrogen treatment failed. Our data showed that estrogen may play a role in regulation of CAT and SOD activities in liver due to its antioxidative effects. We can suggest estrogen and raloxifene exert their antioxidative effects in brain rather than liver. Since Raloxifene's effect is more clear than estradiol, raloxifene may be suggested primarily for treatment and/or prevention of diseases which can be resulted from oxidative stress in postmenopausal women.
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A total of 506 patients were included in the post hoc analysis. Both raloxifene monotherapy (RLX, n = 354) and active vitamin D3 cotreatment (COMBI, n = 152) significantly improved QOL and reduced pain from the baseline at Week 8 and Week 24. The COMBI group had significantly greater improvements in JOQOL total score and activity of daily living (total) domain at Week 24 and last observation carried forward (LOCF) than the RLX group. The COMBI group also had significantly greater improvements in SF-8 domains of general health (at Week 8, Week 24, and LOCF), role physical (at Week 24 and LOCF), and mental health (at LOCF) than the RLX group. The COMBI group also had significantly greater reduction in VAS pain at LOCF than the RLX group (mean [SD]: RLX = -0.99 [2.72], COMBI = -1.54 [2.21], P = 0.042).
This study describes the inhibitory effect of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT) and its precursors testosterone (T) and androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (delta 4-DIONE) on the growth of the estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cell line ZR-75-1. In the absence of estrogens, cell proliferation measured after a 12-day incubation period was 50-60% inhibited by maximal concentrations of 5 alpha-DHT, T, or delta 4-DIONE with half-maximal effects (IC50 values) observed at 0.10, 0.15 and 15 nM, respectively. This growth inhibition by androgens was due to an increase in generation time and a lowering of the saturation density of cell cultures. The antiestrogen LY156758 (300 nM) induced 25-30% inhibition of basal cell growth, its effect being additive to that of 5 alpha-DHT. The mitogenic effect of 1 nM estradiol (E2) was completely inhibited by increasing concentrations of 5 alpha-DHT with a potency (IC50 = 0.10 nM) similar to that measured when the androgen was used alone. E2 had a more rapid effect on cell proliferation than 5 alpha-DHT, the latter requiring at least 5 to 6 days to exert significant growth inhibition. As found in the absence of estrogens, maximal inhibition of cell proliferation in the presence of E2 was achieved by the combination of the antiestrogen and 5 alpha-DHT. Supraphysiological concentrations of E2 (up to 1 microM) were needed to completely reverse the growth inhibitory effect of a submaximal concentration of 5 alpha-DHT (1 nM). The antiproliferative effect of androgens was competitively reversed by the antiandrogen hydroxyflutamide, thus indicating an androgen receptor-mediated mechanism. The present data suggest the potential benefits of an androgen-antiestrogen combination therapy in the endocrine management of breast cancer.
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Inflammatory responses of mouse N9 microglial cells and rat primary hippocampal microglia to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure were recorded by the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine IL-6 in two models where SERM was added either 24 h before LPS addition or simultaneously or even after the LPS exposure. The responses of 17beta-estradiol, tamoxifen, raloxifene and ICI 182.780 were compared. Responses were recorded by ELISA, Northern and EMSA assays.
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Raloxifene is a selective oestrogen receptor modulator used clinically for the treatment and the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The drug has been evaluated in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene as an agent to reduce breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women at high risk. However, about 30% of women who develop breast cancer do so in their premenopausal years. In this pilot study, salivary oestradiol and progesterone were determined throughout the menstrual cycle for a total of 22 subjects, 14 of whom completed pre- and postraloxifene (60 mg daily) salivary collections. The mean concentration of oestradiol during the menstrual cycle when subjects were taking raloxifene was significantly greater (P<0.001) than during baseline cycles. Neither salivary progesterone and cortisol nor menstrual cycle length were affected by raloxifene treatment. These data demonstrate that raloxifene administered to premenopausal women increases the concentration of oestradiol that diffuses into the salivary glands, and which presumably represents the concentration available to other organs as well. The results reflect increases in serum oestradiol reported earlier.
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Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) interact with estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta to activate or repress gene transcription. To understand how estrogens and SERMs exert tissue-specific effects, we performed microarray analysis to determine whether ERalpha or ERbeta regulate different target genes in response to estrogens and SERMs. We prepared human U2OS osteosarcoma cells that are stably transfected with a tetracycline-inducible vector to express ERalpha or ERbeta. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation studies confirmed that U2OS-ERalpha cells synthesized only ERalpha and that U2OS-ERbeta cells expressed exclusively ERbeta. U2OS-ERalpha and U2OS-ERbeta cells were treated either with 17beta-estradiol (E2), raloxifene, and tamoxifen for 18 h. Labeled cRNAs were hybridized with U95Av2 GeneChips (Affymetrix). A total of 228, 190, and 236 genes were significantly activated or repressed at least 1.74-fold in U2OS-ERalpha and U2OS-ERbeta cells by E2, raloxifene, and tamoxifen, respectively. Most genes regulated in ERalpha cells in response to E2, raloxifene, and tamoxifen were distinct from those regulated in ERbeta cells. Only 38 of the 228 (17%) genes were regulated by E2 in both U2OS-ERalpha and U2OS-ERbeta cells. Raloxifene and tamoxifen regulated only 27% of the same genes in both the ERalpha and ERbeta cells. A subset of genes involved in bone-related activities regulated by E2, raloxifene, and tamoxifen were also distinct. Our results demonstrate that most genes regulated by ERalpha are distinct from those regulated by ERbeta in response to E2 and SERMs. These results indicate that estrogens and SERMs exert tissue-specific effects by regulating unique sets of targets genes through ERalpha and ERbeta
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PATIENTS were classified into the alendronate, calcitonin, or raloxifene group according to exposure after follow-up.
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We divided New Zealand white rabbits into six groups (n = 6 per group): baseline control, sham operation, sham + 1% Met diet, ovariectomy (OVX), 1% Met diet + OVX, OVX + RLX (10 mg/kg/day), and 1% Met diet + OVX + RLX. RLX was administered for 16 weeks. We measured the amount of enzymatic immature and mature pyridinium cross-links and the nonenzymatic cross-link, Pen, and correlated the cross-link content to bone strength.
IGF-I suppression in acromegaly obtained by tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), prompted us to evaluate the effects of the administration of a newer SERM, raloxifene (RAL), devoid of estrogenic activity at uterine level, on GH/IGF-I levels in patients with this disease.
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To analyze this phenomenon, female rats were injected daily with raloxifene (50, 100, 250 or 500 microg/rat per day) between days 1 and 5 of age. On day 23, hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (LHRH) mRNA expression was assessed, and pituitary and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were measured in basal and LHRH-stimulated conditions. In addition, LH and FSH responses to ovariectomy were evaluated in raloxifene-treated females. Finally, we monitored the ability of neonatal administration of a potent LHRH agonist ([d-Ala(6),d-Gly(10)]-LHRH ethylamide; 0.01 microg/kg per 12 h on days 1-5) to counteract the effects of raloxifene.
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This study included 20 postmenopausal women with invasive, stage II, estrogen receptor-positive ductal carcinoma diagnosed by incisional biopsy, who received 60 mg of raloxifene orally for 28 days prior to definitive surgery. On the 29th day of treatment, definitive surgery was performed and a second tumor sample was taken for analysis. The catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) was evaluated semiquantitatively by immunohistochemistry in the tumor samples obtained prior to and following raloxifene use and the results were analyzed using the McNemar test (p<0.05).
There is increasing evidence indicating that estrogen replacement therapy produces neuroprotective actions but has undesirable side effects on the reproductive system. Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that exerts estrogen agonist action in the brain while acting as an estrogen antagonist in the reproductive system. In the present study, we investigated whether raloxifene affected the glutamate-induced calcium (Ca2+) overload in rat cultured cortical neurons. The bulk cytosolic intracellular Ca2+ level was measured by using confocal microscopy with fluorescent Ca2+ probe fluo3. Whole-cell recording technique was used to observe the effects of raloxifene on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-evoked and voltage-activated Ca2+ currents in cultured cortical neurons. Pre-exposure of cortical neurons to raloxifene (0.5 microM-10 microM) for 3 min attenuated intracellular Ca2+ increase induced by application of glutamate (300 microM) for 1 min. The action of raloxifene was reversible after washout. ICI 182,780 and thapsigargin did not block the action of raloxifene. In whole-cell recording experiments, raloxifene (10 microM) significantly reduced the amplitude of the high-voltage-activated Ca2+ current but had no effect on NMDA-evoked Ca2+ current. The present study demonstrates that raloxifene acutely reduces glutamate-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase probably via inhibition of high-voltage-activated calcium channels.
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This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, 8-week study evaluated short-term effects of raloxifene on bone turnover, serum lipids, and endometrium in healthy, postmenopausal women. A total of 251 women received either placebo, raloxifene HCl 200 or 600 mg/day, or conjugated estrogens (Premarin, 0.625 mg/day). Bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, urinary pyridinoline cross-links, urinary calcium excretion, urinary hydroxyproline) and serum lipids (total serum cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C and LDL-C]) were evaluated at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 8. Endometrial biopsies were performed at weeks 0 and 8. Treatment groups were compared for each parameter for baseline-to-endpoint changes. The estrogen and raloxifene groups experienced similar decreases in serum alkaline phosphatase (range 10-11%), serum osteocalcin (range 21-26%), urinary pyridinoline cross-links (range 20-26%), and urinary calcium excretion (range 45-72%). These decreases differed significantly compared with placebo-treated subjects for all markers except serum osteocalcin, the raloxifene HCl 200 mg group. LDL-C decreased significantly in the estrogen and both raloxifene groups (range 5-9%) compared with placebo-treated subjects. HDL-C increased significantly in the estrogen group (16%) but was unchanged in the raloxifene groups. HDL-C:LDL-C ratios increased significantly in the estrogen and raloxifene groups (range 9-29%). Serum cholesterol decreased significantly in both raloxifene groups (range 4-8%) but was unchanged in the estrogen group. Uterine biopsies of raloxifene-treated subjects showed no change in the endometrium during this short-term treatment. Biopsies of the estrogen group showed significant endometrial stimulation. The only adverse event possibly related to raloxifene was vasodilatation (hot flashes) which was most common in the raloxifene HCl 600 mg group. Study results indicate that raloxifene may provide beneficial effects to bone and serum lipids in humans without uterine stimulatory effects.
Estrogen administration is associated with reduction in perimenopausal symptoms and the risk for several conditions affecting postmenopausal women. As estrogen administration also increases the risk for breast cancer, a common dilemma facing many women and their physicians is whether to use estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that antagonises estrogenic effects in breast tissue but retains some estrogen agonist properties in other organs, or neither. For women with average to moderate risk of breast cancer and with perimenopausal symptoms, ERT may be the best short-term choice. For very high-risk women (>1% per year) with menopausal symptoms, alternatives to ERT might be offered and tried first. A diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer within the last 2 to 5 years should be considered a relative contraindication for ERT unless the tumour was estrogen receptor negative. High-risk women without menopausal symptoms are the best candidates for the only currently approved drug for breast cancer risk reduction, tamoxifen. Although the drug is approved for women with a 5-year risk of breast cancer > or = 1.7% (0.34% per year), postmenopausal women most likely to experience a favourable benefit/risk ratio are those with a Gail estimated risk of >0.5% per year without a uterus or >1% per year if they retain their uterus. Tamoxifen should not be used in women with prior history of thromboembolic or precancerous uterine conditions. Tamoxifen is often used in Europe in conjunction with transdermal ERT in hysterectomised women without obvious loss of efficacy or increased risk of thromboembolism. Raloxifene is a second generation SERM with estrogen-like agonist effects on bone but with less uterine estrogen agonist activity than tamoxifen. Raloxifene may have less potent breast antiestrogenic effects than tamoxifen, particularly in a moderate- to high-estrogen environment. Raloxifene is approved for use in reducing risk of osteoporosis, but not breast cancer. Whether it is as effective as tamoxifen in reducing breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women is the subject of a current trial. All women regardless of breast cancer risk are advised to employ nonpharmacological risk reduction measures, including normalisation of bodyweight, exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and avoidance of smoking and alcohol. The preventive options are best weighed during an individualised consultation where a woman's menopausal symptoms and risk for breast cancer and other diseases can be examined, and the options for improving postmenopausal health can be discussed.
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This study was undertaken to assess persistence with bisphosphonates and raloxifene and to identify determinants of adherence (patient age, level of information, educational status, etc.) among women with osteoporosis in three different clinical settings in Denmark.
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Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator used for the treatment of osteoporosis, undergoes extensive conjugation to the 6-beta- and 4'-beta-glucuronides in vivo. This paper investigated raloxifene glucuronidation by human liver and intestinal microsomes and identified the responsible UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). UGT1A1 and 1A8 were found to catalyze the formation of both the 6-beta- and 4'-beta-glucuronides, whereas UGT1A10 formed only the 4'-beta-glucuronide. Expressed UGT1A8 catalyzed 6-beta-glucuronidation with an apparent K(m) of 7.9 microM and a V(max) of 0.61 nmol/min/mg of protein and 4'-beta-glucuronidation with an apparent K(m) of 59 microM and a V(max) of 2.0 nmol/min/mg. Kinetic parameters for raloxifene glucuronidation by expressed UGT1A1 could not be determined due to limited substrate solubility. Based on rates of raloxifene glucuronidation and known extrahepatic expression, UGT1A8 and 1A10 appear to be primary contributors to raloxifene glucuronidation in human jejunum microsomes. For human liver microsomes, the variability of 6-beta- and 4'-beta-glucuronide formation was 3- and 4-fold, respectively. Correlation analyses revealed that UGT1A1 was responsible for 6-beta- but not 4'-beta-glucuronidation in liver. Treatment of expressed UGTs with alamethicin resulted in minor increases in enzyme activity, whereas in human intestinal microsomes, maximal increases of 8-fold for the 6-glucuronide and 9-fold for the 4'-glucuronide were observed. Intrinsic clearance values in intestinal microsomes were 17 microl/min/mg for the 6-glucuronide and 95 microl/min/mg for the 4'-isomer. The corresponding values for liver microsomes were significantly lower, indicating that intestinal glucuronidation may be a significant contributor to the presystemic clearance of raloxifene in vivo.
Both preclinical and clinical data suggest a role for raloxifene in the prevention of breast cancer. Like tamoxifen, raloxifene acts as an estrogen antagonist in breast tissue through competitive binding to the ER. Raloxifene may also inhibit breast tissue proliferation through mechanisms independent of the ER.
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Osteoporosis has been defined as "a progressive systemic disease characterized by low bone density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture." Osteoporosis and the consequences of compromised bone strength--particularly vertebral and hip fractures--are a significant cause of frailty, and increased morbidity and even mortality and hence are a serious and costly public health problem in the elderly population. However, due to remarkable advances in basic and clinical research and in drug design, development, and testing, a number of efficacious, evidence-based options are available for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. These options extend far beyond estrogen/progestin therapy and include lifestyle and dietary changes such as increasing weight-bearing activity, enhancing calcium and vitamin D intake, as well as incorporating pharmacologic agents such as the bisphosphonates and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as raloxifene. In addition to its efficacy in increasing bone mineral density and reducing vertebral fractures by almost 40% in women with osteoporosis, the SERM raloxifene appears to promote a cardioprotective profile and to offer some protection against breast cancer. The potential of raloxifene to prevent or delay the development of a number of chronic diseases of aging such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and perhaps even Alzheimer's disease has stimulated the development and refinement of subsequent generations of SERMs aimed at maximizing beneficial effects in a wide variety of tissues while eliminating deleterious outcomes and side effects.
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Most patients who initiate a medication for osteoporosis do not continue to take it as prescribed. Although several patient characteristics significantly correlated with compliance, adjusted models explained little of the variation.
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The groundwork for making the concept of breast cancer chemoprevention a clinical reality began over a century ago. Although tamoxifen's first clinical use was for the treatment of breast cancer, the earliest animal studies with the drug provided the scientific basis for chemoprevention. The extensive clinical experience, safety and laboratory data have made tamoxifen the current standard-of-care for the prevention of breast cancer in women at elevated risk. The STAR trial will address the value of raloxifene as a chemopreventative in postmenopausal women. Results will be available by 2005. Newer compounds are under development which hold the promise of expanded efficacy and narrower side-effect profile. These compounds will function as multifunctional medicines and will hold the promise of preventing breast and endometrial cancer, while providing the beneficial effects of preventing osteoporosis and coronary heart disease.
The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene (RAL), used to treat and prevent osteoporosis, is under investigation for its use in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. RAL in combination with the antimetabolites methotrexate (MTX) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has not been extensively studied. Because RAL and the antimetabolites target different phases of the cell cycle and exhibit different mechanisms of action and clinical toxicity, the effects of sequence of administration on the growth inhibition of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were investigated.
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Bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine and hip was measured semiannually. Serum lipids and biochemical bone markers were determined at each visit. To eliminate interindividual differences, all values were calculated as individual percentage change from baseline.