Hydroxylated 6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one derivatives (i.e., urolithins) are the main bioavailable metabolites, and biomarkers of ellagitannins present in various nutrition. Although these dietaries, the sources of urolithins, are employed in folk medicine as cognitive enhancer in the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease, urolithins have negligible potential to inhibit acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes, the validated targets of Alzheimer's Disease. Therefore, within this research, a series of 6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one, and 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[c]chromen-6-one derivatives has been designed, synthesized, and their biological activities were evaluated as potential acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors. The compounds synthesized exerted comparable activity in comparison to rivastigmine, galantamine, and donepezil both in in vitro and in vivo studies.
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Essential oils (EOs) and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of four aromatic species, Calamintha nepeta, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha spicata and Thymus mastichina, from southwest of Portugal were characterised chemically and analysed in order to evaluate their antioxidant potential and cholinesterase inhibitory activities. The main components of EOs were oxygenated monoterpenes, and aqueous extracts were rich in phenol and flavonoid compounds. EOs and aqueous extracts presented a high antioxidant potential, with ability to protect the lipid substrate, free radical scavenging and iron reducing power. Furthermore, EOs and extracts showed AChE and BChE inhibitory activities higher than rivastigmine, the standard drug. Results suggested the potential use of EOs and aqueous extracts of these flavouring herbs as nutraceutical or pharmaceutical preparations to minimise the oxidative stress and the progression of degenerative diseases.
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Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is notorious for its debilitating clinical course and high mortality rates. Consequently, various attempts to investigate predictors of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been made. Here we report a case of a 75-year-old female patient with PD who visited the clinic with complaints of recurrent visual hallucinations and cognitive decline, whose symptoms were ameliorated by the titration of rivastigmine. Imaging results showed pronounced diffuse cortical amyloid deposition evidenced by 18F-florbetaben amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. This observation suggests that pronounced amyloid deposition and visual hallucinations in PD patients could be clinically significant predictors of cognitive decline in PD patients. Future research should concentrate on accumulating more evidence for possible predictors of cognitive decline and their association with PD pathology that can enable an early intervention and standardized treatment in PDD patients.
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In Italy we can mention two experiences related to the use of registries for neurological drugs. The first one involved the use of cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine) in the treatment of probable Alzheimer's dementia of mild-moderate level; the second, currently in progress, concerned the use of natalizumab for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The registry of the use of cholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's dementia produced an observational study, whereas the registry on the use of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis, a rare experience in the international, can be regarded as an opportunity not fully appreciated in terms of public health. Natalizumab is prescribed in current clinical practice in patients other than those included in registration studies. In this paper the two Italian experiences will be presented with the understanding that registries cannot make up for the lack of proper registration studies, but can provide, especially when they are conducted and planned as observational studies, new scientific evidence on the risk/benefit profile of the drugs in the real world.
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Published data provide evidence for the clinical efficacy of donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine in patients with mild to moderate AD. There is no indication that these results are critically influenced by the origin or a bias of the publication.
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Of 31 baseline variables analyzed, 13 were found to be significantly associated with progression to AD in the overall population. After adjustment using the Cox proportional hazards regression model, rivastigmine was associated with a significantly lower risk for progression to AD compared with placebo in the overall population (1016 patients; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.747; P = 0.045). This effect of rivastigmine was evident in women (530 patients; HR = 0.676; P = 0.046) but not in men.
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To explore the association between the use of neuroactive drugs and reports of epileptic seizures.
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Here we investigated the effect of the rivastigmine patch alone on depression in 50 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with comorbid major depressive episode (MDE). First diagnosis acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitor and psychoactive drug-free outpatients (n=50) were recruited in memory clinics and reassessed after 3 and 6 months. Global cognitive functioning, depressive symptoms and MDE frequency were evaluated with the Mini Mental State Examination, the CERAD Dysphoria scale and the modified DSM-IV criteria for MDE in AD. MDE frequency reduced significantly from the first diagnostic visit (100%) to the 6-month follow-up (62%). We also found a significant reduction in CERAD Dysphoria scores that decreased from 6.2±3.9 mean±standard deviation to 4.9±4.5 at the 6-month follow-up. In AD patients with MDE rivastigmine alone can have a positive impact on depressive phenomena. Thus, future controlled study are justified to definitively verify if rivastigmine alone may improve depression in AD.
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A prospective, multicentre, 3-month observational trial in patients with mild to moderately severe AD (adjusted Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] score 10-26) deteriorating (at least 2 adjusted MMSE points in last 6 months) on selective AChE inhibitor treatment. Adjusted MMSE, activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), the Zarit caregiver burden and global function (short Clinical Global Impression of Change, CGIC) scores were noted before the switch and 3 months after the switch.
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Cognitive impairment and dementia are common features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) often have significant cholinergic defects, which may be treated with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs). The objective of this review was to consider available efficacy, tolerability, and safety data from studies of ChEIs in PDD.
Using the database from a prospective, randomised, double-blind trial of rivastigmine and donepezil, two treatments indicated for AD, Cox regression models were constructed to predict the risk of NHP using age, gender, ADL and MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination) scores as independent variables.
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Patients with vascular dementia (VaD) show cholinergic deficits that may result in characteristic clinical syndromes for different subtypes of the condition. Subcortical VaD is characterised by executive dysfunction and behavioural problems, reflecting deterioration of the frontal lobe. Based on limited open-labelled controlled studies of rivastigmine in VaD, this article aims to determine whether rivastigmine, a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), has any effects on the typical symptoms of subcortical VaD. Long-term rivastigmine treatment is safe and effective. Improvements in domains that characterise subcortical VaD were observed, indicating that rivastigmine may have provided targeted treatment in areas of the brain that are particularly affected in this patient population. A large, double-blind study of rivastigmine in patients with VaD is clearly warranted.
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The therapeutic approach for improving the cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is mainly based on the potentiation of central cholinergic activity and is achieved clinically by the use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors such as tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine and other drugs currently in clinical trials. These are, by their pharmacology, only symptomatic drugs yet recently these molecules have shown some potential also in the modulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. We explore in this review the experimental evidence that suggests a role for AChEIs in APP processing and point to multiple complex mechanisms involving either a cholinergic agonist effect, coupled to multiple signal transduction pathways, or post-transcriptional effects that modulate the expression of cellular APP.
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Rivastigmine was associated with significant improvements over placebo on EF tests evaluating flexibility of thinking, problem solving and planning in patients with PDD. These findings support the hypothesis that rivastigmine may affect frontal subcortical circuits, which potentially contributes to observed clinical improvement associated with EF.
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CP treatment alleviated neurotoxic effect of scopolamine reflects its potential as potent neuroprotective agent.
We identified 773 reports of ADRs related to cholinesterase inhibitor use, among which 438 (57%) concerned SADRs. The median age of patients was 80 years (interquartile range: 75-84 years); 65.1% were women. The most represented ADRs were those responsible for CNS disorders (17.0%), gastrointestinal disorders (16.2%) and cardiac rhythm disorders (11.2%). Factors associated with an increased risk of SADRs were: age (odds ratio [OR] 1.92; 95% CI 1.22, 3.02 for subjects aged 85 years and over), use of atypical antipsychotics (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.04, 4.46), use of conventional antipsychotics (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.10, 3.85), use of antihypertensive drugs (OR 2.11; 95% CI 1.47, 3.02) and use of drugs targeting the alimentary tract and metabolism (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.06, 2.46). The use of benzodiazepines (long-acting or others), antidepressants (tricyclic or others) or antiarrhythmic drugs was not associated with the reporting of SADRs.
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to irreversible loss of neurons, cognition and formation of abnormal protein aggregates. Rivastigmine, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor used for the treatment of AD, undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, thus limiting its absolute bioavailability to only 36% after 3-mg dose. Due to extreme aqueous solubility, rivastigmine shows poor penetration and lesser concentration in the brain thus requiring frequent oral dosing. This investigation was aimed to formulate microemulsion (ME) and mucoadhesive microemulsions (MMEs) of rivastigmine for nose to brain delivery and to compare percentage drug diffused for both systems using in-vitro and ex-vivo study. Rivastigmine-loaded ME and MMEs were prepared by titration method and characterized for drug content, globule size distribution, zeta potential, pH, viscosity and nasal ciliotoxicity study. Rivastigmine-loaded ME system containing 8% w/w Capmul MCM EP, 44% w/w Labrasol:Transcutol-P (1:1) and 48% w/w distilled water was formulated, whereas 0.3% w/w chitosan (CH) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (as mucoadhesive agents) were used to formulate MMEs, respectively. ME and MMEs formulations were transparent with drug content, globule size and zeta potential in the range of 98.59% to 99.43%, 53.8 nm to 55.4 nm and -2.73 mV to 6.52 mV, respectively. MME containing 0.3% w/w CH followed Higuchi model (r(2) = 0.9773) and showed highest diffusion coefficient. It was free from nasal ciliotoxicity and stable for three months. However, the potential of developed CH-based MME for nose to brain delivery of rivastigmine can only be established after in-vivo and biodistribution study.
Alzheimer's disease patients with hypertension or other vascular risk factors have been shown to receive greater symptomatic benefits than patients with strictly Alzheimer's disease following short-term treatment with rivastigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. We evaluated the long-term efficacy of rivastigmine in Alzheimer's disease patients with or without hypertension. Subjects in a 26-week placebo-controlled trial of rivastigmine entered an open-label extension study for 104 weeks. Efficacy measures included the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), Progressive Deterioration Scale (PDS) and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS). Subjects were stratified by the presence or absence of hypertension at baseline. At 104 weeks, there was a trend for hypertensive patients from the original rivastigmine 6-12 mg/day group (early starters), who received rivastigmine for the full 104 weeks) to have better ADAS-cog scores than the original placebo group (late starters), who received open-label rivastigmine for the last 78 weeks only). Significant treatment differences were observed in the hypertensive subgroup on the PDS and GDS. In non-hypertensive patients, changes from baseline at week 104 were similar in 'early' and 'late' starters of rivastigmine treatment. The additional apparent benefits on disease progression detected in patients with hypertension and Alzheimer's disease may be linked to drug effects on cerebrovascular factors. These findings may have an important influence on the way cholinesterase inhibitors are prescribed.
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Our eligibility criteria were studies of the effects of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine or memantine on mild cognitive impairment reporting cognition, function, behaviour, global status, and mortality or harms. We identified relevant material by searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, Embase), the references of included studies, trial registries and conference proceedings, and by contacting experts. Two reviewers independently screened the results of the literature search, abstracted data and appraised risk of bias using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool.
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Vascular risk factors (VRF) may influence response to rivastigmine in Alzheimer's disease (AD).
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Because the cholinergic system is down-regulated in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients, cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease patients are significantly improved by rivastigmine treatment. To address the mechanism underlying rivastigmine-induced memory improvements, we chronically treated olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice with rivastigmine. The chronic rivastigmine treatments for 12-13 days starting at 10 days after OBX operation significantly improved memory-related behaviors assessed by Y-maze task, novel object recognition task, passive avoidance task, and Barnes maze task, whereas the single rivastigmine treatment failed to improve the memory. Consistent with the improved memory-related behaviors, long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region was markedly restored by rivastigmine treatments. In immunoblotting analyses, the reductions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) phosphorylation in the CA1 region in OBX mice were significantly restored by rivastigmine treatments. In addition, phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluA1) (Ser-831) and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (Ser-133) as downstream targets of CaMKII and CaMKIV, respectively, in the CA1 region was also significantly restored by chronic rivastigmine treatments. Finally, we confirmed that rivastigmine-induced improvements of memory-related behaviors and long-term potentiation were not obtained in CaMKIIα(+/-) mice. On the other hand, CaMKIV(-/-) mice did not exhibit the cognitive impairments. Taken together, the stimulation of CaMKII activity in the hippocampus is essential for rivastigmine-induced memory improvement in OBX mice.
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Several possible areas of improvement in the management of patients with Alzheimer's disease and CVD were identified. These included better control of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, which have a high prevalence in this population, as has been shown in the present study. These potentially modifiable risk factors may assist in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease. Also identified was the need to emphasize the role of general practitioners in decreasing the time to diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Development of well designed clinical practice guidelines may help physicians decide on the most appropriate ways of diagnosing and managing patients with Alzheimer's disease and CVD and reduce practice variations between different medical specialities.
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To provide an update review of the best quality evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine for mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) and of memantine for moderately severe to severe AD.
Eleven patients with mild AD received rivastigmine for 12 months. Cholinesterase (ChE) activities in the CSF and plasma were assessed colorimetrically. Immunoblot analysis was used to evaluate AChE isoforms. Neuropsychiatric tests were performed throughout the study.
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To test the feasibility of a novel rivastigmine nasal spray as prospective treatment for dementia.