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Exposure of HeLa cells to TCE (dichloromethane extract of Tinospora cordifolia) for 4 hours before exposure to 2-Gy γ-radiation caused a significant decrease in the cell viability (approximately 50%). The surviving fraction (SF) was reduced to 0.52 after 4 hours of TCE treatment; thereafter, clonogenecity of HeLa cells declined negligibly with treatment duration up to 6 hours posttreatment. Exposure of HeLa cells to different doses of γ-radiation resulted in a dose-dependent decline in the viability of HeLa cells, whereas treatment of HeLa cells with various doses of TCE further decreased the cell viability depending not only on the irradiation dose but also on the concentration of TCE. Treatment of HeLa cells with various doses of TCE caused a significant decline in cell viability after exposure to 1 to 4 Gy γ-radiation. The increase in TCE concentration before irradiation caused a concentration-dependent reduction in the SF, and a lowest SF was observed for 4 μg/mL TCE for all exposure doses. HeLa cells treated with TCE showed an increase in lactate dehydrogenase and decrease in glutathioneS-transferase activity at all postirradiation times. Lipid peroxidation increased up to 4 hours postirradiation and declined gradually up to 12 hours postirradiation.
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T. cordifolia (Guduchi) is a large, glabrous, perennial, deciduous, climbing shrub of weak and fleshy stem found throughout India. It is a widely used plant in folk and Ayurvedic systems of medicine. The chemical constituents reported from this shrub belong to different classes, such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. Various properties of T. cordifolia, described in ancient texts of Ayurveda, like Rasayana, Sangrahi, Balya, Agnideepana, Tridoshshamaka, Dahnashaka, Mehnashaka, Kasa-swasahara, Pandunashaka, Kamla-Kushta-Vataraktanashaka, Jwarhara, Krimihara, Prameha, Arshnashaka, Kricch-Hridroganashak, etc., are acquiring scientific validity through modern research adopting "reverse pharmacological" approach. Potential medicinal properties reported by scientific research include anti-diabetic, antipyretic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-stress, anti-leprotic, antimalarial, hepato-protective, immuno-modulatory and anti-neoplastic activities. This review brings together various properties and medicinal uses of T. cordifolia described in Ayurveda, along with phytochemical and pharmacological reports.
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to intimidate the human race since time immemorial not only due to its effects as a medical malady, but also by its impact as a social and economic tragedy. At the dawn of the new millennium, we are still mute witnesses to the silent yet efficient march of this sagacious disease, its myriad manifestations and above all its unequalled, vicious power. Through the millennia, TB never ever disappeared from the developing world. In 1991, the World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution recognized TB as a major global public health problem. The DOTS strategy was launched in 1994, and became the global recommended strategy for TB control since then. The present study deals with clinical evaluation of Rasayana drugs considering of Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia willd.), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) Dunal, Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Pippali (Piper longum Linn.), Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.), Kustha (Saussurea lappa Falc.), Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.) and Kulinjan (Alpinia galangal Linn.) as an adjuvant therapy with anti-Koch's treatment. The results obtained revealed that Rasayana compound was found to decrease cough (83%), fever (93%), dyspnea (71.3%), hemoptysis (87%) and increase body weight (7.7%) with statistically highly significant (P<0.001).
The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity.
The confirmation of an immunomodulatory protein in guduchi stem showing lymphoproliferative and macrophage-activating properties reinforces the rationale of the use of guduchi preparations in several Ayurvedic medicines for immunomodulation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an immunomodulatory protein isolated from guduchi.
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This signifies that, Bhavana not only incorporates additional therapeutic attributes, but also helpful in increasing shelf-life.
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), a widely used plant in folk and Ayurvedic systems of medicine is well known for its immunomodulatory activity; however, the presence of an immunomodulatory protein (ImP) in guduchi has not been investigated.
Venous blood drawn from 20 healthy volunteers was allowed to form clots which was weighed and treated with the extract of test plant materials to disrupt the clots. Weight of clot after and before treatment provided a percentage of clot lysis. SK was used as a positive and water as a negative control.
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In this study, there was a significant increase in SOD level and decrease in MDA level in Ashwagandha and Guduchi groups.
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Traditionally, a number of medicinal plants are used to treat various types of hepatic disorders but few of them were pharmacologically evaluated for their safety and efficacy. The combination of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), and Solanum nigrum (Kakmachi) was traditionally used in Indian System of Medicine (Ayurveda) for the treatment of various liver-related disorders.
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Guduchi ImP was purified to homogeneity from dry stem powder extract (~150 mg protein per 100 g guduchi stem powder) as a single chain acidic protein (25 kDa) without glycans; it was noticeably absent in guduchi leaf. Guduchi satwa and guduchi capsule preparations also lacked this protein. Guduchi ImP showed ~3-fold mitogenic activity compared to untreated murine splenocytes in the 1-10 μg/mL concentration range; 5-7-fold increase in mitogenic activity was seen in the case of murine thymocytes vs. control. The purified protein also induced nitric oxide production from macrophages present in isolated murine peritoneal exudates cells. Guduchi ImP displays enhanced phagocytosis of yeast cells by macrophages. Guduchi ImP does not possess hemagglutination activity (towards rabbit and human erythrocytes of all blood groups) indicating that the immunomodulatory protein is not a lectin.
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T. cordifolia extract significantly (p<0.05) increased the response time and decreased the number of writhes in hot plate method and abdominal writhing method respectively, on comparison with the control group.
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Exposure of HeLa cells to 0, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 microg/ml of guduchi extracts (methanol, aqueous and methylene chloride) resulted in a dose-dependent but significant increase in cell killing, when compared to non-drug-treated controls. The effects of methanol and aqueous extracts were almost identical. However, methylene chloride extract enhanced the cell killing effect by 2.8- and 6.8-fold when compared either to methanol or aqueous extract at 50 and 100 microg/ml, respectively. Conversely, the frequency of micronuclei increased in a concentration-dependent manner in guduchi-treated groups and this increase in the frequency of micronuclei was significantly higher than the non-drug-treated control cultures and also with respect to 5 microg/ml guduchi extract-treated cultures, at the rest of the concentrations evaluated. Furthermore, the micronuclei formation was higher in the methylene chloride extract-treated group than in the other two groups. The dose response relationship for all three extracts evaluated was linear quadratic. The effect of guduchi extracts was comparable or better than doxorubicin treatment. The micronuclei induction was correlated with the surviving fraction of cells and the correlation between cell survival and micronuclei induction was found to be linear quadratic. Our results demonstrate that guduchi killed the cells very effectively in vitro and deserves attention as an antineoplastic agent.
Results of an exploratory trial suggested activity trends of Zingiber officinale-Tinopsora cordifolia (platform combination)-based formulations in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) Knees. These formulations were "platform combination+Withania somnifera+Tribulus terrestris" (formulation B) and "platform combination+Emblica officinale" (formulation C). This paper reports safety of these formulations when used in higher doses (1.5-2 times) along with Sallaki Guggul and Bhallataka Parpati (a Semecarpus anacardium preparation).
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The present review describes medicinal applications of T. cordifolia in countering various disorders and usages as anti-oxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular protective, neuroprotective, osteoprotective, radioprotective, anti-anxiety, adaptogenic agent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, a thrombolytic agent, anti-diarrheal, anti-ulcer activity, anti-microbial and anti-cancer values. The plant is also a source of micronutrients viz. copper, calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and manganese. A special focus has been made on its health benefits in treating endocrine and metabolic disorders and potentials as an immune booster. Several patents have been filed and granted to inventions encompassing T. cordifolia as a major component of therapeutics for ameliorating metabolic, endocrinal and several other ailments, aiding in the betterment of human life expectancy.
Concept of Saviryta Avadhi (shelf-life) of Ayurvedic dosage forms is well-defined in classics of Ayurveda. Information on this is scattered in initial classics of Ayurveda like Charaka Samhita, but focused well after 13(th) Century AD in texts such as Vangasena Samhita, Sharangadhara Samhita and Yogaratnakara. Though the concepts have a strong background; considering the pharmaceutical development, a need is felt to re-evaluate the age old concepts by following current norms.
Guduchi ImP was purified from dry stem powder extract by anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose. Characterization of guduchi ImP was performed by SDS-PAGE, periodic acid-Schiff staining, HPLC, and immunochemical analyses. Immunostimulatory activity was assessed by lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage activation assays. Fresh guduchi stem/leaf, guduchi satwa and guduchi capsules were also analyzed for the presence of guduchi ImP.
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Over the centuries, herbs have served as a major source of medicines for prevention and treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. These herbs are getting more importance around the globe and many studies have provided safety and efficacy of such herbal drugs in different condition. Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Miers) is reported as highly potent Pramehahara (anti-diabetic) herb in Ayurveda and Guduchi Satva (GS) is popularly used to treat Paittika type of Prameha. In the present study, GS prepared from the stem of T. cordifolia was evaluated for hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in 18 h fasted mice. GS was suspended in distilled water and administered to animals at the dose of 130 mg/kg that showed the marginal reduction in blood sugar level (BSL) at all the time intervals in normoglycemic mice. In anti-hyperglycemic activity, administration of GS prior to glucose over load failed to attenuate BSL at all-time interval in comparison to glucose control group. The study concludes that mild hypoglycemic insignificant anti-hyperglycemic activities of GS.
Food is medicine and vice versa. In Hindu and Ayurvedic medicine, and among human cultures of the Indian subcontinent in general, the perception of the food-medicine continuum is especially well established. The preparation of the exhilarating, gold-coloured Soma, Amrita or Ambrosia, the elixir and food of the 'immortals'-the Hindu pantheon-by the ancient Indo-Aryans, is described in the Rigveda in poetic hymns. Different theories regarding the botanical identity of Soma circulate, but no pharmacologically and historically convincing theory exists to date. We intend to contribute to the botanical, chemical and pharmacological characterisation of Soma through an analysis of two historical Amrita recipes recorded in the Bower Manuscript. The recipes are referred therein as panaceas (clarified butter) and also as a medicine to treat nervous diseases (oil), while no exhilarating properties are mentioned. Notwithstanding this, we hypothesise, that these recipes are related to the ca. 1800 years older Rigvedic Soma. We suppose that the psychoactive Soma ingredient(s) are among the components, possibly in smaller proportions, of the Amrita recipes preserved in the Bower Manuscript.
Significant earlier recovery of weakness was observed with Livwin as compared to placebo at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Serum bilirubin and ALT was observed in normal range in significantly more number of patients with Livwin treatment as compared to placebo at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. AST was observed in normal range in significantly more number of patients with Livwin treatment as compared to placebo at 2 and 4 weeks.
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Both the samples are bitter and astringent with characteristic odor. RC is creamish brown in colour, while BRC is dark blackish brown. These Organoleptic characters were unchanged till the 6(th) month of study. On comparision, BRC is found to be more stable than RC.
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Sandhigatavata is described under vatavyadhi in all ayurvedic classical texts. Osteoarthritis is the most common articular disorder which begins asymptomatically in the second and third decades and is extremely common by age 70. Here Matra Vasti (therapeutic enema) was given with Bala taila as Vasti is the best treatment for vatavyadhies. It has vatashamaka and rasayana properties. Indigenous compound drug containing Guggulu, Shallaki, Yastimadhu, Pippali, Guduchi, Nirgundi, Kupilu and Godanti was given in one group along with Matra Vasti. In this study, 33 patients of Sandhigatavata completed the treatment. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixteen patients in Group-A (sarvanga Abhyanga-swedana + matravasti) and 17 patients in Group-B (sarvanga Abhyanga-swedana+ matravasti + indigenous compound drug). The results of the study indicate that the patients of both the groups obtained highly significant relief in almost all the signs and symptoms of Sandhigatavata.
The information presented would be beneficial for researchers, medical professionals and pharmaceutical companies to design and develop effective medicines, drugs and healthical products exploiting the multiple as well as specific modes of actions of T. cordifolia, and also help in promoting and popularizing this rich herb having promising potentials to prevent and treat various ailments.
A study of gamma-irradiated Indian medicinal plant products was carried out using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Improved approaches like high-power measurement, microwave saturation, and thermal behavior of the radicals were explored for detection of irradiation. Aswagandha (Withania somnifera), vairi (Salacia reticulata), amla (Emblica officinalis), haldi (Curcumin longa), and guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) exhibited a weak singlet at g = 2.005 before irradiation. Aswagandha, immediately after radiation treatment, revealed a complex EPR spectrum characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique as superposition of 3 paramagnetic centers. One group of signal with organic origin was carbohydrate and cellulose radical and the other was isotropic signal of inorganic origin (g⟂ =2.0044 and g|| = 1.9980). However, other products did not exhibit any radiation-specific signal after irradiation. Power saturation and thermal behavior techniques were not suitable for these products. However, amongst all the 3 approaches, high-power measurement of EPR spectra emerged as a suitable technique in identification of the irradiated aswagandha.
Kaumarbhritya a branch of Asthanga Ayurveda deals with neonatal, infant and child health care. Multicentric studies conducted in various developed and developing countries have indicated that Infant Mortality Rate (I.M.R.) is very high in developing countries, and infection has been observed as the major cause. Immune system in neonates is not yet fully functional. Bala compound having the ingredients ofAtibala (Abutilon indicum Linn), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn), Vidanga (Emblica ribes burn), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Welld Miers), Pippali (Piperlongum linn), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), Shankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois ), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn) and Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum wall) are Medhya as well as Rasayana drugs mention in Ayurvedic classics. 'Bala compound" was tried in infants in the form of oral drops for a period of six months and result was assessed for serum immuoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA for three months of interval of two follow ups (i.e., third and six month of infant). There is significant increase of immunoglobulins observed after six months administration of 'Bala compoumd"
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To evaluate in vitro thrombolytic property of Dhamasa (Fagonia arabica Linn.), Kushta (Saussurea lappa Decne.), and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Thunb.) plant extract.