Generic Imdur is an effective medication which helps in the treatment of angina attacks. Generic Imdur acts as nitrates.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Isosorbide Mononitrate.
Generic Imdur is a perfect remedy, which helps to treat angina attacks.
Generic Imdur acts as nitrates.
Imdur is also known as Isosorbide Mononitrate.
Generic name of Generic Imdur is Isosorbide Mononitrate.
Brand names of Generic Imdur are Imdur, ISMO, Monoket.
Take Generic Imdur tablets orally with or without food.
Do not crush or chew it.
Take Generic Imdur at the same time with water.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Imdur suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Imdur and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Imdur are difficult or slow breathing, muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, high temperature, fainting, abnormal heartbeat, changes in vision, flushing, convulsions, severe throbbing migraine, lightheadedness.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Imdur are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Imdur if you are allergic to Generic Imdur components.
Do not take Generic Imdur if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby.
Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.
Be careful using Generic Imdur if you take dihydroergotamine (D.H.E. 45); or any other heart medicines, especially those used to treat high blood pressure or irregular heartbeats.
Be careful using Generic Imdur if you suffer from or have a history of congestive heart failure, have low blood pressure; a stroke, a transient ischemic attack (TIA, or mini-stroke), have anemia; have an allergy to nitrates; have closed-angle glaucoma; migraines, kidney disease; liver disease, heart attack, a serious head injury.
If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.
Be very careful when you are driving machine.
Do not stop taking Generic Imdur suddenly.
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Our study suggests that CGRP may contribute to the response to IS-5 MN in a XOR-independent pathway.
CHF-induced increases in angiotensin II content and MAPK activation contribute to arrhythmogenic atrial structural remodeling. ACE inhibition interferes with signal transduction leading to the AF substrate in CHF and may represent a useful new component to AF therapy.
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Current use of nitrates was not associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-1.04]. Those who used as-needed medication only had a lower risk of hip fracture (adjusted OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.63-1.08) compared with users of maintenance medication only (adjusted OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.97-1.40). No association was found between duration of nitrate use and fracture risk.
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Vascular oxidative stress limits the bioavailability of endothelial NO and promotes atherosclerosis, while NO itself exerts antioxidative effects. It is unknown if therapeutic NO impacts on vascular oxidative stress in atherosclerosis.
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David Patch and colleagues (Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 1013-19) randomised 102 patients surviving a variceal bleeding to EBL or drug therapy with propranolol with the addition of ISMN if target reductions in portal pressure (evaluated by the hepatic venous pressure-gradient [HVPG]) were not achieved at 3 months. Overall, results of drug therapy were similar to those of EBL (44% vs 54% rebleeding at 1 year). There were no differences in survival or non-bleeding complications. Christophe Bureau and colleagues (Hepatology 2002; 36: 1361-66) treated 34 patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension with propranolol and measured HVPG after a median of 4 days. Target HVPG reductions were achieved in 13 "responders". ISMN was added in the 21 "non-responders" and HVPG measured again: seven more patients achieved target HPVG reduction. Re-bleeding rates were lower in responders than in non-responders (10% vs 64%). Both studies suggest that drug therapy can be improved by adding ISMN to b blockers in those patients with an insufficient decrease in HVPG. WHERE NEXT? Long-term drug therapy is emerging as effective treatment for the prevention of variceal rebleeding. The role of HVPG monitoring as a guide to identifying patients requiring further treatment needs to be further evaluated. Trials to determine the best treatment for patients who do not respond to drug therapies are also required.
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Sustained-release isosorbide mononitrate, which is safe and well tolerated, can effectively control BP, decrease the category and quantity of hypotensive drugs, improve left ventricular hypertrophy and reduce the incidence of acute left heart failure in MHD patients.
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In vitro permeation experiments were performed on 4 model drugs [isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN), ionized lidocaine (ionized LC), fluorescein (FL), and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran 4 kDa (FD-4)] using excised pig ear skin. The skin permeations of ionized LC, FL, and FD-4 were decreased by hair follicle-plugging. Hair follicle-plugging prevented the skin permeation of FL and FD-4 in EtOH-pretreated skin, but did not prevent that of ISMN. On the other hand, the effect of hair follicle-plugging on the permeation of ionized LC was different among the pretreatment conditions. These results indicate that the EtOH pretreatment greatly affected the aqueous pathway in the stratum corneum and hair follicles.
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Plasma concentrations and bioavailability of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and its active metabolites isosorbide 2-mononitrate (2-ISMN) and isosorbide 5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) from two sustained-release formulations and one standard-release formulation of isosorbide dinitrate were compared. Means of peak drug concentrations of ISDN, 2-ISMN, and 5-ISMN after administration of the 20-mg sustained-release formulation were 5.5, 24.4, and 129.1 ng/ml, respectively, at 3.1, 4.2, and 4.5 h; after the 40-mg sustained-release formulation, they were 10.9, 44.0, and 214.5 ng/ml, respectively, at 4.2, 6.3, and 6.7 h; and after the 20-mg standard formulation, they were 19.1, 34.7, and 159.2 ng/ml, respectively, at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h. As might be expected, peak concentrations and their times of occurrence were statistically significantly different when results from the sustained-release formulation were compared to those from the standard formulation. Plasma drug concentrations were detectable for longer after administration of the sustained-release formulations. The extent of bioavailability of ISDN, 2-ISMN, and 5-ISMN from the three formulations as estimated from the areas under the plasma drug concentration - time curves were not statistically significantly different (p greater than 0.05). The ratios for relative drug bioavailability from the respective formulations were similar whether ISDN, 2-ISMN, or 5-ISMN data were used for calculation. Reasons are discussed for the biphasic decline of plasma ISDN concentrations (half-lives 26 min and 5.1 h) obtained after administration of the standard-release formulation.
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One hundred and forty-four MHD patients with hypertension were enrolled in this perspective, randomized, controlled, single-center trial. All patients accepted antihypertensive drugs at baseline, including renin-angiotensin system inhibitor, calcium channel blocker, ß-receptor blocker or a-receptor blocker. Seventy-two patients (nitrate group) took isosorbide mononitrate 30 mg daily, titered to a maximal dosage of 120 mg daily for 24 weeks. The dosage was adjusted once a week according to BP. The remaining 72 patients (non-nitrate group) did not take nitrate drugs other than antihypertensive drugs. BP, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), heart rate, interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and hemoglobin (Hb) were monitored.
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Thirty-three men with stable exercise-induced angina pectoris entered a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in which controlled-release isosorbide-5-mononitrate 60 mg once daily was compared with conventional isosorbide dinitrate 20 mg 3 times daily. Each drug was given for 2 weeks. Twenty-eight patients completed the study and data on exercise variables are available in 23 patients. Treatment with either drug resulted in significant antianginal effects, when measured 6 hours after a single dose and after 2 weeks of therapy compared with baseline placebo; however, there were significantly fewer signs of myocardial ischemia during treatment with isosorbide-5-mononitrate. There was no evidence of tolerance to either drug treatment but a significant attenuation of resting blood pressure (but not of exercise blood pressure) was observed with both drugs. Headache was the only clinically significant adverse event during therapy and it occurred more frequently in the isosorbide dinitrate treatment group (p less than 0.05 vs placebo); 3 such patients had to withdraw from the study because of headache. Thus, once-daily, controlled-release isosorbide-5-mononitrate appears as effective as conventional isosorbide dinitrate 3 times daily in patients with stable angina pectoris. The once-daily administration is convenient and improves patient compliance.
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Cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding were randomized to HVPG-guided therapy (n = 30) or nadolol + ligation (n = 29). A Baseline haemodynamic study was performed and repeated within 1 month. In the guided-therapy group, nonresponders to nadolol + ISMN received nadolol and carefully titrated prazosin and had a third haemodynamic study.
24 patients suffering from essential hypertension and with an average age of 68.5 +/- 1.1 years were studied: 20 male and four female patients, all with isolated systolic hypertension (systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 160 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg). None of the patients had received pharmacological treatment for their hypertension. None were receiving other medication or displayed concomitant pathologies.
Organic nitrate vasodilators (ORN) exert their pharmacologic effects through the metabolic release of nitric oxide (NO). Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is the principal enzyme responsible for NO liberation from nitroglycerin (NTG), but lacks activity towards other ORN. Cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1a1) can produce NO from NTG, but its activity towards other ORN is unknown. Using purified enzymes, we showed that both isoforms could liberate NO from NTG, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and nicrorandil, while only ALDH1a1 metabolized isosorbide-2-mononitrate and isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN). Following a 10-min incubation with purified enzyme, 0.1 mM NTG and 1 mM ISDN potently inactivated ALDH1a1 (to 21.9% ± 11.1% and 0.44% ± 1.04% of control activity, respectively) and ALDH2 (no activity remaining and 4.57% ± 7.92% of control activity, respectively), while 1 mM IS-5-MN exerted only modest inactivation of ALDH1a1 (reduced to 89% ± 4.3% of control). Cytosolic ALDH in hepatic homogenates incubated at the vascular EC(50) concentrations of ORN was inactivated by NTG (to 45.1% ± 8.1% of control activity) while mitochondrial ALDH was inactivated by NTG and nicorandil (to 68.2% ± 10.0% and 78.7% ± 19.8% of control, respectively). Via site-directed mutagenesis, the active sites of ORN metabolism of ALDH2 (Cys-319) and ALDH1a1 (Cys-303) were found to be identical to those responsible for their dehydrogenase activity. Cysteine-302 of ALDH1a1 and glutamate-504 of ALDH2 were found to modulate the rate of ORN metabolism. These studies provide further characterization of the substrate selectivity, inactivation, and active sites of ALDH2 and ALDH1a1 toward ORN.
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The aims of the present study were to investigate whether induction of nitrate tolerance is a useful treatment in cluster headache and to correlate any changes in attack frequency of cluster headache and nitrate-induced headache to the vascular adaptation during continuous nitrate administration. The results were compared to results obtained from studies of nitrate tolerance in healthy subjects.
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We investigated two possible reasons for the greater antiplatelet efficacy of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) in vivo as compared to in vitro. ISDN and its two main hepatic metabolites, isosorbide-2-mononitrate (IS-2-MN) and isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) were compared for their ability to inhibit platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 generation in vitro in response to threshold concentrations of ADP, adrenaline, collagen, thrombin and arachidonic acid. We also determined the concentration of prostacyclin required to inhibit by 50% platelet aggregation (IC50) in response to supra-threshold doses of aggregating agents. Out of the three nitrates tested, IS-2-MN was more effective than ISDN in inhibition of platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 formation after ADP (minimum effective concentration: 10(-7) M) and adrenaline (minimum effective concentration: 10(-6) M). In addition, ISDN 10(-4)-10(-6) M decreased IC50 for prostacyclin from 2.7 +/- 1.2 to 0.36 +/- 0.2 nM. Generation of a platelet-active species, IS-2-MN, and synergism with prostacyclin are novel properties of ISDN and may account for in vivo-in vitro differences in antiaggregatory properties and in vivo mechanism of action.
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In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study, the authors investigated the initial time course of effects of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) on hemodynamic parameters in 15 healthy male volunteers after administering a single oral dose of either an immediate-release formulation (IS-5-MN 20 mg) or of a sustained-release formulation (IS-5-MN 50 mg). The latter formulation released 15 mg IS-5-MN immediately, while 35 mg of the dose was sustained release. The onset of effect on the a/b-ratio of the finger pulse curve (20 minutes after administration) and on heart rate following orthostatic challenge (30 minutes) was not different following ingestion of either the immediate-release or the sustained-release formulation. Only the systolic blood pressure following orthostatic challenge was affected earlier after ingestion of the immediate-release form of IS-5-MN (10 vs. 30 minutes). There was no statistically significant difference in the maximum effect on the measured hemodynamic parameters between the two formulations. There was no significant difference with respect to the effect per dose between both of the active treatments (i.e., IS-5-MN 20 mg immediate release and IS-5-MN 50 mg sustained release) within 6 hours after administration. The hemodynamic findings were consistent with the observed rates of the increase of plasma concentrations of IS-5-MN following both formulations. Thus, the administration of the sustained-release formulation of IS-5-MN 50 mg caused similar maximum effects when compared with an immediate-release formulation (20 mg). While the onset of effect of IS-5-MN on the a/b-ratio of the finger pulse curve and on heart rate following orthostasis was similar after administration of either the immediate- or the sustained-release formulation, the onset of effect of the sustained-release formulation on systolic blood pressure orthostasis was determined slightly later. However, the latter difference seems to be of minor clinical relevance.
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Before evacuation, cervical biopsies were obtained with the use of a Tru-Cut biopsy needle. Morphology was studied by electron microscopy. For assessment of inflammatory events the expression of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-9 was estimated by immunohistochemistry and interleukin IL-8 was quantified by ELISA.
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To evaluate morphological changes and inflammatory events in the uterine cervix following presurgical treatment with the prostaglandin analogue misoprostol or the nitric oxide donor isosorbide mononitrate (IMN).
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It is hypothesised that the well known development of tolerance to the vasodilating action of organic nitrates is contributed by intracellular depletion of free thiols occurring during repeated treatment with these drugs. Therefore, ring segments of porcine coronary arteries with and without endothelium were treated for 30 min with either vehicle or 100 microM of isosorbide-5-mononitrate, glyceryl trinitrate, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine or N-(3-nitratopivaloyl)-1-cysteine-ethylester (SPM 3672), and the content of histochemically stained free thiols (-SH) and disulfides (S-S-) was measured densitometrically in single smooth muscle cells. In the presence of endothelium the content of -SH in smooth muscle cells of controls (n = 8) gave an extinction of 0.127 +/- 0.013 in the intima and 0.120 +/- 0.010 in the media. The corresponding values for S-S- were 0.684 +/- 0.084 and 0.535 +/- 0.120 (n = 8). Removal of endothelium reduced S-S- to 82.1 +/- 70% and increased -SH to 126.7 +/- 6.7%. Treatment with all nitrates reduced -SH in intact artery segments to a similar degree, ranging between 54.0 +/- 4.4 and 68.7 +/- 4.7% (n = 8-10). In contrast, S-S- content was less affected and reached values between 70.6 +/- 2.8 and 91.6 +/- 6.0% (n = 8-9). As evaluated by tension studies, tolerance developed for glycerol trinitrate and isosorbide-5-mononitrate but not for S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine. Induction of tolerance with glycerol trinitrate (0.1 mM) produced a significantly more pronounced attenuation in activity of isosorbide-5-mononitrate than tolerance induction with isosorbide-5-mononitrate (1 mM). In contrast, the potency of SPM 3672 was not reduced in glycerol trinitrate-tolerant arteries. We conclude that, in porcine coronary arteries, an intact endothelium modifies intracellular thiols and disulfides. In addition, nitrate tolerance is associated with, but probably not caused by, thiol depletion.
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Nitrate usage worldwide is on the increase as the indications for therapy expand. Present indications for nitrate therapy include chronic stable angina pectoris, unstable angina pectoris, complications of acute myocardial infarction, and 'unloading' therapy for acute and chronic congestive heart failure. Nitrates are also being used in the operating suite by anaesthesiologists to control systolic blood pressure during various surgical procedures. New nitrate delivery systems have recently become available which provide considerable dosing flexibility, further increasing the interest in this group of compounds. The dominant action of nitrates is a direct effect on vascular smooth muscle, producing vasodilation of the veins and arteries. These drugs decrease myocardial work by lowering systolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and reducing intracardiac dimensions. In addition, nitrates have a potent effect on cardiac preload as a result of systemic venodilatation. There is also some evidence that nitrates exert direct effects on the coronary circulation (vasodilatation of coronary arteries and coronary collateral vessels, and direct atherosclerotic stenosis dilatation). These actions may play a role in relieving myocardial ischaemia. Adverse sequelae of nitrate therapy are well known and serious adverse reactions are uncommon. Headache and dizziness are the most frequent side effects. Nitrate tolerance is a definite problem - present evidence indicates that long acting formulations, high doses, or frequent dosing regimens are particularly likely to induce vascular tolerance to nitrates. Consequently, provision of a nitrate-free interval has taken on increasing significance as a strategy to avoid tolerance. Nitrate delivery systems are numerous. Although availability varies from country to country, in most countries there are a wide variety of formulations of glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) available, including sublingual and oral tablets, oral spray, topical ointment as well as discs or patches for transdermal administration, a transmucosal tablet and an intravenous formulation. Similar formulations of isosorbide dinitrate, except buccal tablets, are available in some countries. Isosorbide 5-mononitrate, a potent metabolite of isosorbide dinitrate, is achieving increasing popularity as an antianginal drug. Optimum nitrate therapy requires a good understanding of the properties of the various formulations, particularly onset and duration of action and propensity to induce tolerance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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A randomized controlled trial of 60 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 20 mg daily of isosorbide mononitrate or 70 mg weekly of alendronate for 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and after 12 months.
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A method for the analysis of aqueous samples of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) is presented. It is based on packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using 20% of 2-propanol in carbon dioxide as the mobile phase and a diol silica column as the stationary phase. Using the described conditions it is possible to quantitate 5-ISMN released from Imdur tablets in gastric media. The precision upon repeated injections was 2% (RSD) at the 20 microg/ml level (n=8), using peak height measurements, when the solution was circulated through the sample loop of the injector. Samples from drug release testing that had been analyzed with reversed phase LC were analyzed with the present method and the results agreed well. It is also possible to monitor the drug released in a dissolution-testing vessel through direct on-line continuous loading (recirculation) of the sample loop of the SFC instrument.
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The majority of patients (85%) using regular-release ISMN were taking the medication in an inappropriate fashion, while most patients taking sustained-release preparations were using them properly. More than half the patients treated with regular-release ISMN were treated with doses exceeding the recommended dose. In addition, most patients experiencing effort angina had not been instructed regarding the prophylactic use of nitrates. These findings suggest that both physicians and pharmacists must be reminded of the continuing need to properly counsel patients regarding appropriate drug use.
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Nitroglycerin and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), the most commonly used nitrate vasodilators, have been shown to possess antiplatelet properties. It has also been shown, interestingly, that their inhibition of aggregation (mostly upon ADP and adrenaline) occurs in vivo at concentrations 1-2 log orders lower than in vitro, and in the full therapeutic range. Many different hypotheses may explain such an in vivo/in vitro difference: 1) that nitrates induce prostacyclin synthesis; 2) that they synergize prostacyclin; 3) that they give rise to more active in vivo metabolites; 4) that some other requirement for their action, such as the availability of reducing thiols, may be a limiting factor in the in vitro setting. The discrimination among such hypotheses should contribute new insights into nitrate action at the platelet level. On the basis of experiments on cultured endothelial cells and vascular fragments, we had previously concluded against prostacyclin induction by nitrates. On the other hand, ISDN may decrease the IC50 for prostacyclin in aggregation by suprathreshold doses of various aggregating agents, and therefore, be synergistic with this endogenous antiplatelet substance. Compared to ISDN, the two longer-lived metabolites isosorbide-2- and isosorbide-5-mononitrates (IS-2-MN, IS-5-MN) appear remarkably different in terms of antiplatelet potency in vitro (minimum effective concentrations 10(-7)-10(-6)M for IS-2-MN, 10(-4)M for IS-5-MN, for ADP-and adrenaline-induced aggregation and thromboxane (TX) B2 production).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Isosorbide mononitrate induced a significant increase in cervical distensibility. It also caused a significant change in maternal blood pressure and maternal pulse rate. In addition, the frequency of maternal headache and palpitations was significantly higher in the isosorbide mononitrate group versus the placebo group. However, the intensity of these symptoms was moderate.
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In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated the effects of a 60 mg dose of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) given daily for 11 months to 47 patients with clinical or echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. Forty-five patients received a placebo.
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