Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P < 0.05). Additionally high doses of MCE and MCA significantly reduced the plasmatic insulin levels compared to the HFD groups (P < 0.05) to concentrations comparable to those found in the normal group. MCA and MCE supplementation also significantly modulated the lipid profiles in plasma, liver, and feces compared to mice fed the HFD (P < 0.05). Furthermore MCA and MCE significantly increased hepatic SOD activity, and reduced MDA generation in the liver of the HFD mice (P < 0.05).
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The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of an aqueous extract of MAC-ST/001 (a new polyherbal formulation) which was given once daily to rats at different doses. The animals were divided into diabetic and nondiabetic control groups. The duration of each experiment lasted from 1 week to 1 month, and the results were compared with that of the standard hypoglycemic drug glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), which was given once daily. In this study, biochemical and histopathological parameters were studied in streptozotacin (STZ) (single intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg)-induced diabetic rats. The diabetic rats showed a significant (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) decrease in their body weight and serum amylase with marked elevation in blood glucose, serum cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and serum transaminases (AST and ALT) after 1 week till the 28th day of diabetes. Cytotoxicity of MAC-ST/001 formulation was also studied on C2C12, 3T3-L1, and HepG2 cells through MTT assay. Histological examination of the liver and pancreas of normal control, diabetic control, and drug-treated rats revealed significant results. Finally, it was concluded that administration of this MAC-ST/001 extract reversed most blood and tissue changes caused by STZ-induced diabetes in rats.
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Single crystals of ribonuclease Mc, a new class of plant ribonuclease from the seeds of the bitter gourd, were obtained from solutions of polyethylene glycol 8000 by the hanging-drop vapour diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with cell dimensions a = 67.28 A, b = 75.21 A, c = 38.54 A. The assumption of one monomer per asymmetric unit gives rise to a Vm value of 2.29 A3/Da. The crystals diffract beyond 2.0 A resolution and are suitable for high resolution X-ray structure analysis.
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A total of 20 respondents constituted by herbalists, herbsellers and old people that have privileged information on the plants used in the treatment of measles among children were encountered during the survey. Twenty-three plant species belonging to 18 Angiosperm families were said to possess curative properties for the cure of measles among the local populace. Amongst the most frequently used plants are Elytraria marginata Vahl, Peperomia pellucida (L.) Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Vernonia amygdalina Del., Momordica charantia L., Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv.) Seem. ex Bureau, and Ocimum gratissimum L.
In the present study, a special kind of Momordica charantia seeds produced in Hai Nan was selected and analyzed. Firstly, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the mineral elements. It was clear that the contents of K, Mg and P are the highest in the seeds; Cr and Zn takes up to 5.65% and 45.45% high, especially, which are rare in plant foods. These minerals, especially Cr and Zn might have a complex effect on those proteins or polysaccharides and form a stronger anticipation of hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and cholesterol. Secondly, seed oil was extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction with a yield ratio of 36.89, and the fatty acids were treated by methylation in alkaline process and purified by thin-layer chromatography, then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) identification. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) take up 36.712, and mainly are stearic acid; monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) is only 3.33% which is dominantly linoleic acid (LA); Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) accounted for 59.96%, and the alpha-eleostearic acid takes up 54.26% as the main fatty acids in all. The plentiful alpha-eleostearic acid leads to strong effects of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, lowering blood fat, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and preventing cardiovascular diseases, and so on. Knowing clearly the mineral elements distribution and identifying the composition of fatty acid, especially the main fatty acids in the oil, are both of great guiding importance to further exploit the clinical and edible value in Momordica charantiap seeds.
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The effect of silicon (Si) supply on the infection and spread of Pythium aphanidermatum was studied in the roots of tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum (=Solanum lycopersicum), an Si excluder] and bitter gourd (Mormodica charantia, an Si intermediate accumulator). Individual roots were mounted into PVC compartmented boxes which allowed the application of Si and zoospores to defined root zones. Two days after inoculation, root growth was recorded, and P. aphanidermatum colonization of individual root sections was determined by ELISA. In tomato as well as in bitter gourd the root tip was the root section most sensitive to P. aphanidermatum infection. Application of Si did not affect severe root-growth inhibition by P. aphanidermatum in either species. However, continuous Si supply significantly inhibited the basipetal spread of the pathogen from the infected root apex in bitter gourd but not in tomato. Si application to the roots only during pretreatment or only during/after the infection of the roots failed to inhibit the spread of P. aphanidermatum. Determination and compartmentation of Si in the roots of bitter gourd revealed that apoplastic Si was not, but symplastic Si was, associated with the ability of the plant to reduce the spread of the fungus in roots. It is concluded that accumulation of Si in the root cell walls does not represent a physical barrier to the spread of P. aphanidermatum in bitter gourd and tomato roots. The maintenance of elevated symplastic Si contents is a prerequisite for Si-enhanced resistance against P. aphanidermatum.
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Protein-ligand docking is a commonly used method for lead identification and refinement. While traditional structure-based docking methods represent the receptor as a rigid body, recent developments have been moving toward the inclusion of protein flexibility. Proteins exist in an interconverting ensemble of conformational states, but effectively and efficiently searching the conformational space available to both the receptor and ligand remains a well-appreciated computational challenge. To this end, we have developed the Flexible CDOCKER method as an extension of the family of complete docking solutions available within CHARMM. This method integrates atomically detailed side chain flexibility with grid-based docking methods, maintaining efficiency while allowing the protein and ligand configurations to explore their conformational space simultaneously. This is in contrast to existing approaches that use induced-fit like sampling, such as Glide or Autodock, where the protein or the ligand space is sampled independently in an iterative fashion. Presented here are developments to the CHARMM docking methodology to incorporate receptor flexibility and improvements to the sampling protocol as demonstrated with re-docking trials on a subset of the CCDC/Astex set. These developments within CDOCKER achieve docking accuracy competitive with or exceeding the performance of other widely utilized docking programs.
Many indigenous plants of Mascarene Islands have been used in folkloric medicine to manage diabetes but few species have received scientific attention. Selected traditional medicinal plants (Antidesma madagascariense Lam. -Euphorbiaceae (AM), Erythroxylum macrocarpum O.E.Schulz -Erythroxylaceae (EM), Pittosporum senacia Putterl -Pittosporaceae (PS), Faujasiopsis flexuosa Lam. C.Jeffrey -Asteraceae (FF), Momordica charantia Linn -Cucurbitaceae (MC) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L -Lamiaceae (OT) were evaluated for their antioxidant, antiglycation and cytotoxic potential in vitro.
The effects of alpha-momorcharin, beta-momorcharin and alpha-trichosanthin on lipogenesis in isolated rat adipocytes were examined. None of the three abortifacient proteins possessed lipogenic activity. The plant proteins did not affect the plasma-glucose level in fasting mice nor did they affect luteinizing hormone-induced testosterone production in isolated rat Leydig cells or corticotropin-induced corticosterone production in isolated rat adrenal decapsular cells by the end of a 2-h incubation period. The results suggest that the functions of adipocytes, adrenal decapsular cells, Leydig cells and pancreatic beta cells were not greatly affected after short-term exposure to the abortifacient proteins.
The resistance of human malaria parasites to anti-malarial compounds has become considerable concern, particularly in view of the shortage of novel classes of anti-malarial drugs. One way to prevent resistance is by using new compounds that are not based on existing synthetic antimicrobial agents.
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Saline extracts of Trichosanthes kirilowii root tubers and Momordica charantia seeds were subjected to differential acetone fractionation. The fraction that precipitated after addition of 0.8 vol. acetone was designated API, the fraction that precipitated after addition of another 1.2 vol. acetone was designated APII, and the fraction that precipitated after addition of another volume acetone was designated APIII. API, APII and APIII are fractions enriched with lectins, abortifacient proteins and saponins, respectively. T. kirilowii API and APII, and the purified lectin and abortifacient protein (alpha-trichosanthin), were devoid of any significant antilipolytic activity. M. charantia seed API and APIII inhibited hormone-induced lipolysis; the purified lectin and saponin similarly possessed antilipolytic activity. M. charantia seed APII and abortifacient proteins (alpha- and beta- momorcharins), however, lacked such activity. The acid acetone powder of M. charantia seeds and the acetone powder of M. charantia fruits also exhibited antilipolytic activity. However, the acetone powder of Cucurbita maxima fruits and seeds possessed neither antilipolytic nor lipogenic activity. The results indicated that M. charantia fruits and seeds contained components that resembled insulin in inhibiting hormone-induced lipolysis, and that compounds with antilipolytic activity were probably absent from T. kirilowii root tubers and C. maxima fruits and seeds.
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Being one of the most common types of life threatening diseases in Southern Assam, India, the digestive system disorders (DSD) have gained much attention in recent decades. Traditional beliefs and inadequate income of mass population result in the use of alternative phytotherapies to treat the diseases.
In a case-control association study involving 801 PCOS women and 266 healthy controls, hormonal determinations and ACE polymorphism genotyping were performed. The PCOS women were classified into three groups: Group A presented biochemical hyperandrogenism, combined with anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology; Group B, clinical hyperandrogenism combined with anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology; and Group C, chronic anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology.
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Eight cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides called goyaglycosides-a, -b, -c, -d, -e, -f, -g, and -h and three oleanane-type triterpene saponins termed goyasaponins I, II, and III were isolated from the fresh fruit of Japanese Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) together with five known cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides momordicosides A, C, F1, I, and K. The structures of goyaglycosides and goyasaponins were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.
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The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of WBG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.
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A lot of treatment strategies available for diabetes but its complications are still a medical problem around the globe. It demands to find out some alternative therapeutic measures. In order to investigate the anti-diabetic potential of probiotics and natural extracts, this study was designed. Accordingly, a local source of yogurt probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum was isolated and characterized that showed its probiotic properties. Besides this, natural extracts of plants fruits like java plum (Syzygium cumini) and bitter gourd (M. charantia) were made. Lactobacillus fermentum and the extracts were administered individually as well as in combination to diabetes induced mice. Different parameters like body weight, blood glucose level and lipid profile including total cholesterol, HDL & LDL were analyzed before and after treatment. The results showed that Lactobacillus fermentum and natural extracts have hypoglycemic as well hypolipidemic activity against diabetic mice. This study can further investigated to screen potential compounds from these extracts to control the glucose and the lipid levels in diabetic patients.
α-MMC and MAP30 obtained from this novel purification strategy can meet the requirement of a large amount of samples for research. Their chemical modification can solve the problem of strong immunogenicity and meanwhile preserve moderate activities. All these findings suggest the potential application of PEGylated α-MMC and PEGylated MAP30 as antitumor and antivirus agents. According to these results, PEGylated RIPs can be constructed with nanomaterials to be a targeting drug that can further decrease immunogenicity and side effects. Through nanotechnology we can make them low-release drugs, which can further prolong their half-life period in the human body.
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The ribosome-inactivating proteins, bryodin, from Bryonia dioica, and momordin, from Momordica charantia, were coupled by a disulphide bond to a monoclonal anti-Thy 1.1 antibody (OX7). Both immunotoxins were specifically cytotoxic to the Thy 1.1-expressing mouse lymphoma cell line AKR-A in vitro. The OX7-bryodin immunotoxins were the more powerfully toxic and reduced protein synthesis in AKR-A cells by 50% at a concentration of 1-4 x 10(-11) M as compared with 1 x 10(-9) M for the OX7-momordin immunotoxins. Neither of the immunotoxins was toxic to mouse lymphoma EL4 cells, which lack the Thy 1.1 antigen, at concentrations up to 3 x 10(-8) M. Further, bryodin and momordin immunotoxins made from an antibody (R10) of irrelevant specificity were without effect on AKR-A cells.
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The interaction of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seed lectin (MCL) with several nucleic acid bases has been investigated by monitoring changes induced in the protein fluorescence by ligand binding. Values of the binding constant, K(a) were obtained as 1.1 x 10(4), 1.56 x 10(4) and 2.2 x 10(3) M(-1) for adenine, cytosine and uracil, respectively. In addition, binding of 8-anilinonaphthalene 1-sulfonate (ANS) with MCL was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Interaction with MCL at low pH results in a large enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of ANS with a concomitant blue shift in the emission lambda(max), whereas at neutral and basic pH changes in both fluorescence intensity and emission maximum were very small, clearly suggesting that the MCL-ANS interaction is stronger at lower pH values. When excited at 295 nm in the presence of ANS, the protein fluorescence decreased with a concomitant increase in the emission intensity of ANS, suggesting resonance energy transfer from the tryptophan residues of MCL to ANS. Gel filtration profiles of MCL at pH values 2.0 and 7.4 are similar indicating that the tetrameric nature of MCL is retained even at low pH. Addition of lactose or adenine to MCL-ANS mixture did not alter the change in ANS fluorescence suggesting that lactose, adenine and ANS bind to MCL at independent and non-interacting sites. These results are relevant to understanding the functional role of MCL in the parent tissue.
A wild crop of athalakkai was identified, and the major nutrients of its fruits were assessed. South Indian recipes, poriyal, fry, pulikulambu, pickle, and vadagam, were prepared using athalakkai. Product acceptabilities were evaluated by a panel of 10 trained housewives using a 9-point hedonic scale. It was observed that athalakkai contains higher amounts of calcium, potassium, sodium, and vitamin C than bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L). It was also observed that athalakkai had a high crude fiber (6.42 g/100 g) content. The recipes prepared from athalakkai were highly acceptable. This research suggests the need to exploit this wild vegetable commercially through its increased use. However research should be conducted to identify the antinutritional factors and the effect of processing on these factors.
A water-soluble peptide MC2-1-5 from Momordica charantia L. Var. Abbreviata Ser., with hypoglycemic effect, was purified by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The infrared (IR) spectra showed characteristic absorption peaks and the molecular mass of MC2-1-5 was found to be 3405.5174Da by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The sequence of its first 10 N-terminal amino acids was GHPYYSIKKS as determined by a protein sequencer. MC2-1-5 reduced the blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic mice by 61.70% and 69.18% at 2 and 4h, respectively, after oral administration at a dose of 2mg/kg. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed MC2-1-5 produced a reduction of 25.50%, 39.62% and 41.74% in blood glucose level after 1, 2 and 3h, respectively, of oral administration compared with a diabetic control.
Hypoglycemic polypeptide (PA) was extracted from Momordica charantia seeds with organic acid and ethanol and purified with Sephadex G-50 gel filtration and RP-HPLC. PA was judged as plant insulin on the base of the analysis of its SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and amino acid composition.
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Our results indicate that M. charantia could be a source of plant-derived natural products with antiepimastigote and antifungal-modifying activity with moderate toxicity.
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While our results indicated possibility of improving crop yield and quality by using proper concentrations of fullerol, extreme caution needs to be exercised given emerging knowledge about accumulation and toxicity of nanoparticles in bodily tissues.