A 51-year-old gentleman was admitted with a history of severe depression with marked agitation in the background of cocaine abuse. He had multiple medical problems like deep vein thrombosis, hepatitis C and tardive dyskinesia. Besides him being on antidepressant medication, risperidone was prescribed by his previous physician for a period of 2 years. Since commencement on this medication, he developed tardive dyskinesia that was never recognised and managed. This side effect caused additional anxiety to the patient and affected his social life. Upon admission, his medications were reviewed, risperidone was gradually withdrawn and procyclidine 2 mg twice daily was added. After being discharged from hospital, he was regularly seen in the out patient clinic. Within 3 months, his tardive dyskinesia improved tremendously, his quality of social life got better and by virtue of this, there was a faster remission in his depression and anxiety symptoms.
Other than atropine and pirenzepine, only oxyphenonium caused full rescue from FDM (goggled versus control; mean +/- SD; refraction differences: -9.50 +/- 0.22 D vs. 0.83 +/- 0.31 D, P < 0.001; wet weight differences: 75.67 +/- 3.84 mg vs. 2.33 +/- 6.14 mg, P < 0.001; axial length differences: 0.80 +/- 0.05 mm vs. 0.03 +/- 0.04 mm, P < 0.001). Oxyphenonium-treated retinas showed no damage. Of the other compounds, several elicited partial rescue and/or damaged the retina, whereas others had no effect.
A 56-year-old lady was admitted with complaint of involuntary muscle twitching around the eyes, face and neck for two days. She had a history of low grade non-hodgkin lymphoma with completion of the first cycle of chemotherapy. Her medication on presenting consisted of Ondansetron 8 mg two times a day and Metoclopramide 10 mg three times a day (TDS). She started taking these medications 24 hours before having the above symptoms. She was clinically diagnosed with acute dystonic reactions and was also secondarily treated with anti-emetic medications. She was given IV procyclidine 10 mg stat followed by per oral (PO) procyclidine 2.5 mg TDS. Within an hour of administering IV procyclidine her symptoms began to gradually settle down. Acute dystonic reactions are not a very rare clinical presentation in the daily practice. The above case is a good example for the clinicians dealing with acute medical admissions.
There is a great body of evidence, that excitatory amino acid antagonists, apart from their anticonvulsive properties per se, potentiate the protective activity of conventional antiepileptics against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. It is worth stressing, that combinations of valproate with either CGP 37849 (a competitive NMDA antagonist) or dizocilpine (MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist), providing a 50% protection against maximal electroshock, resulted in no adverse effects, as measured in the chimney test (motor coordination) or passive avoidance task (long-term memory). On the other hand, valproate administered alone at its ED50, to protect against maximal electroshock, produced profound adverse effects. However, some NMDA antagonists (D-CPP-ene, memantine, procyclidine or trihexyphenidyl) did enhance the protection offered by common antiepileptics but these combined treatments were associated with considerable side-effects on motor coordination and long-term memory. Interestingly, ifenprodil (an antagonist of the polyamine site within the NMDA receptor complex) possessed some anticonvulsive activity against electroconvulsions but failed to enhance the antielectroshock efficacy of conventional antiepileptics. AMPA/KA receptor antagonists (NBQX and GYKI 52466), similarly to NMDA antagonists, potentiated the protective action of antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock and these combinations were generally devoid of unwanted effects.
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The effects of nitric oxide-regulating compounds on convulsions and mortality of rats administered i.p. with diisopropylfluorophosphate was investigated. l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor possessing an anticholinergic action, markedly attenuated the intensity of convulsions and significantly reduced the mortality rate. A similar result was obtained with anticholinergic procyclidine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist. Noteworthy, l-N(G)-nitroarginine, another inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, significantly attenuated the seizure intensity when administered in combination with atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg), though either l-N(G)-nitroarginine or atropine sulfate was inactive alone. It is suggested that nitric oxide may be a proconvulsant or a convulsion-promoting factor in anticholinesterase poisoning, and both the reduction of nitric oxide level and blockade of cholinergic systems may be required for more effective protection of seizures.
Eighty-eight subjects took part in two studies, 37 IBS patients (Rome II), 14 depressed patients, and 37 healthy volunteers. Eighteen IBS patients had diarrhea predominant IBS, 14 were alternators, and 5 were predominantly constipated. In study 1, blood was drawn for baseline measurement of growth hormone (GH) and cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. Pyridostigmine 120 mg was administered orally and further blood sampling took place for 180 min. In study 2, patients with IBS, depressed patients, and healthy subjects underwent the pyridostigmine test on two separate occasions with procyclidine (antimuscarinic) pre-treatment on one test occasion. Both GH and IL-6 were monitored.
Low volatile organophosphorous nerve agents such as VX, will most likely enter the body via the skin. The pharmacokinetics of drugs such as oximes, atropine and diazepam, are not aligned with the variable and persistent toxicokinetics of the agent. Repeated administration of these drugs showed to improve treatment efficacy compared to a single injection treatment. Because of the effectiveness of continuous treatment, it was investigated to what extent a subchronic pretreatment with carbamate (pyridostigmine or physostigmine combined with either procyclidine or scopolamine) would protect against percutaneous VX exposure. Inclusion of scopolamine in the pretreatment prevented seizures in all animals, but none of the pretreatments affected survival time or the onset time of cholinergic signs. These results indicate that percutaneous poisoning with VX requires additional conventional treatment in addition to the current pretreatment regimen. Decontamination of VX-exposed skin is one of the most important countermeasures to mitigate the effects of the exposure. To evaluate the window of opportunity for decontamination, the fielded skin decontaminant Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) was tested at different times in hairless guinea pigs percutaneously challenged with 4× LD50 VX in IPA. The results showed that RSDL decontamination at 15 min after exposure could not prevent progressive blood cholinesterase inhibition and therefore would still require additional treatment. A similar decontamination regimen with RSDL at 90 min showed that it still might effectively increase the time window of opportunity for treatment. In conclusion, the delay in absorption presents a window of opportunity for decontamination and treatment. The continuous release of VX from the skin presents a significant challenge for efficacious therapy, which should ideally consist of thorough decontamination and continuous treatment.
In order to facilitate direct comparisons of anticholinergic drug effects on activity, nine drugs were tested in one laboratory using a standardized procedure.
Atropine, pirenzepine, and himbacine prevent form-deprivation myopia (FDM) when administered intravitreously. The mechanisms and sites of action of these drugs against myopia are not clear. To shed further light on whether this mechanism is muscarinic, several other muscarinic antagonists were tested.
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The rapid onset of toxic signs following nerve agent intoxication and the apprehension that current therapy (atropine, oxime, diazepam) may not prevent brain damage, requires supportive pretreatment. Since the current pretreatment drug pyridostigmine fails in protecting brain-AChE, more effective pretreatment is necessary. A main focus of present-day pretreatment research is on bioscavengers, another is on centrally active reversible AChE-inhibitors combined with drugs showing anti-cholinergic, anti-glutamatergic, neuroprotective and non-sedating GABA-ergic activity. Strategies aimed at improving efficacy of pharmacological pretreatment will briefly be discussed. Galantamine, given as a pretreatment or stand-alone therapy, emerged as one of the best medical countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning in guinea pigs. Other preclinical studies demonstrated effective pretreatment consisting of physostigmine combined with procyclidine, scopolamine or bupropion (all single injections), against nerve agent poisoning in guinea pigs. A long sign-free pretreatment with physostigmine (Alzet pump), combined with single injection of procyclidine just before soman poisoning, enhanced the efficacy of a post-poisoning therapy consisting of 3 autoinjector equivalents of HI-6, atropine and diazepam, considerably.
Single oral doses of atropine, nortriptyline, procyclidine and lactose dummy were administered double-blind to eight healthy young subjects in a balanced, crossover study. Television pupillometry was used to measure the anticholinergic effects of these drugs on the pupil diameter in darkness and the reflex response to light flashes. The sensitivity of this method was compared with conventional autonomic function tests, viz. salivary secretion, radial pulse, forearm sweat gland activity and distance to visual near point. Visual analogue scales were used to obtain subjective measures of sedative drug effects. The expected inhibition of parasympathetic activity was found in most instances with two exceptions: firstly, that nortriptyline failed to affect the pupil despite causing a tachycardia and secondly, that procyclidine gave a bradycardia. The results are discussed with reference to the possible advantages of television pupillometry over conventional pupil measurement in the detection of anticholinergic drug effects.
A new technique for investigating drug-protein binding was developed employing capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)(3) (2+)] electrochemiluminescence (ECL) (CE-ECL) detection after equilibrium dialysis. Three basic drugs, namely pridinol, procyclidine and its analogue trihexyphenidyl, were successfully separated by capillary zone electrophoresis with end-column Ru(bpy)(3) (2+) ECL detection. The relative drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) for each single drug as well as for the three drugs binding simultaneously was calculated. It was found that the three antiparkinsonian drugs compete for the same binding site on HSA. This work demonstrated that Ru(bpy)(3) (2+) CE-ECL can be a suitable technique for studying drug-protein binding.
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The antidotal, anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of physostigmine (PhS) and procyclidine (PC), the combinational prophylactics for organophosphate poisoning, were evaluated. For the investigation of dose-response relationship in rats and guinea pigs, various doses (0-6 mg/kg) of PC in combination with a fixed dose (0.1 mg/kg) of PhS were pretreated subcutaneously 30 min prior to subcutaneous poisoning with soman. Procyclidine in combination with PhS exhibited remarkable synergistic effects in a dose-dependent manner, leading to 1.92-5.07 folds of protection ratio in rats and 3.00-4.70 folds in guinea pigs. On the other hand, a low effect (1.65 fold) was achieved with the traditional antidotes atropine (17.4 mg/kg) plus 2-pralidoxime (30 mg/kg) treated immediately after soman poisoning, compared with a marked protection (5.50 fold) with atropine (17.4 mg/kg) plus HI-6 (125 mg/kg) in unpretreated rats. Noteworthy, the combinational prophylactics greatly potentiated the effect of atropine plus 2-pralidoxime to 6.13 or 12.27 folds and that of atropine plus HI-6 to 12.00 or 21.50 folds with 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg of PC, respectively. A high dose (100 μg/kg, 1.3×LD(50)) of soman induced severe epileptiform seizures in rats pretreated with HI-6 (125 mg/kg), resulting in brain injuries in discrete brain regions under histopathological examination in 24 h. Interestingly, such seizures and excitotoxic brain injuries were fully prevented by pretreatment with PhS (0.1 mg/kg) and PC (1 mg/kg). Taken together, it is proposed that the prophylactics composed of PhS and PC could be a promising regimen for the prevention of lethality, seizures and brain injuries induced by soman poisoning.
The hypothesis has recently been advanced that increased activity of central dopaminergic mechanisms underlies the symptomatology of the schizophrenias. The evidence that dopaminergic transmission in the corpus striatum is impaired in Parkinson's disease suggests that observations on the relationship between Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia may illuminate the patholophysiology of the latter disease. Four cases are reported in which an illness with schizophrenic features developed in the setting of longstanding Parkinson's disease; attention is drawn to earlier reports of schizophrenic illnesses occurring as postencephalitic sequelae in the presence of a parkinsonian syndrome. These observations appear to conflict with the view that increased dopamine release in the striatum is necessary for the expression of schizophrenic psychopathology, but do not exclude the possibility that increased transmission may occur at other dopaminergic sites in the brain, for example the nucleus accumbens, tuberculum olfactorium or cerebral cortex. Similarly the dopamine receptor blockade hypothesis of the therapeutic effects of neuroleptic drugs cannot be maintained with respect to an action in the striatum in view of the differences between the actions of thioridazine and chlorpromazine in this structure, but may be tenable for actions at extra-straital sites.
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In an attempt to obtain more selective antagonists acting at muscarinic M2-receptors, analogues of 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide (4-DAMP methobromide) have been synthesized. These were tested, along with silabenzhexol, procyclidine, sila-procyclidine and AFDX-116, in dose-ratio experiments with guinea-pig isolated atria at 30 degrees C and ileum at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C. The agonist was carbachol and the selectivity was assessed from the difference between log K for receptors in ileum and log K for receptors in atria. The selectivity was not related to the affinity and some weakly active compounds retained appreciable selectivity but no compound had greater selectivity than 4-DAMP methobromide or pentamethylene bis-(4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidinium) bromide. Structure-activity relations are discussed. There seem to be steric limits to affinity but there are no obvious indications of the structural features associated with selectivity. It is suggested that more selective drugs may be obtained by introducing groups which may reduce affinity.
After intraperitoneal administration of procyclidine, eight metabolites were isolated from rat urine. They were identified as 1-(4-oxocyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-propanol, 1-(cis-4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-propanol, 1-(trans-4-hydrocyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-propanol , (1R,3R,4S,7R)- and (1R,3R,4S,7S)-1-(cis-3,cis-4-dihydroxycyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-(1-py rrolidinyl)- 1-propanol, (1R,3R,4R,7R)- and (1R,3R,4R,7S)-1-(cis-3,trans-4-dihydroxycyclohexyl)-1-phenyl- 3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-propanol, and one of both (1R,3S,4R,7R)- or (1R,3S,4R,7S)- 1-(trans-3,trans-4-dihydroxycyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl )-1-propanol by comparative TLC, GLC-MS and 13C-NMR spectroscopy.
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Four schizophrenic patients are reported in whom the acute development of dystonic muscle spasms, usually involving gaze deviation, was accompanied by the exacerbation or appearance of psychotic symptoms. In all cases the relationship between the neurological and psychiatric phenomena was close, and sometimes the presentation was bizarre or dramatic. The similarity of these states to the complex neuropsychiatric disturbances seen in post-encephalitic Parkinsonism is emphasised.
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This study assessed misuse of anticholinergic drugs in a population of 50 patients with serious mental illness who were assertively managed by a community-based outreach team in Sydney, Australia. One-third of the subjects reported having misused anticholinergics over the previous month. All anticholinergics were misused, and trihexyphenidyl (benzhexol) was misused most frequently. Most subjects misused at least one other drug as well. On direct questioning, the reason given most frequently was "to get high"; on indirect questioning, reasons were related more to peer participation and feelings of futility. Marginalized patients living in the community are vulnerable to the misuse of anticholinergic drugs.
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A double-blind, cross-over trial of the effectiveness of piribedil, procyclidine and placebo in the control of parkinsonism induced by fluphenazine decanoate was conducted in sixteen cases of chronic schizophrenia. Procyclidine was shown to be more effective and piribedil less effective than the placebo. Piribedil produced a number of unpleasant effects, including headache, vomiting and malaise.
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Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in combination with an anticholinergic, particularly anticholinergics with antiglutamatergic properties, can effectively protect against nerve agent-induced seizures and lethality. The objective of the present study was to examine potential behavioral side effects of the anticholinesterases physostigmine (0.1mg/kg), galantamine (3mg/kg), huperzine (0.5mg/kg), and donepezil (2.5mg/kg) alone or each drug in combination with anticholinergic procyclidine (3mg/kg). The results showed that rats injected intraperitoneally with galantamine displayed a mild cognitive deficit in terms of reduced preference for novelty that was similarly found among animals treated with procyclidine combined with either galantamine or donepezil. Locomotor activity and rearing were radically depressed in all groups treated with anticholinesterases as well as in combination with procyclidine. Reductions in activity were most prominent for rats injected with galantamine alone. Equalizing effects of cholinesterase inhibitors and anticholinergics were absent in the present context. Findings from previous studies that both systemic and local (amygdala) application of physostigmine cause increased fear-motivated freezing response in rats, may explain the marked reductions in activity among the present rats. In view of these findings, use of anticholinesterases (crossing the blood-brain barrier) as prophylactics against nerve agents must be carefully examined to avoid severe side effects.
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The administration of PRN medication by mental health nurses is an important, yet poorly explored aspect of psychiatric inpatient care. An examination of nurses' reasons for administering PRN medication is essential in ensuring its appropriate and effective use. Data were gathered from the drug charts of 44 inpatients on two acute psychiatric wards. Most PRN medication was given orally and the most frequently administered drugs were procyclidine, lorazepam, ibuprofen, diazepam and droperidol. The main reason for administering PRN medication was because patients had 'requested' it. Results were broadly consistent with previous research. It is recommended that nurses should give clear and specific reasons for administering PRN medication based on a valid assessment. Implications for clinical practice and further research are also discussed.
Didepil seems to be an effective antiepileptic agent in maximal generalized seizures as well as in temporal lobe seizures.
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Platelet-rich plasma from healthy controls was pre-treated with neuroleptics of the phenothiazine, butyrophenone or benzamide variety before aggregation with one of the following agonist agents: ADP, adrenaline, 5-HT, collagen, platelet activating factor or ristocetin. All compounds effective as antipsychotics, except sulpiride, depressed aggregation. Unmedicated schizophrenics showed aggregation responses indistinguishable from healthy controls. However, within days of treatment with either trifluoroperazine or haloperidol responses became abnormal in acutely psychotic patients. Increased responses to 5-HT and depressed responses to platelet activating factor were detected. After 4 weeks of treatment responses tended to return to normal. Aggregation responses were normal in those patients on long-term depot neuroleptics.
IBS and major depression are characterized by a pro-inflammatory profile, whereas IBS patients alone exhibit an exaggerated muscarinic receptor-mediated IL-6 response.
Oxyphenonium prevents FDM in chicks. The ineffectiveness or partial effectiveness of other compounds, coupled with the high concentrations of effective compounds required to prevent FDM, suggests that muscarinic antagonists act to prevent FDM, either at sites distant from the retina, or through a nonmuscarinic mechanism, on which only some of these drugs act.