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Our objective was to compare electronic health record data and social media data to better understand differences and similarities between clinician-reported ADRs and patients' concerns regarding aspirin and atorvastatin.
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Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) was used to decompose a variable-temperature synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (VT-XRPD) data matrix into diffraction patterns and concentration profiles of pure drug phases.
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Rosuvastatin is associated with a greater health benefit than the other statins across the considered profiles. Rosuvastatin is cost-effective compared to simvastatin in patients with SCORE risk ≥8% in females and ≥6% in males, while between 5% and the indicated values its cost-effectiveness is conditional to the patient baseline c-LDL level. Rosuvastatin is more cost-effective versus atorvastatin in female profiles associated with a SCORE risk≥11% and male profiles with SCORE risk ≥10%. Rosuvastatin is superior versus pitavastatin in both female and male profiles with high and very high cardiovascular risk.
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Randomized controlled trial conducted among 398 patients with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels from April 2010 to January 2011 at community and academic centers in the United States and Europe.
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Statins reduced LDL particle concentration less than LDL cholesterol (-30 to -38 vs. -38 to -51%). Reductions were greater with RSV than with ATV (P < 0.05 for LDL particle concentration and P < 0.001 for LDL cholesterol). Most patients attained LDL cholesterol <2.59 mmol/l (100 mg/dl) at 12 weeks (80% with RSV and 59% with ATV; P = 0.003), but only 27% of patients receiving RSV and 19% receiving ATV attained the goal of LDL particle concentration <1,000 nmol/l (P = 0.07).
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We sought to determine if atorvastatin lowers blood pressure in patients with previously diagnosed and well-controlled essential arterial hypertension and if this effect could be related to anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Among 92 patients with essential arterial hypertension, we studied 56 non-smoking and normolipemic: 39 were randomized to receive 80 mg atorvastatin daily for 3 months (statin-treated patients, ST), and the rest continued a previous hypotensive therapy (statin-free patients, SF). Blood pressure was measured using a 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurement device. Serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total antioxidant status (TAS) and plasma peroxides (assessed by Oxystat) were measured in both groups. The mean change in systolic BP (SBP) for atorvastatin was -5.7 mmHg (95% confidence interval CI, -4.1 to -7.2 mmHg), and the mean change in diastolic BP (DBP) was -3.9 mmHg (95% CI, -2.7 to -5.0 mmHg). No change in BP in SF patients was observed. In the ST group, hs-CRP and peroxides did not significantly decrease. In the SF group, concentrations of hs-CRP proceeded to decrease while peroxides increased. In the ST group, changes in hs-CRP correlated with changes in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.41, p = 0.013 and r = 0.35, p = 0.04, respectively) but did not correlate with changes in BP. The hypotensive statin effect was independent of the hypolipemic effect. During three months of observation, TAS concentrations in both groups remained stable. In this randomized study, additionally administered atorvastatin to non-smoking and normolipemic patients with well-controlled essential arterial hypertension resulted in reduction of BP. This effect was not followed by significant changes in hs-CRP, TAS or Oxystat concentrations. The hypotensive effect of atorvastatin did not depend on anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative or hypolipemic actions.
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Patients were randomized to receive topical atorvastatin 1% ointment (51 patients [atorvastatin group]) or placebo ointment (53 patients [control group]) applied once/day to pressure ulcers for 14 days in addition to standard care for pressure ulcers.
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The aim of this study was to examine the clinical profile of statin-induced myalgia in patients with no apparent predisposing factors. Patients who reported muscle complaints that limited daily functioning during statin use were prospectively identified among the patients of Kuusankoski District Hospital and its catchment area, a population of about 100,000, between January 2003 and July 2004. Twenty patients in whom the muscle complaints were probably attributable to the use of a statin were included in this series. There were no cases of severe myopathy or rhabdomyolysis, and the highest creatine kinase value observed was only about 1900 U/l. Of the 18 patients that were evaluable for creatine kinase level, 5 (28%) did not exhibit elevation of creatine kinase and 6 (33%) showed a minor increase only. Following discontinuation of the statin, resolution of symptoms and normalisation of creatine kinase occurred in 11 of the 13 patients with elevated creatine kinase value as well as muscle complaints. Statins may cause clinically important muscle symptoms without inducing a marked creatine kinase elevation.
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290 Koreans were genotyped for SLCO1B1, ABCB1 and CYP3A5, and 28 subjects were selected for the pharmacokinetic study. Each subject received a single oral dose of 20 mg atorvastatin and blood samples were collected up to 48 hr after dosing. The relationship between the genotypes and atorvastatin pharmacokinetics was examined.
At 9 +/- 1.8 months of follow-up, the mean dose of ER niacin was 1.3 g and atorvastatin 13.2 mg in group 1. In comparison, group 2 patients had mean atorvastatin dose of 15.9 mg. Patients in group 1 had significant elevation in HDL-C cholesterol (39.5 +/- 5.5 vs 35.7 +/- 4.5 mg/dL), reduction in total cholesterol (156.4 +/- 31 vs 164.5 +/- 39.3 mg/dL) and also LDL-C (88.9 +/- 28.3 vs 99.8 +/- 35.4 mg/dL) compared to group 2 (all p < 0.05). The magnitude of reduction in triglyceride levels was not significant between the groups (140.1 +/- 40.4 vs 145.2 +/- 46.5 mg/dL) (p = NS). No major adverse events or clinical myopathy occurred in either groups. Four patients (4%) discontinued ER niacin (2 due to gastro-intestinal symptoms and 2 due to worsening of diabetes). Flushing occurred in 3% patients, but none felt it to be troublesome.
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Cases of tendinopathy and tendon ruptures have been reported as side effects associated with statin therapy. This work assessed possible changes in the structural and biomechanical properties of the tendons after chronic treatment with statins. Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: treated with atorvastatin (A-20 and A-80), simvastatin (S-20 and S-80) and the group that received no treatment (C). The doses of statins were calculated using allometric scaling, based on the doses of 80 mg/day and 20 mg/day recommended for humans. The morphological aspect of the tendons in A-20, S-20 and S-80 presented signals consistent with degeneration. Both the groups A-80 and S-80 showed a less pronounced metachromasia in the compression region of the tendons. Measurements of birefringence showed that A-20, A-80 and S-80 groups had a lower degree of organization of the collagen fibers. In all of the groups treated with statins, the thickness of the epitenon was thinner when compared to the C group. In the biomechanical tests the tendons of the groups A-20, A-80 and S-20 were less resistant to rupture. Therefore, statins affected the organization of the collagen fibers and decreased the biomechanical strength of the tendons, making them more predisposed to ruptures.
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Greater (p < or = 0.001) reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (the primary end-point) were achieved by switching to EZE/SIMVA 10/20 mg (26.2%) or 10/40 mg (30.1%) than by doubling the dose of ATV to 20 mg (8.5%). EZE/SIMVA 10/20 mg and 10/40 mg produced greater (p < or = 0.001) reductions in total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein B relative to ATV 20 mg. A reduction (p < or = 0.050) in C-reactive protein was observed with EZE/SIMVA 10/40 mg vs. ATV 20 mg. Similar reductions in triglycerides were observed across the three groups, and none of the treatments produced a significant change in HDL-C. A greater (p < or = 0.001) proportion of patients achieved LDL-C <2.5 mmol/l with EZE/SIMVA 10/20 mg (90.5%) and 10/40 mg (87.0%) than with ATV 20 mg (70.4%). Both EZE/SIMVA doses were generally well tolerated, with an overall safety profile similar to ATV 20 mg.
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This study investigated the effects of atorvastatin on ABCB1 and ABCC1 mRNA expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and their relationship with gene polymorphisms and lowering-cholesterol response. One hundred and thirty-six individuals with hypercholesterolemia were selected and treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4 weeks). Blood samples were collected for serum lipids and apolipoproteins measurements and DNA and RNA extraction. ABCB1 (C3435T and G2677T/A) and ABCC1 (G2012T) gene polymorphisms were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction (PCR)-RFLP and mRNA expression was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by singleplex real-time PCR. ABCB1 polymorphisms were associated with risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) (p<0.05). After atorvastatin treatment, both ABCB1 and ABCC1 genes showed 50% reduction of the mRNA expression (p<0.05). Reduction of ABCB1 expression was associated with ABCB1 G2677T/A polymorphism (p=0.039). Basal ABCB1 mRNA in the lower quartile (<0.024) was associated with lower reduction rate of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (33.4+/-12.4%) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (17.0+/-31.3%) when compared with the higher quartile (>0.085: LDL-c=40.3+/-14.3%; apoB=32.5+/-10.7%; p<0.05). ABCB1 substrates or inhibitors did not affect the baseline expression, while ABCB1 inhibitors reversed the effects of atorvastatin on both ABCB1 and ABCC1 transporters. In conclusion, ABCB1 and ABCC1 mRNA levels in PBMC are modulated by atorvastatin and ABCB1 G2677T/A polymorphism and ABCB1 baseline expression is related to differences in serum LDL cholesterol and apoB in response to atorvastatin.
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HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors downregulate the activation of transcription factors NF-kappaB, AP-1, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. These findings support the concept that statins have antiinflammatory and antiproliferative effects that are relevant in the treatment of atherosclerotic diseases.
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In a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study design, 22 patients with stage I ISH received three months of atorvastatin therapy (80 mg/day) and three months of placebo treatment. Systemic arterial compliance was measured noninvasively using carotid applanation tonometry and Doppler velocimetry of the ascending aorta.
Our objective is to report a rare coexistence of Parry-Romberg disease and ischemic stroke. Here, we report the case of a 34-year-old woman with Parry-Romberg syndrome who developed cerebral infarction. This patient developed sudden left-sided weakness and was admitted to our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute cerebral infarction in the posterior limb of the right internal capsule. The patient had been diagnosed with Parry-Romberg syndrome at the age of 12, and she had a history of migraine without aura. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale, but no atrial septal aneurysm or deep vein thrombosis was observed in the lower extremities. She was treated with 200 mg of aspirin and 10 mg of atorvastatin. Her symptoms gradually improved, and she was discharged 10 days after admission. Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare disease of progressive hemifacial atrophy with unknown etiology. The potential risk factors for ischemic stroke in Parry-Romberg syndrome include ipsilateral cerebrovascular abnormality or migraine. In addition, patent foramen ovale was identified as a concomitant risk factor in our case.
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To describe trends in the prescribing of generic atorvastatin after expiration of market exclusivity for the brand-name medication and the effect on patients' out-of-pocket spending.
In our study, the -491A/T polymorphism in the apo E gene promoter region modulated the lipid-lowering efficiency of atorvastatin and bezafibrate in CHL patients. Such influence might explain some of the interindividual response variabilities observed for the two drugs, and could help in CHL management.
The following treatments were evaluated: atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin 10-40 mg/day; lovastatin and fluvastatin 20-80 mg/day; and colestyramine 12-24 g/day. The cost effectiveness of these treatments was evaluated, in terms of cost per percentage of LDL-C reduction, by comparing annual treatment costs versus the efficacy of LDL-C reduction. Treatment costs included medication costs (2003 wholesale prices), control measures, and the treatment of adverse affects. The efficacy of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) was obtained from a meta-analysis of results obtained from clinical trials published between 1993 and 2003 that met the following criteria: monotherapy; >16 weeks of treatment; randomized allocation of individuals to the intervention and comparator groups; dietary treatment for > or =3 months before administration of medication; and double-blind measurement of outcomes. Average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated to assess the efficiency of cholesterol-lowering treatments.
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This was a prespecified substudy of 128 patients with persistent AF randomized to treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg/day or placebo, initiated 14 days before CV, and continued 30 days after CV. HsCRP levels were measured at randomization, at the time of CV, and 2 days and 30 days after CV.
To study patient persistence on therapy for hypertension and dyslipidaemia using a single-pill combination compared with a two-pill approach.
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Elderly individuals are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and account for a majority of CHD deaths. Several clinical trials have assessed the beneficial effects of statins in individuals with, or at risk of developing, CHD. These trials provide evidence that statins reduce risk and improve clinical outcomes even in older patients; however, statin therapy remains under-utilized among the aged. Atorvastatin has been widely investigated among the older subjects and has the greatest magnitude of favorable effects on clinical outcomes of CHD. The pharmacokinetic properties of atorvastatin allow it to be used every other day, a factor which may decrease adverse events and be especially important in the elderly. The purpose of this article is to review the evidence available from randomized clinical trials regarding the safety and efficacy of atorvastatin in primary and secondary prevention of CHD and stroke in older patients and to discuss issues such as drug interactions, patient compliance and cost-effectiveness, which affect prescription of lipid-lowering therapy among older patients.