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In this prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Japan, Korea and Taiwan, eligible patients receiving low-dose ASA for cardiovascular protection (81-324 mg/day) were randomised to esomeprazole 20 mg/day or placebo for ≤72 weeks. All patients received concomitant mucosal protection (gefarnate 100 mg/day). The primary endpoint was time to ulcer recurrence (Kaplan-Meier analysis). Efficacy findings are presented up to week 48, as per a planned interim analysis within the study protocol.
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We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent ESD for gastric neoplasia. We conducted a case-control study to compare the healing rates within 4 weeks effected by esomeprazole plus rebamipide (group E) and omeprazole plus rebamipide (group O). The sizes of the artificial ulcers were divided into normal-sized or large-sized.
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Thirty-one of 109 primary study patients ages 12 to 36 months were included in the post hoc analysis. At baseline, 15 patients (48.4%) had erosive esophagitis, underwent follow-up endoscopy, and were healed after 8 weeks of esomeprazole treatment. Of the 19 patients with moderate-to-severe baseline Physician Global Assessment symptom scores, 84.2% had lower scores by the final visit. Following esomeprazole treatment, GERD symptoms were significantly improved from baseline to final visit (P ≤ 0.0018).
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Thirty patients with complicated gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (7 with ulcerative reflux oesophagitis and 23 with Barrett's oesophagus), randomly assigned to receive 40 mg esomeprazole (n=16) or 30 mg lansoprazole (n=14) once daily, underwent oesophageal 24-h pH monitoring while on therapy. Total, upright diurnal and supine nocturnal percentage acid reflux time were assessed.
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Once-daily levofloxacin plus azithromycin-based triple therapy achieves an H. pylori eradication rate comparable to that of standard twice-daily triple therapy, but is associated with higher patient compliance and might even be better tolerated.
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Two novel simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra are developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate (ESO) and Naproxen (NAP) namely; absorbance subtraction and ratio difference. The results were compared to that of the conventional spectrophotometric methods namely; dual wavelength and isoabsorptive point coupled with first derivative of ratio spectra and derivative ratio. The suggested methods were validated in compliance with the ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for determination of ESO and NAP in their laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical preparation. No preliminary separation steps are required for the proposed spectrophotometeric procedures. The statistical comparison showed that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reported method with respect to both accuracy and precision.
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Lugol's iodine solution staining combined with routine endoscopy, Gerd Q scoring and histomorphology can be used to evaluate the diagnosis and therapeutic effect of NERD.
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In a well-controlled surgical environment, the success of LARS is similar in patients with or without BE and matches optimized medical therapy.
The 7-day levofloxacin-containing triple therapy provides an unacceptable per-protocol report card as the second-line treatment for anti-H. pylori eradication in Taiwan and should be modified by either extending the duration to 10-14 days or seeking other regimens.
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AZD0865 is a gastric acid-suppressing agent that has a rapid onset of action and long duration of effect. This double-blind, randomized, multicenter study investigated the efficacy and safety of AZD0865 in the treatment of patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD).
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Esomeprazole, the first proton pump inhibitor to be developed as an optical isomer, has demonstrated more effective healing vs. omeprazole and lansoprazole in patients with reflux oesophagitis (RO). However, RO recurs in a high proportion (approximately 80%) of these patients within 12 months of initial therapy, highlighting the importance of maintenance treatment. Previous studies have shown esomeprazole to be effective as maintenance therapy in healed RO patients.
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Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized.
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Following the 20-mg dose of each compound, values of the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) were 1.52, 0.62 and 1.04 micromol h/l for S-omeprazole, R-omeprazole and racemic omeprazole, respectively, on day 1. Respectively, AUC values on day 5 were 2.84, 0.68 and 1.63 micromol h/l. Corresponding values after the 40-mg doses were 3.88, 1.39 and 2.44 micromol h/l on day 1 and 9.32, 1.80 and 5.79 micromol h/l on day 5.
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This review summarizes the literature regarding long-term adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). A PubMed search (1966 to February 2013) for English language studies was conducted using key terms PPI: omeprazole, esomeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, rabeprazole, pneumonia, Clostridium difficile, osteoporosis, risk of fractures, thrombocytopenia, rhabdomyolysis, anemia, iron deficiency, hypomagnesemia, vitamin B₁₂ and nephritis. The risk of pneumonia was increased 27-39% in short-term use of PPIs in three meta-analyses. C. difficile infections were also associated with the use of PPIs (odds ratio: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.81-2.55; p < 0.00001). This effect appears to be dose related. The US FDA has recently issued a warning regarding fractures and the impaired magnesium absorption associated with the use of PPI. Thrombocytopenia, iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, rhabdomyolysis and acute interstitial nephritis have also been reported with the use of PPIs. There is mounting evidence that PPIs are associated with serious adverse effects. Practitioners should be vigilant and counsel patients accordingly.
In trial 1, 455 subjects were randomized, with 225 and 229 receiving esomeprazole 20 mg and placebo, respectively. In trial 2, 276 subjects were randomized, with 142 and 132 receiving esomeprazole and placebo, respectively. After 2 weeks, significantly more subjects who received esomeprazole 20 mg (50.5% [95% confidence interval: 43.8%-57.1%] and 39.4% [31.2%-47.6%] in trials 1 and 2, respectively) had resolution of sleep disturbances compared to placebo (19.9% [14.6%-25.2%] and 16.0% [9.6%-22.4%], respectively; p < 0.0001 for both trials). The median time to resolution of sleep disturbances with esomeprazole 20 mg was 1 day in both trials. After 2 weeks, significantly more subjects receiving esomeprazole 20 mg (32.3% [26.1%-38.5%] and 26.3% [18.9%-33.6%] in trials 1 and 2, respectively) had resolution of nighttime heartburn symptoms compared to placebo (5.4% [2.4%-8.4%] and 4.8% [1.1%-8.5%], respectively; p < 0.0001 for both trials).
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The adjusted hazard ratio of rehospitalization for ACS was 1.052 (95% confidence interval, 0.971-1.139; P= 0.214) in the propensity score matched cohort. Among all PPIs, only omeprazole was found to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization for ACS (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.226; 95% confidence interval, 1.066-1.410; P= 0.004). Concomitant use of esomeprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole and lansoprazole did not increase the risk.
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The efficacy and safety of ilaprazole (10 mg/day, 15 mg/day) in treating reflux esophagitis was similar to esomeprazole (40 mg/day). Ilaprazole (10 mg/day) has a smaller dosage, hence it should be considered more in clinical uses.
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Tegaserod is effective and safe at improving dyspepsia and reflux symptoms in patients with chronic constipation, and tegaserod plus esomeprazole is superior to esomeprazole alone in the resolution of epigastric pain/discomfort and heartburn.
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GerdQ score or PPI test alone cannot accurately diagnose GERD in a Chinese population suspected of GERD. A definitive diagnosis of GERD still depends on endoscopy or 24-h pH monitoring. 24-h impedance pH monitoring may increase the sensitivity for diagnosing GERD by 20%; however, when used alone, it results in poor specificity in patients without acid suppressive therapy.
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We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library using the primary keywords "proton pump," "dexlansoprazole," "esomeprazole," "ilaprazole," "lansoprazole," "omeprazole," "pantoprazole," "rabeprazole," "hypomagnesemia," "hypomagnesaemia," and "magnesium." Studies were included if they evaluated the association between PPI use and hypomagnesemia and reported relative risks or odds ratios or provided data for their estimation. Pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the random effects model. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with Cochran's Q test and I2 statistics.
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441 consecutively presenting patients who were taking non-selective NSAIDs for arthritis were recruited to our single-centre, prospective, randomised, double-blind trial after admission to hospital with upper-gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients were enrolled after their ulcers had healed and a histological test for Helicobacter pylori was negative. All patients were given 200 mg celecoxib twice daily. 137 patients were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg esomeprazole twice daily (combined-treatment group), and 136 to receive a placebo (control group) for 12 months. The primary endpoint was recurrent ulcer bleeding during treatment or within 1 month of the end of treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00365313.
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Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01069081 .
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Both laboratory studies in healthy volunteers and clinical studies have suggested adverse interactions between antiplatelet drugs and other commonly used medications. Interactions described include those between aspirin and ibuprofen, aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and the thienopyridine, clopidogrel, and drugs inhibiting CYP2C19, notably the proton pump inhibitors (PPI) omeprazole and esomeprazole. Other interactions between thienopyridines and CYP3A4/5 have also been reported for statins and calcium channel blockers. The ibuprofen/aspirin interaction is thought to be caused by ibuprofen blocking the access of aspirin to platelet cyclo-oxygenase. The thienopyridine interactions are caused by inhibition of microsomal enzymes that metabolize these pro-drugs to their active metabolites. We review the evidence for these interactions, assess their clinical importance and suggest strategies of how to deal with them in clinical practice. We conclude that ibuprofen is likely to interact with aspirin and reduce its anti-platelet action particularly in those patients who take ibuprofen chronically. This interaction is of greater relevance to those patients at high cardiovascular risk. A sensible strategy is to advise users of aspirin to avoid chronic ibuprofen or to ingest aspirin at least 2 h prior to ibuprofen. Clearly the use of NSAIDs that do not interact in this way is preferred. For the clopidogrel CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5 interactions, there is good evidence that these interactions occur. However, there is less good evidence to support the clinical importance of these interactions. Again, a reasonable strategy is to avoid the chronic use of drugs that inhibit CYP2C19, notably PPIs, in subjects taking clopidogrel and use high dose H2 antagonists instead. Finally, anti-platelet agents probably interact with other drugs that affect platelet function such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and clinicians should probably judge patients taking such combination therapies as at high risk for bleeding.
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Little is known about the symptom course during and after treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Here we address this question in patients with erosive GERD treated with pantoprazole or esomeprazole 40 mg once daily using the validated reflux questionnaire ReQuest.
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In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, 16 healthy male volunteers received 20 mg esomeprazole daily for one week. On day 7, in an acute experiment, the subjects then consumed 500 ml beer within 5 min. Subsequently, gastroesophageal reflux was monitored by pH-metry over a period of 3 h. In addition, gastric emptying was measured by ultrasonography and blood concentrations of ethanol, cholecystokinin and gastrin were determined.
To compare the effects of standard-dose esomeprazole with those of standard doses of lansoprazole and rabeprazole on intragastric pH during repeated daily oral dosing in healthy volunteers.