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Nizoral (Ketoconazole)

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Nizoral is an extra-class medicine which is taken in treatment of infections such as throat yeast infections, vaginal yeast infections, fungal infections, esophagus. Nizoral is a helpful for patients with Cushing's syndrome, hair growth, prostate cancer, eumycetoma, tinea versicolor, leishmaniasis, high blood levels of calcium. Nizoral acts as an anti-fungal drug.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Grifulvin, Lamisil, Sporanox, Grifulvin V, Diflucan, Fluconazole, Sporanox PulsePak, Onmel, Amphocin, Voriconazole, Abelcet, Fungizone, Vfend, Onmel, Abelcet


Also known as:  Ketoconazole.


Nizoral is developed with a help of medical professionals to fight with infections (throat yeast infections, vaginal yeast infections, fungal infections, esophagus), Cushing's syndrome, women hair growth, prostate cancer, eumycetoma, tinea versicolor, leishmaniasis, high blood levels of calcium. Target of Nizoral is to control, ward off, reduce and terminate fungi growth.

Nizoral acts as an anti-fungal drug. Nizoral operates by reducing fungi growth spreads by infection.

Nizoral is also known as Ketoconazole, Fung.

Nizoral is imidazole.


You should take it by mouth with full glass of water.

Take Nizoral once a day at the same time.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Nizoral suddenly.


If you overdose Nizoral and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Nizoral overdosage: feeling lightheaded, diarrhea, migraine, abnormal pain, ears ringing, nausea, rething.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Nizoral if you are allergic to Nizoral components.

Do not take Nizoral if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not use Nizoral if you take astemizole (Hismanal), cisapride (Propulsid), midazolam (Versed), triazolam (Halcion).

Be careful if you are taking oral diabetes medicine as glipizide (Glucotrol), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glyburide (Glynase, Diabeta, Micronase), tolazamide (Tolinase), tolbutamide (Orinase); tacrolimus (Prograf); rifampin (Rimactane, Rifadin); warfarin (Coumadin); cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune); antacids; famotidine (Pepcid, AC Pepcid), cimetidine (Tagamet HB, Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac 75, Zantac), nizatidine (Axid AR, Axid); digoxin (Lanoxicaps, Lanoxin); methylprednisolone (Medrol); phenytoin (Dilantin); rabeprazole (Aciphex), omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid).

Be careful if you have liver disease, achlorhydria.

Avoid consuming alcohol.

Try to avoid machine driving.

It can be dangerous to stop Nizoral taking suddenly.

nizoral dosage

CYP3A4 is a vitamin D 25-hydroxylase for vitamin D2 in human hepatic microsomes and hydroxylates both 1alpha(OH)D2 and 1alpha(OH)D3.

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Garlic (A. sativum) could be used as an effective antidermatophytic agent. Further purification and extraction of the active principle of garlic would give a true antidermatophytic activity comparable to standard antifungal drugs.

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Enantioselective CE with sulfated cyclodextrins as chiral selectors was used to determine the CYP3A4-catalyzed N-demethylation kinetics of ketamine to norketamine and its inhibition in the presence of ketoconazole in vitro. Ketamine, a chiral phencyclidine derivative, was incubated with recombinant human CYP3A4 from a baculovirus expression system as racemic mixture and as single enantiomer. Alkaline liquid/liquid extracts of the samples were analyzed with a pH 2.5 buffer comprising 50 mM Tris and phosphoric acid together with either multiple isomer sulfated β-cyclodextrin (10 mg/mL) or highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin (2%, w/v). Data obtained in the absence of ketoconazole revealed that the N-demethylation occurred stereoselectively with Michaelis-Menten (incubation of racemic ketamine) and Hill (separate incubation of single enantiomers) kinetics. Data generated in the presence of ketoconazole as the inhibitor could best be fitted to a one-site competitive model and inhibition constants were calculated using the equation of Cheng and Prusoff. No stereoselective difference was observed, but inhibition constants for the incubation of racemic ketamine were found to be larger compared with those obtained with the incubation of single ketamine enantiomers.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aminoglutethimide in the treatment of dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH). Ten dogs were diagnosed with PDH based on clinical and laboratory data, adrenal function tests (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] stimulation test and urinary cortisol/creatinine ratio [UCCR] combined with a high dose oral dexamethasone suppression test) and ultrasonographic evaluation of the adrenal glands. Aminoglutethimide was administered daily at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight for one month. Median basal cortisol concentration and post-ACTH cortisol concentration one month after treatment were significantly lower than pretreatment values. Complete response was achieved in one dog, and partial response was obtained in three dogs. Severe side effects of anorexia, vomiting and weakness occurred in one dog and medication was withdrawn. Two further dogs developed decompensations of concurrent diseases and medication was stopped in these animals as well. Mild toxicity occurred in four dogs. Moderate to severe elevations in liver enzymes occurred in all dogs. The efficacy of this drug is lower than that observed using mitotane and ketoconazole, and adverse effects limit its use. Aminoglutethimide, using the protocol described, cannot be recommended for long-term management of PDH in the dog.

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The authors report a case of acute fungal arthritis following traumatic inoculation (bramble prick) in a 9 year-old boy. The implicated fungus was an highly pathogenic atypical strain of Scedosporium (monosporium) apiospermum. Two surgical operations (synovectomy and arthrodesis) and antifungal treatment with ketoconazole led to recovery. The pathogenic role of this fungus and especially the importance of toxic phenomena are discussed. This case is compared with other in the literature. The part of ketoconazole in the recovery of this patient is emphasized.

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Medicated shampoo use did not significantly reduce indoxacarb efficacy against C. felis.

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In a double-randomized, 2-way crossover study a total of 16 patients received ifosfamide 3 g/m(2) per 24 hours intravenously, either alone or in combination with 200 mg ketoconazole twice daily (1 day before treatment and 3 days of concomitant administration) or 300 mg rifampin twice daily (3 days before treatment and 3 days of concomitant administration). Plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of ifosfamide, 2- and 3-dechloroethylifosfamide, and 4-hydroxyifosfamide were assessed in both courses. Data analysis was performed with a population pharmacokinetic model with a description of autoinduction of ifosfamide.

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Saquinavir is a HIV protease inhibitor used in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, but its use is limited by low oral bioavailability. The potential of human intestinal tissue to metabolize saquinavir was assessed in 17 different human small-intestinal microsomal preparations. Saquinavir was metabolized by human small-intestinal microsomes to numerous mono- and dihydroxylated species with K(M) values of 0.3-0.5 microM. The major metabolites M-2 and M-7 were single hydroxylations on the octahydro-2-(1H)-isoquinolinyl and (1,1-dimethylethyl)amino groups, respectively. Ketoconazole and troleandomycin, selective inhibitors of cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4), were potent inhibitors for all oxidative metabolites of saquinavir. The cytochrome P450-selective inhibitors furafylline, fluvoxamine, sulfaphenazole, mephenytoin, quinidine, and chlorzoxazone had little inhibitory effect. All saquinavir metabolites were highly correlated with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation and with each other. Human hepatic microsomes and recombinant CYP3A4 oxidized saquinavir to the same metabolic profile observed with human small-intestinal microsomes. Indinavir, a potent HIV protease inhibitor and a substrate for human hepatic CYP3A4, was a comparatively poor substrate for human intestinal microsomes and inhibited the oxidative metabolism of saquinavir to all metabolites with a Ki of 0.2 microM. In addition, saquinavir inhibited the human, small-intestinal, microsomal CYP3A4-dependent detoxication pathway of terfenadine to its alcohol metabolite with a Ki value of 0.7 microM. These data indicate that saquinavir is metabolized by human intestinal CYP3A4, that this metabolism may contribute to its poor oral bioavailability, and that combination therapy with indinavir or other protease inhibitors may attenuate its low relative bioavailability.

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In a search for novel inhibitors of RA-metabolising enzyme inhibitors as potential anti-cancer agents some 1,2-ethandiones, 2-hydroxyethanones and 1-ethylenedioxyethanones based on aryl-substituted 1,2-diphenylethane have been examined. Several of the compounds were weak inhibitors of the non-specific rat liver microsomal P450 enzymes and moderate inhibitors of the RA-induced enzymes in cultured human genital fibroblasts, where the RA-specific enzyme CYP26 is probably expressed. The 2-hydroxyethanone (13) with a 1-(4-dimethylaminophenyl) substituent was overall the most potent compound for rat liver microsomal enzyme (IC50 = 52.1 microM; ketoconazole, 2.8 microM) and the RA-induced enzyme (100 microM, 65.9% inhibition; ketoconazole, 20 microM, 75.0%). Modification of the dimethylamino group in (13) with more hydrophobic dialkylamino functions or separate modification of the 2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) function did not improve potency.

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A new antimycotic drug lamisil (Sandoz, Switzerland) was given as pills to 35 patients with pedal mycosis (23 of them suffered from onychomycosis). Pedal mycosis was cured for 2 weeks, onychomycosis for 12 weeks. In 2 cases the drug was discontinued because of gastrointestinal toxicity. By tolerance and efficacy, lamisil is superior to griseofulvin and nizoral.

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A 72-year-old woman received antifungal therapy for her almost completely occluded cornea infected with Candida albicans. She was initially prescribed oral ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily. She developed hypotension over the first 2 days of therapy (BP 136/82 mm Hg at baseline; 90/50 mm Hg on day 2). Severe hypotension (BP 90/49 mm Hg) unresponsive to fluid therapy or high-dose dopamine developed on day 4 of therapy. An invasive Swan-Ganz catheterization study showed a very low level of peripheral vascular resistance with high cardiac output index without clinical signs of infection. When laboratory tests showed a high level of plasma tryptase, anaphylactic redistribution shock was diagnosed. Her vital signs became more stable after treatment with hydrocortisone and epinephrine infusion. She was discharged in good condition after 24 hours of observation.

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Pre-clinical studies were carried out in order to characterize in rodents the biodistribution, the binding specificity and the metabolism of [18F]Fluoroethylflumazenil ([18F]FEF), a potential candidate for in vivo imaging of the benzodiazepine receptors. In vivo competition with flumazenil indicates that [18F]FEF binds specifically to the benzodiazepine receptor in the brain. The accumulation of [18F]FEF was significantly lower than using [3H]Flumazenil. The rather low accumulation in the brain is due to a rapid metabolism of [18F]FEF in hydrophylic metabolites which cannot cross the blood brain barrier, and are rapidly eliminated in the urine. Inhibition of the metabolism by acetaminophen (chemically induced hepatitis) led to a significant increase of the radioactivity found in the circulating blood and in the brain, while these results were not observed using classical inhibitors of the cytochrome CYP450, cimetidine and ketoconazole.

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Twenty patients were randomized to using the combination shampoo (group A, 10 patients) or the 1% ketoconazole shampoo (group B, 10 patients) 3 times a week every other day for 8 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the degree of scaling and pruritus by clinical and trichoscopic examination using a 4-point scale. Additionally, a physician global assessment (PGA) was assessed at the end of the study.

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Omoconazole (CM 8282) is a new synthetic antifungal agent with a spectrum of activity quite similar to that of the imidazole family. Fungistatic activity of this product was compared to that of the six following reference products: clotrimazole, econazole, isoconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and tioconazole. MICs against 55 recent clinical yeast isolates were determined by agar dilution on pH 5.5-adjusted Sabouraud and casitone media. MIC 90% values showed that tioconazole was the most active product, followed by omoconazole and econazole, whereas ketoconazole was the least active compound under our experimental conditions.

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The Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group trials register was searched (last search - 4 June 2002). The Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group register is based on regular searches of MEDLINE (1966 to 2002), EMBASE (1980 to 2002), CINAHL (1982 to 2002), PsycINFO (1987 to 2002) and CENTRAL (Issue 2, 2002 of the Cochrane Library) the handsearching of several journals and conference proceedings, and searches of several key grey literature sources. All publications of randomised controlled trials of cyproterone acetate with or without estrogen versus placebo or other drug therapies for hirsutism were identified.

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The application of atmospheric pressure desorption/ionization on silicon (AP-DIOS) coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) was investigated for the quantification of midazolam in rat plasma, and determination of midazolam 1'-hydroxylation kinetics in pooled human liver microsomes. Results indicate good sensitivity with absolute detection limits for midazolam in rat plasma of approximately 300 femtograms. A linear dynamic range from approximately 10-5000 ng/mL was obtained in rat plasma with analysis times of 1 min per sample. Kinetic constants for midazolam 1'-hydroxylation in human liver microsomes yielded an apparent Km of 10.0 microM and Vmax of 6.4 nmol/min/mg. Studies investigating the inhibition of 1'-hydroxymidazolam formation by the cytochrome P450 3A4 model inhibitor ketoconazole yielded an IC50 of 0.03 microM. Quantitative precision for replicate analysis of rat plasma and human liver microsomal samples was variable with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from a low of approximately 3% to over 50%, with the highest variability observed in data from human liver microsomal incubations. While preliminary studies investigating the application of AP-DIOS-ITMS suggested feasibility of this technique to typical pharmacokinetic applications, further work is required to understand the underlying causes for the high variability observed in these investigations.

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Hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors have pleiotropic actions that affect many systems other than lowering blood cholesterol concentrations. Hypercholesterolaemia is an adverse effect of immunosuppressive drug therapy and hence it is a common finding after organ transplantation. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors lower cholesterol concentrations in transplant recipients but they also offer additional benefits. Since they impair the production of mevalonate, they reduce the concentrations of downstream products including farnesyl and geranyl phosphate. These isoprenoid moieties are required for protein prenylation and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors impair this function in some cells. This action affects the immune system, especially in patients taking cyclosporin, and has been proposed as the mechanism whereby these drugs increase the half-life of transplanted organs. Other mechanisms have also been proposed including an increase in the free fraction of cyclosporin and a reduction in the time that low density lipoprotein (LDL) spends in blood. The latter effect reduces the extent of oxidation of LDL and hence reduces the damage caused by oxidised LDL. Chronic rejection is poorly understood but appears to involve both immune and non-immune processes. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors affect both processes. At present, the evidence of benefit from statin prescription is confined to heart and kidney transplant recipients but it is likely that recipients of other organ transplants would also benefit. Drug interactions between cyclosporin and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are a limiting factor to their use. Pravastatin appears to be the best HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor for organ transplant recipients because of its lesser potential to interact with cyclosporin and hence cause myositis, which may thus allow higher doses to be used. Other, non-immunosuppressive drugs (including diltiazem and ketoconazole) have been shown to reduce transplant organ damage by unknown mechanisms and are widely prescribed in some transplant centres. More specific inhibitors of protein prenylation may afford useful immunosuppression, thereby prolonging transplant organ half-lives and also reducing the risk of cancer.

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Allergic Broncho-pulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) is hypersensitivity to the fungus Aspergillus Fumigatus that complicates patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. The condition usually results in an increase in symptoms, a greater reliance on corticosteroids to control the disease process and may lead to a progressive decline in lung function. The mainstay of treatment for ABPA remains oral corticosteroids, though this does not completely prevent exacerbations and may not prevent the decline in lung function.

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Cultured bovine RPE cells were found to have an activity that converts retinoic acid into more polar metabolites rapidly released from the cell. The highest specific activity for this process is found in the post-mitochondrial pellet (100,000g), is induced by retinoic acid, and is inhibited by ketoconazole. The major product of the RPE cell-mediated metabolism of retinoic acid is 4-oxo-retinoic acid, a known P-450 monooxygenase product of retinoic acid. The retinoic acid metabolizing activity is greatest in primary RPE cultures and decreases with aging in culture.

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The aim of this study was to identify Candida spp. isolated from children with neutropenia and determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern of the isolated yeasts.

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Each of these regimens produced clinically significant responses, and the observed median survival (18.9 months for all 71 patients) compares favorably with previously published results, especially in the community setting. Nonetheless, it is apparent that these first-generation regimens must be applied judiciously, and thus we view efforts at better patient selection and the development of more tolerable therapies as higher priorities than carrying either of these regimens to phase III evaluation in the cooperative group setting.

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nizoral dosage 2016-02-05

Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection among HIV-positive patients. This condition can be treated with either systemic or topical antifungal agents; treatments are usually indicated empirically on the basis of clinical data. The knowledge of in vitro antifungal susceptibility is important to determine correct therapeutic guides for the treatment of fungal infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the antifungal susceptibility profile of oral Candida isolates from HIV-positive patients and control individuals. Amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, nystatin and ketoconazole were tested according to the methodology of microdilution proposed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI); results were recorded in values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). A total of 71 Candida isolates from HIV-positive patients were examined with buy nizoral the following species represented: C. albicans (59), C. tropicalis (9), C. glabrata (1), C. guilliermondii (1) and C. krusei (1). A total of 15 Candida isolates were evaluated from control individuals comprised of 11 C. albicans and 4 C. tropicalis samples. Our results demonstrated that the tested antifungal agents showed good activity for most isolates from both groups; however, variability in MIC values among isolates was observed.

nizoral 200mg tablets 2017-10-16

The aim of this work is to study the effect of addition of ketoconazole to experimental kidney transplanted rat treated buy nizoral with tacrolimus and precludes the percentage of tacrolimus dose reduction.

nizoral tablet treatment 2017-06-30

Twelve healthy buy nizoral men.

nizoral tabs 2016-04-13

Investigations on the chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) towards a cytoplasmic extract of Trichophyton rubrum in the presence and absence of antifungal drugs are described. It is shown that with griseofulvin, clotrimazole, econazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and natamycin at 1 mg l(-1), the number of PMNs migrating was significantly reduced. After 3 h of exposure to 10 mg l(-1), not one of the drugs tested had any discernable effect on the viability of the PMNs, or the complement. The anti-inflammatory activity of the drugs is discussed and whilst the chemosuppression of PMN buy nizoral chemotaxis may be an undesirable feature in a drug used to treat systemic mycoses, it is unlikely to have any adverse effect in the therapy of the dermatophytoses.

nizoral drug interactions 2015-11-23

The systemic treatment of fungal infections has changed considerably over the past 10 to 20 years. Though griseofulvin was introduced in the late 1950s and was at the time the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug in the United States for the systemic treatment of onychomycosis, its cure rate seldom exceeds 40%. Newer drugs appear to be reducing treatment times, improving cure rates with a minimum buy nizoral of side effects, and achieving long-term remissions in recalcitrant infections. Itraconazole was FDA approved in 1995, and terbinafine was FDA approved in 1996. Both have been used safely for many years, demonstrating efficacy in short-term treatment with a low incidence of side effects. Fluconazole, though not yet FDA approved for onychomycosis, has also shown efficacy in many situations. Direct-to-the-public advertising has raised interest in patients to seek treatment. There are also some new investigational drugs for fungal infections that may augment or supplant current therapy.

nizoral brand 2016-02-27

Ketoconazole significantly decreased mortality and transaminase levels when given to mice either 30 min before or 2 h after AAP. Liver fragments from mice with AAP hepatitis produced greater quantities of prostaglandin E2, thromboxane A2 and leukotriene C4 than fragments from normal liver. buy nizoral Pretreatment of mice with ketoconazole or its addition to liver fragments ex vivo further increased the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduced the production of thromboxane A2. The effect of ketoconazole on leukotriene C4 synthesis was different in vivo (synthesis stimulation) from in vitro (synthesis inhibition).

nizoral dose 2017-10-31

Seven patients were treated in a randomized-cross over design with intravenous docetaxel buy nizoral (100 mg/m(2)) followed 3 weeks later by docetaxel (15 mg/m(2)) given in combination with orally administered ketoconazole (400 mg 3 times daily, up to 47 hours after docetaxel infusion) or vice versa. Docetaxel plasma concentration-time data were described by a three-compartment PK model. Ketoconazole plasma concentration-time data were described by a one-compartment PK model.

nizoral cream generic 2016-11-02

A rapid, simple and accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of LASSBio-581 (1-[1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-4-phenyl-piperazine) in rat plasma using ketoconazole as internal standard. Plasma samples were deproteinized with methanol. A good chromatographic separation was achieved using a reversed phase C18 column. Mobile phase consisting of sodium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate (pH 4.5, 0.02 M) and methanol mixture (35:65, v/v) was used at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The eluate was monitored using a UV detector at 248 nm. The retention times of LASSBio-581 and the internal standard were approximately 3.8 and 5.6 min, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 0.25-8.0 microg/ml with correlation coefficients >0.99. The limit of quantitation was 0.25 microg/ml. The accuracy of the method was >90%. The intra-day relative buy nizoral standard deviation (R.S.D.) ranged from 6.15 to 10.52% at 0.4 microg/ml, 7.44 to 13.81% at 1.5 microg/ml and 6.10 to 13.94% at 6.0 microg/ml. The inter-day R.S.D. were 9.54, 8.42 and 8.25% at 0.4, 1.5 and 6.0 microg/ml, respectively. No interference from endogenous substances or metabolites were observed. The method has been used to measure plasma concentrations of LASSBio-581 in pharmacokinetic studies in rats.

nizoral 400 mg 2016-12-10

Antifungal compounds exert their activity through a variety of mechanisms, some of which are poorly understood. Novel approaches to characterize the mechanism of action of antifungal agents will be of great use in the antifungal drug development process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in the gene expression profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae following exposure to representatives of the four currently available classes of antifungal agents used in the management of systemic fungal infections. Microarray analysis indicated differential expression of 0.8, 4.1, 3.0, and 2.6% of the genes represented on buy nizoral the Affymetrix S98 yeast gene array in response to ketoconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), respectively. Quantitative real time reverse transcriptase-PCR was used to confirm the microarray analyses. Genes responsive to ketoconazole, caspofungin, and 5-FC were indicative of the drug-specific effects. Ketoconazole exposure primarily affected genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis and sterol uptake; caspofungin exposure affected genes involved in cell wall integrity; and 5-FC affected genes involved in DNA and protein synthesis, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle control. In contrast, amphotericin B elicited changes in gene expression reflecting cell stress, membrane reconstruction, transport, phosphate uptake, and cell wall integrity. Genes with the greatest specificity for a particular drug were grouped together as drug-specific genes, whereas genes with a lack of drug specificity were also identified. Taken together, these data shed new light on the mechanisms of action of these classes of antifungal agents and demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in antifungal drug development.

nizoral oral dosage 2017-10-09

Because in-vitro antifungal synergism has been shown between the imidazoles and 5-fluorocytosine, we have evaluated the accuracy of a standard disc diffusion assay buy nizoral for serum 5-fluorocytosine levels in the presence of ketoconazole. In the usual clinical concentrations, ketoconazole does not interfere with the determination of serum 5-fluorocytosine levels by this standard test.

nizoral pill 2015-05-12

An experimental model of murine chromoblastomycosis and in vitro tests with Fonsecaea pedrosoi were used to test the sensitivity of this fungus to three buy nizoral different antimycotics. The experimental model was standardized in BALB/c mice inoculated intraperitoneally with a 10(6) CFU/ml suspension of a F. pedrosoi isolate. Clinical infection was evident after 5 days of inoculation. Three groups of 27 mice each were used in the experiment. One group was treated with ketoconazole (KTZ), another with itraconazole (ITZ) and the other with saperconazole (SPZ). Antimycotic therapy was continued for 21 days. The control group consisted of 40 mice which were inoculated, but not treated. Infection was documented by macroscopic and microscopic examination of affected tissue in addition to culture of tissue macerates. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) for the F. pedrosoi strain used were done. The in vitro results showed that SPZ was the most active with MIC 0.01 microgram/ml and MFC 0.1 microgram/ml, followed by ITZ. SPZ was also the most effective in vivo since 63% of the treated animals (p = 0.01) showed a curative effect after the observation period. We concluded that SPZ had the best in vitro and in vivo activity against F. pedrosoi.

nizoral oral medication 2016-10-01

Hepatic biotransformation processes can be modulated by chemical exposure and these alterations can impact the biotransformation of endogenous substrates. Furthermore, chemically mediated alterations in the biotransformation of endogenous steroid hormones have been implicated as a mechanism by which steroid hormone homeostasis can be disrupted. The fungicide ketoconazole has been shown to lower serum testosterone levels and alter both gonadal synthesis and hepatic inactivation of testosterone. The present study examined whether the effects of ketoconazole on the hepatic biotransformation of testosterone contribute to its lowering of serum testosterone levels. Results also were used to validate further the use of the androgen-regulated hepatic testosterone 6alpha/15alpha-hydroxylase ratio as an indicator of androgen status. Male CD-1 mice were fed from 0 to 160 mg/kg ketoconazole in honey. Four h after the initial treatment, serum testosterone levels, gonadal testosterone secretion, and hepatic testosterone hydroxylase activity decreased, and the hepatic testosterone 6alpha/15alpha-hydroxylase ratio increased in a dose-dependent manner. Immunoblot analysis indicated that the transient decline in hepatic biotransformation was not due to reduced P450 protein levels. Rather, hepatic testosterone biotransformation activities were found to be differentially susceptible to direct inhibition by ketoconazole. Differential inhibition was also responsible for the increase seen in buy nizoral the 6alpha/15alpha-hydroxylase ratio. The changes in serum testosterone levels could be explained by decreased gonadal synthesis of testosterone and were not impacted by decreased hepatic biotransformation of testosterone. These results demonstrate that changes in the hepatic hydroxylation of testosterone by ketoconazole, and perhaps other chemicals, have little or no influence serum testosterone levels.

dandruff nizoral reviews 2016-09-19

Guinea pigs and athymic nude (RNU/RNU) rats were used to assess the efficacy of three orally administered antifungal agents--Tolciclate, Tolnaftate, and Ketoconazole--against Trichophyton mentagrophytes dermatophytosis. All three antifungal agents inhibited the test strain of T. mentagrophytes in vitro. Antifungal agents were tested in intervention (oral therapy started 5 days after challenge) or prophylaxis (oral therapy started 5 days before challenge) protocols. Oral treatment of dermatophytosis on guinea pig skin demonstrated that Tolciclate and Tolnaftate alleviated clinical symptoms and shortened the duration of the dermatophytosis, in comparison to nontreated controls. Assessment of antifungal efficacy in the guinea pig model was time consuming (30-35 days) and variability in the duration and severity of clinical symptoms on guinea pig skin was common. Oral therapy of chronically infected athymic rats demonstrated that Tolciclate, Tolnaftate, and ketoconazole were effective antifungal agents in vivo. Obvious improvement in clinical symptoms of dermatophytosis (i.e. less erythema and fewer lesions) was evident with all buy nizoral three antifungal agents within 10 days of starting oral therapy. By day 20, athymic rats that were treated with either Tolciclate or Ketoconazole showed marked clinical improvement of the chronic dermatophytosis. Chronically infected athymic rats, which lack thymus matured T-cells, are a promising new model to evaluate the efficacy of antifungal agents by culture, histology, and visual observations of clinical symptoms.

nizoral pills medication 2015-09-27

Both groups were markedly hypermetabolic buy nizoral and catabolic throughout the acute hospital stay. Normalization of hypercortisolemia with ketoconazole therapy had no effect on whole-body catabolism or the post-burn inflammatory or hypermetabolic response, suggesting that hypercortisolemia does not play a central role in the post-burn hypermetabolic catabolic response.

nizoral pills 2015-12-04

The synergism showed by voriconazole+terbinafine was remarkable. To better elucidate the potential usefulness Epivir Mg of our findings, new in vivo and in vitro studies deserve be performed.

nizoral medication 2017-03-17

Fungal keratitis is a rare but serious condition that may result in loss of vision. The potentially poor prognosis might be due to a delay in diagnosis and/or to limited treatment options. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcome of patients treated with Crestor Vs Generic topical fluconazole 0.2% for the treatment of filamentous fungal keratitis.

nizoral generic shampoo 2015-09-20

Cinobufagin (CB), a major bioactive component of the traditional Chinese medicine Chansu, has been reported to have potent antitumor activity. In this study, in vitro metabolism of CB among species was compared with respect to metabolic profiles, enzymes involved, and catalytic efficiency by using liver microsomes from human (HLM), mouse (MLM), rat (RLM), dog (DLM), minipig (PLM), and monkey (CyLM). Significant species differences in Cytoxan Cancer Drug CB metabolism were revealed. In particular, species-specific deacetylation and epimerization combined with hydroxylation existed in RLM, whereas hydroxylation was a major pathway in HLM, MLM, DLM, PLM, and CyLM. Two monohydroxylated metabolites of CB in human and animal species were identified as 1α-hydroxylcinobufagin and 5β-hydroxylcinobufagin by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and two-dimensional NMR techniques. CYP3A4 was identified as the main isoform involved in CB hydroxylation in HLM on the basis of the chemical inhibition studies and screen assays with recombinant human cytochrome P450s. Furthermore, ketoconazole, a specific inhibitor of CYP3A, strongly inhibited CB hydroxylation in MLM, DLM, PLM, and CyLM, indicating that CYP3A was responsible for CB hydroxylation in these animal species. The apparent substrate affinity and catalytic efficiency for 1α- and 5β-hydroxylation of CB in liver microsomes from various species were also determined. PLM appears to have K(m) and total intrinsic clearance value (V(max)/K(m)) similar to those for HLM, and the total microsomal intrinsic clearance values for CB obeyed the following order: mouse > dog > monkey > human > minipig. These findings provide vital information to better understand the metabolic behaviors of CB among various species.

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These findings indicate that silkworms are useful for evaluating the effects of chemicals that induce tissue injury in mammals. Avelox Dosing

nizoral dosage directions 2015-01-03

This case report on primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis outlines a typical presentation in an individual at high risk and the pitfalls that can occur to practitioners unfamiliar with this disease. The patient was a 36-year-old black male who presented with an initial abnormal chest X-ray and who eventually was correctly diagnosed and improved on a 30-day course of ketoconazole. This patient showed Zyrtec Mg no signs of dissemination.

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Diosbulbin B (DIOB), a furanoid, is a major constituent of herbal medicine Dioscorea bulbifera L. Exposure to DIOB caused liver injury in humans and experimental animals. The mechanisms of DIOB-induced hepatotoxicities remain unknown. The present study demonstrated that DIOB induced hepatotoxicities in a time- and dose-dependent manner in mice. H&E stained histopathologic image showed the occurrence of necrosis in the liver obtained from the mice treated with DIOB at dose of 200 mg/kg. Pretreatment with KTC protected the animals from hepatotoxicities and hepatic GSH depletion induced by DIOB, increased area under the concentration-time curve of blood DIOB, decreased urinary excretion of GSH conjugates derived from DIOB, and increased urinary excretion of parent drug. Pretreatment with BSO exacerbated DIOB-induced hepatotoxicities. In order to define the role of furan moiety in DIOB-induced liver toxicities, we replaced the furan of DIOB with a tetrahydrofuran group by chemical hydrogenation of the furan ring of DIOB. No liver injury was Detrol Generic Dosage observed in the animals given the same doses of tetrahydro-DIOB. The furan moiety was essential for DIOB-induced hepatotoxicities. The results implicate the cis-enedial reactive metabolite of DIOB was responsible for the observed toxicities. The observed modest depletion of hepatic GSH in DIOB-treated animals suggests the actions of one or more reactive metabolites, and the hepatic injury observed could be due at least in part to reactions of these metabolites with crucial biomolecules. Cytochrome P450 3A enzymes are implicated in DIOB-induced hepatotoxicities by catalyzing the formation of the reactive metabolite of DIOB.

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Esters of 3- and 4-pyridylacetic acid have been prepared and tested for inhibitory activity toward the human testicular 17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase and human placental aromatase enzymes. The structural features required for optimal inhibition of the hydroxylase/lyase enzyme were a 3-pyridine ring, methyl substitution alpha to the carbonyl group, and a bulky alkoxycarbonyl substituent. The compounds with the greatest selectivity were isopinocampheyl 2-methyl-2-(3-pyridyl)propanoate, 9, 1-adamantyl 2-methyl-2-(3-pyridyl)propanoate, 12, and 2-methyl-2-adamantyl 2-methyl-2-(3-pyridyl)propanoate, 14, which, while inhibiting the aromatase activity with IC50 values of 30, 35, and 40 microM, respectively, exhibited IC50 values toward hydroxylase/lyase of between 13 and 90 nM. For comparison, ketoconazole gave an IC50 value of 15 microM against aromatase and values of 65 and 26 nM for inhibition of the hydroxylase and lyase activities, respectively. Some of the structural features required for enzyme inhibition also conferred resistance to esterase hydrolysis, in vitro using rat liver microsomes as a source of the esterase activity. Therefore these esters are lead compounds in the development of inhibitors of androgen biosynthesis for the treatment of hormone-dependent prostatic cancer.

nizoral tablet dosage 2016-05-05

Drug transporter inhibitors are important tools to elucidate the contribution of transporters to drug disposition both in vitro and in vivo. These inhibitors are often unselective and affect several transporters as well as drug metabolizing enzymes, which can make experimental results difficult to interpret with confidence. We therefore tested 14 commonly used P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) inhibitors as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme activities using recombinant enzymes. A subset of P-gp and/or CYP3A inhibitors were selected (cyclosporin A, elacridar, ketoconazole, quinidine, reserpine, and tacrolimus) for a comparison of P450 inhibition in human microsomes and hepatocytes. Most P-gp inhibitors showed CYP3A4 inhibition, with potencies often in a similar range as their P-gp inhibition, as well as less potent CYP2C19 inhibition. Other P450 enzymes were not strongly inhibited except a few cases of CYP2D6 inhibition. MRP and BCRP inhibitors showed limited P450 inhibition. Some inhibitors showed less P450 inhibition in human hepatocytes than human liver microsomes, for example, elacridar, probably due to differences in binding, permeability limitations, or active, P-gp mediated efflux of the inhibitor from the hepatocytes. Quinidine was a potent P450 inhibitor in hepatocytes but only showed weak inhibition in microsomes. Quinidine shows an extensive cellular uptake, which may potentiate intracellular P450 inhibition. Elacridar, described as a potent and selective P-gp inhibitor, displayed modest P450 inhibition in this study and is thus a useful model inhibitor to define the role of P-gp in drug disposition without interference with other processes.

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Cryptococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease. Headache, vomiting, cranial nerve symptoms and mental changes are the most common symptoms, but as many as 15% may have no symptoms referable to the CNS. For chemotherapy four drugs are available: namely amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, miconazole and ketoconazole. Most cases have been treated by combination of amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine. The intrathecal administration of amphotericin B should be considered for patients who fail to respond to the usual intravenous therapy. The case is reported of a patient who died due to hydrocephalus, and the CSF-levels of the administered drugs are presented. Some pitfalls of therapy are discussed.

nizoral t gel 2016-09-30

The performance of two commercially available capillary LC pumps (MicroPro (Eldex, USA), Evolution 200 (ProLab, Switzerland)) generating really splitless gradients in the microliter per minute range was tested in detail concerning their applicability for routine drug discovery. A standard method to study metabolic stability against CYP450 isoform 3A4 was selected. This method was transformed into a fast splitless capillary LC-MS method. Both pumps generated reproducible gradients at flows of 5-10 microl/min within 10-15 min. Although gradient formation of the MicroPro system was very reproducible, its equilibration time was too long for fast gradients around 5 microl/min. The Evolution 200 pump offered a good performance with 180 microm i.d. columns at a flow rate of 6 microl/min. The precision of the retention time of the internal standard (ISTD) varied between 1.4 and 3.4% (n = 131-152, three different columns tested). Up to 800 injections of sufficient performance on one column and a stable enough response of the ISTD for 16 h sequence duration were obtained. Accuracy between 95 and 105% and precision < or = 8.4% for 1'-hydroxylated midozolam were reached. The IC50 values of the miniaturized assay (drug candidate BAL4815 1.7 +/- 0.5, itraconazole 0.46 +/- 0.06, and ketoconazole 0.12 +/- 0.01 microM) agreed well with those of the conventional approach. Details concerning method optimization and limitations in operation are discussed in detail. Still, the overall performance of the capillary LC pumps cannot cope completely with that of conventional HPLC pumps in terms of user-friendliness.

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Recently we have demonstrated that in rat pancreatic acini the high affinity cholecystokinin receptors are coupled to the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/arachidonic acid (AA) cascades to mediate Ca2+ oscillations and amylase secretion. This intracellular signal transduction system is associated with an unidentified G protein(s) which is neither Gi/Go nor Gq-alpha. Using a newly cloned PLA2-activating protein (PLAP), we further examined the mechanisms by which PLA2 activates Ca2+ oscillation and pancreatic enzyme secretion. In intact acini, 0.1-1 microM PLAP evoked Ca2+ oscillations in a dose-dependent manner (delta [Ca2+]i: 18-121 nM and frequency: 2.3-5.5 cycles/10 min). PLAP elicited a 3-fold increase in monophasic amylase secretion with an EC50 of 0.1 microM. PLAP dose-dependently caused an increase in the AA metabolite 15-HETE. The PLA2 inhibitor, but not inhibitors of lipoxygenase, cytochrome P-450 and cyclooxygenase, inhibited the action of PLAP, suggesting that AA, but not AA metabolites, functions as a signal messenger. In permeabilized acini, a monoclonal antibody of G protein beta subunits inhibited the action of PLAP. Because of the structural similarity between PLAP and Gbeta protein we hypothesize that the PLA2 coupled G protein is Gbeta and it elicits Ca2+ oscillations and monophasic amylase secretion via the AA pathway.

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Itraconazole has emerged as an important new oral agent in the treatment of systemic fungal infections. This paper summarizes the data available on its use in aspergillosis, cryptococcosis and histoplasmosis, compiled in the United States with particular attention to the immunocompromised host. Data have been accrued in open-label studies including 57 patients with cryptococcal disease where the overall response rate among patients with meningitis was 86%, and in 28 patients (8 with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection) with invasive aspergillosis where the overall response rates were 80% in patients without AIDS and 86% in patients with AIDS. Data are summarized on 6 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, 5 of whom demonstrated marked improvement on therapy, and 12 patients with histoplasmosis including 8 with AIDS, 11 of whom responded and 1 recrudesced on therapy. In summary, itraconazole showed activity in human studies of aspergillosis, cryptococcosis and histoplasmosis with minimal toxicity. Itraconazole offers a new oral alternative to conventional amphotericin B therapy in these infections. Comparative studies are needed to clarify its role.

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A randomized, masked, double-blind clinical trial.

nizoral yeast review 2017-08-27

The prevention of fungal infections in granulocytopenic patients seems necessary to improve the final outcome of neoplastic patients. In particular, aspergillosis and candidiasis represent common life-threatening infections among the patients with acute hematological malignancies. Despite extensive investigations during this last decade, the optimal approaches to prevent these complications are still controversial. This situation probably reflects and stresses the numerous factors which predispose to these opportunistic fungal infections. Therefore, the effective prophylaxis of candidiasis and aspergillosis should result from the use of basic and specific approaches. General and simple measures including well trained personnel (physicians, nurses but also individuals in charge of the housekeeping, etc.), careful patient teaching of personal hygiene and control of the food intake (limited to cooked food diet), will reduce the acquisition of potential fungal pathogens. Moreover, the isolation in a laminar air flow room seems to be the optimal specific technique to prevent the colonization as well as the development of pulmonary aspergillosis. The meticulous evaluation of the respiratory sinus status as well as surveillance cultures obtained from the nose have been shown to be helpful to predict patients at high risks. Until now, there is no systemic chemoprophylaxis available to decrease the incidence of invasive aspergillosis. However, the topical application of antifungal agent using nasal spray or aerosols should be further investigated. Exogenous candidiasis such as catheter or TPN products related yeast infections can be avoided by aseptic manipulations. Endogenous candidiasis, resulting from the dissemination of the yeasts from the gastro-intestinal tract (which represents the major reservoir), are still much more difficult to prevent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)