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Use of herbal medicine is popular among cancer patients. This study aimed to explore the coprescription of CHM and WM among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. This cross-sectional retrospective study used a population-based database containing one million beneficiaries of National Health Insurance. Claims and prescriptions were analyzed. In 2007, 218 (22.4%) prostate cancer patients were CHM users. Among CHM users, 200 (91.7%) patients with 5618 (79.5%) CHM prescriptions were on coprescription of CHM and WM. A total of 484 types of CHM and 930 types of WM were used. The most commonly used CHMs on coprescription were Shu Jing Huo Xue Tang, Ma Zi Ren Wan, and Xue Fu Zhu Yu Tang. The most commonly used WMs on coprescription were magnesium oxide, amlodipine, and aspirin. The average number of prescriptions per user per year was 261.2 versus 151.7 in all (P < 0.001), 123.6 versus 76.9 in WM (P = 0.033), and 34.8 versus 5.1 in CHM (P < 0.001) for patients with and without coprescription, respectively. In conclusion, use of CHM among prostate cancer patients was popular in Taiwan. Most CHMs were used with WM concurrently. The potential drug-herb interactions should be investigated, especially for patients with more prescriptions.
Administration of amlodipine did not induce an increase in sympathetic nerve activity in essential hypertensive patients during the chronic period, suggesting that beneficial effects on essential hypertension can be expected after its long-term administration. Administration of slow-releasing nifedipine induces milder reflex sympathetic activation than does that of short-acting nifedipine.
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Many hypertensive patients require ≥2 drugs to achieve blood pressure targets. This study aims to review and analyze the clinical studies conducted with dual or triple combination of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and diuretics. Medical literature between January 1990 and April 2012 was reviewed systematically and data from eligible studies were abstracted. Data were analyzed using random-effects models. Of the 224 studies screened, 7563 eligible patients from 11 studies were included. Triple combinations of ARBs (olmesartan or valsartan), CCBs (amlodipine), and diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide) at any dose provided more blood pressure reduction in office and 24-hour ambulatory measurements than any dual combination of these molecules (P<.0001 for both). Significantly more patients achieved blood pressure targets with triple combinations (odds ratio, 2.16; P<.0001). Triple combinations did not increase adverse event risk (odds ratio, 0.96; P=.426). Triple combinations at any dose seem to decrease blood pressure more effectively than dual combination of the same molecules without any remarkable risk elevation for adverse events. Further prospective studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of triple combinations, especially in the form of single pills, are required.
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Patients were randomly allocated to receive 5-10 mg amlodipine or 10-20 mg lisinopril for 2 years.
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Indapamide sustained release (SR) 1.5mg is a new galenic formulation that is characterised by a relatively constant plasma concentration at steady state, with only minor fluctuations during the 24-hour period. A dose-titration study of 3 doses of indapamide SR (1.5, 2 and 2.5mg) given once daily has shown that the 3 dosages are equipotent in lowering blood pressure, and have an effect similar to that of indapamide immediate-release (IR) 2.5mg; all were statistically more effective than placebo. The percentage of hypertensive patients whose serum potassium was less than 3.4 mmol/L was significantly lower after indapamide SR 1.5mg than after indapamide IR 2.5mg. Neither indapamide formulation had any significant effects on lipid profile, glucose, urea and serum creatinine; only uric acid was slightly raised during the 2-month study. In an equivalence study, indapamide SR 1.5mg and IR 2.5mg produced similar blood pressure reductions (within the equivalence limit of +/-5mm Hg), whereas the percentage of patients whose serum potassium fell to less than 3.4 mmol/L was lower in the IR 1.5mg group than in the SR 2.5mg group. Antihypertensive treatment with indapamide SR 1.5mg once daily produced reductions in blood pressure in elderly patients with systolic/diastolic or isolated systolic hypertension that were similar to reductions with amlodipine 5 mg/day. The incidence of adverse effects was very low in all studies with indapamide SR 1.5mg and very similar to that in the placebo group, confirming thereby the improvement in the efficacy: tolerance ratio with the new indapamide compound.
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For male patients with LUTS associate with hypertension, all of amlodipine (APVR = 6.8) , terazosin (APVR = 7. 6), and combination group (APVR = 8.8) can significant reduced the PVR (P < . 0.1), but no significant difference was found among three groups.
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We studied the impact of these variants on BP response to losartan and three other antihypertensive drugs and on baseline indicators of the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The participants were 217 moderately hypertensive Finnish men that participated in the double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled GENRES Study.
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We performed post hoc subgroup analyses from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) among nondiabetic participants who were randomized to receive treatment with chlorthalidone (n = 8419), amlodipine (n = 4958), or lisinopril (n = 5034) and observed for a mean of 4.9 years.
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Leg weight was increased by both drugs, but the increase was significantly greater during treatment with amlodipine than with lercanidipine. Blood pressure decreased to a similar extent and postural vasoconstriction was antagonized comparably during both treatments.
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Diabetes has long been recognized as a risk factor for heart disease. Recent evidence has brought to light complex interactions that seem to influence both the renal and the vascular complications of diabetes. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers has been shown to ameliorate renal and cardiac risks in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes to a degree that is disproportionate to blood pressure-lowering effects. The judicious use of these agents can materially improve the prognosis for patients with diabetes.
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Characteristics of L- and N-type calcium (Ca++) channel antagonist receptors in brains of senescence-accelerated prone mouse (SAMP8) showing age-related deterioration of learning and memory were examined by using (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 and [125I]omega-conotoxin GVIA as radioligands. There was a tendency toward consistent decrease in Bmax for both radioligands in seven brain regions of SAMP8 compared with the control mouse. The reduction in (+)-[3H]Pn 200-110 binding sites was statistically significant in the hippocampus, midbrain and pons/medulla oblongata, and that in [125I]omega-conotoxin binding sites was significant in the cerebral cortex, corpus striatum and pons/medulla oblongata. On the other hand, there was a marked elevation in Ca++ content in the brain of SAMP8. Chronic p.o. administration (0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks) of nimodipine and nicardipine to SAMP8 caused a significant increase in the Bmax values of (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. This may reflect up-regulation of brain Ca++ channel antagonist receptors as a result of the prolonged blockade by nimodipine and nicardipine. On the other hand, similar administration of amlodipine and nilvadipine failed to produce an enhancement of Bmax values of (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding, whereas both drugs at high doses evoked a significant increase in the apparent dissociation constant. Furthermore, the brain Ca++ content in SAMP8 was markedly reduced by chronic p.o. administration of Ca++ channel antagonists, and the decrease was equivalently observed for all of four 1,4-dihydropyridine antagonists in spite of the difference in the effect on brain receptors. In conclusion, the present study suggests that there is an altered Ca++ homeostasis in the SAMP8 brain that is effectively attenuated by chronic administration of nimodipine and nicardipine. Hence SAMP8 may be a suitable animal model for evaluating the therapeutic effects of Ca++ channel antagonists on neurological disorders associated with the aging brain.
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Single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin therapy was well tolerated and effectively targeted HTN and dyslipidemia in this population of African Americans who were at risk of cardiovascular disease.
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An 11-month-old, 10.88-kg boy ingested 10 to 45 mg amlodipine with 40 to 180 mg benazepril. No action was taken initially because the parents believed only one or two capsules had been ingested. A later count revealed a maximum of nine capsules missing. The child was observed at home and vomited once with possible capsule fragments. Forty-five minutes post-ingestion, the child was noted to be suddenly unresponsive and was brought the local emergency department by a private vehicle. Upon arrival (90 min post-ingestion), the child was unresponsive with the following vital signs HR 133 bpm, BP 67/42 mmHg, respiratory rate 40/min, and temperature 97.5°F. Pertinent abnormal laboratory values were HCO(3) 13 mmol/l and glucose 302 mg/dl. The child was placed on oxygen via a non-rebreather mask and was intubated 45 min post-arrival. The patient became progressively bradycardic, and 55 min after arrival, the patient was in asystole with no palpable blood pressure. Resuscitation measures included chest compressions, epinephrine atropine, sodium bicarbonate, and calcium gluconate. Rescue insulin therapy was begun with 4 units IVP followed by 10 units per hour. Resuscitation efforts persisted for 1 h without success. An autopsy revealed pulmonary edema and no gross or microscopic evidence of natural disease. Stomach contents revealed food matter with small white fragments. Analysis of postmortem heart blood showed amlodipine 1,300 ng/ml (therapeutic <20 ng/ml). Benazepril levels were not available.
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HW/BW and plasma concentrations of catecholamine were significantly increased in TAC mice one week after surgery in comparison with to sham-operated mice. One week after TAC, the HW/BW ratio was significantly lower in the amolodipine but not nifedipine-treated group than in the TAC group. Administration of nifedipine via minipump infusion for one week did not decrease HW/BW ratio. Treatment with amlodpine or benidipine, but not nifedipine, decreased the neonatal rat myocyte protein synthesis induced by phenylephrine stimulation.
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Many patients need more than one antihypertensive agent for effective blood pressure (BP) control. Prescription of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of bisoprolol and amlodipine in one tablet has been shown to significantly improve patient adherence. This non-interventional study investigated the effects on adherence and BP control of switching from a free-dose combination of the two antihypertensive substances to a FDC in a larger patient population.
Amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist has been examined on the rhythmic activity of isolated human coronary arteries. Amlodipine inhibited both the spontaneous rhythmic activity and the rhythmic activity evoked by prostaglandin F2 alpha and endothelin in isolated human coronary arteries. It also inhibited the contraction evoked by potassium depolarization. The action of amlodipine was characterized by slow onset and voltage dependency.
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The PMI approach based on the inclusion of SPAA in the patients' treatment regimen may improve the management of CHD risk among patients residing in LA and non-LA regions. Clinicians may be reassured by the low rate of AEs leading to discontinuation of SPAA in both regions.
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This combination tablet was administered to 29 patients (16 male), and MDA-LDL, blood pressure, lipid profile, renal/liver function, CPK, hs-CRP, adiponectin, BNP, and HbA1c were measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months, and baPWV and mean IMT were measured at baseline and 12 months. Medication adherence was examined using a questionnaire at 6 months.
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Twenty outpatients with mild-to-moderate hypertension were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled open study. In a crossover design, all of the patients received 5 mg amlodipine, either in the morning or in the evening, during two consecutive 4-week treatment periods.
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Our study aimed to investigate the effect of amlodipine on bone metabolism in orchidectomized rats.