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Ponstel (Mefenamic Acid)
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Ponstel

Ponstel is in a group of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short-term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain. Ponstel blocks the effect of certain substances in the body that are associated with pain and inflammation.

Other names for this medication:

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Celebrex, Voltaren, Dolobid, Lodine, Motrin, Indocin, Orudis, Toradol, Naproxen, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Voltaren, Aleve, Advil, Celecoxib, Naprosyn, Motrin, Ketoprofen

 

Also known as:  Mefenamic Acid.

Description

Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain.

Ponstel blocks certain substances in the body that are linked to inflammation. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation.

Ponstel is also known as Mefenamic acid, Ponstan.

Generic name of Ponstel is Mefenamic Acid.

Brand name of Ponstel is Ponstel.

Dosage

Take Ponstel orally.

Take Ponstel with or without food.

Take Ponstel with a full glass of water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ponstel suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Ponstel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Ponstel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Ponstel if you are allergic to Ponstel components or to aspirin.

Do not take Ponstel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Ponstel if you have had a severe allergic reaction (e.g., severe rash, hives, trouble breathing, growths in the nose, dizziness) to aspirin or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (e.g., ibuprofen, celecoxib).

Do not take Ponstel if you have had recent or will be having bypass heart surgery.

Do not take Ponstel if you have kidney problems.

Do not take Ponstel if you have ulcers or inflammation of the stomach or bowel.

Do not use Ponstel with aspirin.

Be careful with Ponstel when it is used by children younger than 14 years old and by elderly people.

Avoid machine driving.

Avoid drinking alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Ponstel taking suddenly.

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Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment have received great attentions from the general and scientific community due to their potential impacts on ecological and human health. We investigated the occurrence of twelve acidic pharmaceuticals and herbicides (salicylic acid, clofibric acid, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, fenoprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, diclofenac, meclofenamic acid and indomethacin) in surface waters of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in north China during the wet and dry seasons and assessed the potential risks to aquatic organisms posed by these acidic compounds. Seven acidic compounds were detected in the rivers, including five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (salicylic acid, ibuprofen, diclofenac, mefenamic acid and naproxen), and two blood lipid regulators (clofibric acid and gemfibrozil). The concentrations for acidic pharmaceuticals in the Yellow River and Liao River were in most cases higher in the dry season than in the wet season, but the concentrations of acidic compounds in the Hai River were generally higher in July than in November. High concentrations of these detected compounds in the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River were found more frequently at those sites located in metropolitan areas, lower reaches or river confluences. Only diclofenac and ibuprofen were found to have medium to high risks in the three rivers based on the calculated risk quotients.

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A study of the electroencephalographic patterns observed following iv administration of increasing doses of mefenamic acid in acute experiments on curarized cats and rats and the possible modification of these effects by naloxone was carried out. Mefenamic acid produced in both species a progressive and dose-related increase of the voltage of the baseline patterns. With high doses, besides slow waves and fusiform complexes, an irritative activity with spikes and complexes of polyspikes was observed. The recovery of the basal activity was obtained within 15 min, except for the highest dose, under which the effect lasted 30 min after administration. Cats displayed a higher sensitivity than did rats. Naloxone did not modify the EEG effects of mefenamic acid, neigher in rats nor in rats. This fact suggests that the locus of action of these drugs is different. Mefenamic acid appears to act centrally with relatively short-lasting depressant effects at low doses and facilitating or stimulant effects at high doses.

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Reactions to human seminal plasma may present as immediate hypersensitivity, cell-mediated hypersensitivity, or fixed eruptions. There are no typical responses to semen. An abnormal skin lesion or systemic response after intercourse may be the only clue to identifying those who are reacting to semen. The use of condoms has proven to be the most consistent preventive modality. However, the use of condoms is unacceptable to some regardless of the relief provided. Although conventional therapy for hypersensitivity reactions to human seminal plasma is suboptimal, one should be aware of MA in the treatment of an atypical cause of human seminal plasma induced reactions.

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A Finnigan MAT TSQ 700 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with a Harvard 22 syringe pump has been used to investigate the thermal decomposition of three common pharmaceuticals, acetaminophen, indomethacin, and mefenamic acid. In addition, comparative measurements on these same drugs were carried out by HPLC after thermally degrading them at elevated temperatures in order to evaluate the usefulness of the ESI-MS as a rapid means of determining the relative stability and identifying thermal decomposition products. Similar results were obtained between the two techniques (i.e., the relative rates of decomposition were mefenamic acid > indomethacin > acetaminophen), with the advantage that the ESI-MS approach was much quicker to perform.

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The effect of sodium meclofenamate on the binding of [3H]prostaglandin E2 [( 3H]PGE2) to membranes from human myometrium was investigated. Meclofenamate inhibited the binding of [3H]PGE2 to high-affinity (dissociation constant 1.5 nmol/l) sites in a reversible dose-dependent manner (inhibition constant 11 mumol/l). The mechanism of inhibition was mainly competitive, but at high doses of meclofenamate (greater than or equal to 100 mumol/l) there was loss of PGE receptor sites. Of several PG synthesis inhibitors tested, only meclofenamate and, to a lesser extent, mefenamic acid had a significant inhibitory effect. PGE2 stimulated cyclic AMP generation in slices of human myometrium and this was inhibited by meclofenamate in a dose-dependent manner (50% inhibition occurred at 9 mumol/l). Again, this effect was specific for meclofenamate and fitted a competitive mechanism at doses in the range 1-10 mumol/l and a non-competitive mechanism at higher doses. The data show that meclofenamate, in addition to its traditional role as a PG synthesis inhibitor, affects directly PGE receptor binding and activation.

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The purpose of this mini review is to discuss the use of physiologically-based drug absorption modeling to guide the formulation development. Following an introduction to drug absorption modeling, this article focuses on the preclinical formulation development. Case studies are presented, where the emphasis is not only the prediction of absolute exposure values, but also their change with altered input values. Sensitivity analysis of technologically relevant parameters, like the drug's particle size, dose and solubility, is presented as the basis to define the clinical formulation strategy. Taking the concept even one step further, the article shows how the entire design space for drug absorption can be constructed. This most accurate prediction level is mainly foreseen once clinical data is available and an example is provided using mefenamic acid as a model drug. Physiologically-based modeling is expected to be more often used by formulators in the future. It has the potential to become an indispensable tool to guide the formulation development of challenging drugs, which will help minimize both risks and costs of formulation development.

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Late proliferative (days 9 to 14) and midsecretory (days 18 to 24) human endometria were maintained in organ culture in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and/or progesterone or mefenamic acid 17 beta-estradiol (0.1 to 1,000 ng/ml) increased prostaglandin F (PGF) secretion by both proliferative and secretory endometria. Progesterone (1,000 ng/ml) markedly inhibited PGF secretion by proliferative but not secretory endometrium. 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone had no effect on prostaglandin E (PGE) secretion by both types of endometrium. Secretion of both PGF and PGE by proliferative and secretory endometria was inhibited by mefenamic acid ( 1 microgram/ml). This was more apparent with PGF secretion and was detectable within the first 2 hours of culture. These findings indicate that the human endometrium is a rich source of PGF and PGE and that the production of PGF is regulated by gonadal steroids. These results support the concept that one mechanism of action of mefenamic acid in the treatment of dysmenorrhea is inhibition of prostaglandin production.

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The X-ray scanning and X-ray exposure under our experimental conditions did not affect the pharmaceutical quality of drug tablets.

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To determine whether an educational package could influence the management of menorrhagia, increase the appropriateness of choice of non-hormonal treatment, and reduce referral rates from primary to secondary care.

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To determine the effectiveness of antifibrinolytics in achieving a reduction in heavy menstrual bleeding.

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Television microscopy was used to observe the responses of in vivo arterioles and venules of the rat cremaster muscle to the topical application of angiotensin II (10(-8) and 10(-6) M). Neither the first- (A1) or second-order arterioles (A2) nor the first- (V1) or second-order venules (V2) constricted significantly to angiotensin II. However, after the inhibition of local prostaglandin synthesis with either mefenamic acid or indomethacin, both A1 and A2, but not the venules, gave a significant constrictor response to angiotensin II (10(-6) M). Arterioles and venules, which were preconstricted with norepinephrine, dilated to their initial baseline diameters after angiotensin II (10(-6) M), a response not observed when the microvessels were pretreated with either an angiotensin antagonist or a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. These observations indicate that endogenous prostaglandins exert a significant dilator influence on the larger arterioles, that this dilator influence appears to oppose the constrictor effect of angiotensin II, and that angiotensin II acts on specific receptors to induce synthesis and/or release of dilator prostaglandins in large arterioles. However, prostaglandins cannot account for the absence of a venular constriction to angiotensin.

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The current data demonstrate that milk is a promising drug carrier.

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There has been growing awareness that alleviation of wound pain and associated symptoms after obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) surgeries may improve the quality of care. We performed a hospital-based study to compare the effectiveness and safety of two different regimens in the treatment of postoperative pain.

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All NSAIDs with different acidic functional groups were classified as highly permeable based on their Caco-2 cell permeability. Only ketorolac appeared to have a potential for interaction with cellular efflux pumps. Solubility classification was based on comparison of equilibrium solubility at pH 1.2, 5.0. and 7.4 relative to marketed dose strengths in 250 ml. The pKa values for the acidic NSAIDs studied were between 3.5 and 5.1. and, as expected, their solubility increased dramatically at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. Only three NSAIDs, ketorolac, ketoprofen. and acetyl salicylic acid, meet the current criteria for high solubility over the entire pH range. However, with the exception of ibuprofen, oxaprozin, and mefenamic acid, the remaining compounds can be classified as Class I drugs (high solubility-high permeability) relative to solubility at pH 7.4. The use of bio-relevant media simulating gastric and intestinal milieu for solubility measurements or increasing the dose volume to 500 ml did not provide for a better boundary for solubility classification.

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Tranexamic acid, a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine, is an antifibrinolytic agent that acts by binding to plasminogen and blocking the interaction of plasmin(ogen) with fibrin, thereby preventing dissolution of the fibrin clot. Tranexamic acid (Transamin®) is indicated in Japan for use in certain conditions with abnormal bleeding or bleeding tendencies in which local or systemic hyperfibrinolysis is considered to be involved. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of tranexamic acid in conditions amenable to antifibrinolytic therapy and briefly overviews the pharmacological properties of the drug. In large, randomized controlled trials, tranexamic acid generally significantly reduced perioperative blood loss compared with placebo in a variety of surgical procedures, including cardiac surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass, total hip and knee replacement and prostatectomy. In many instances, tranexamic acid also reduced transfusion requirements associated with surgery. It also reduced blood loss in gynaecological bleeding disorders, such as heavy menstrual bleeding, postpartum haemorrhage and bleeding irregularities caused by contraceptive implants. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced all-cause mortality and death due to bleeding in trauma patients with significant bleeding, particularly when administered early after injury. It was also effective in traumatic hyphaema, gastrointestinal bleeding and hereditary angioneurotic oedema. While it reduces rebleeding in subarachnoid haemorrhage, it may increase ischaemic complications. Pharmacoeconomic analyses predicted that tranexamic acid use in surgery and trauma would be very cost effective and potentially life saving. In direct comparisons with other marketed agents, tranexamic acid was at least as effective as ε-aminocaproic acid and more effective than desmopressin in surgical procedures. It was more effective than desmopressin, etamsylate, flurbiprofen, mefenamic acid and norethisterone, but less effective than the levonorgestrel-releasing intra-uterine device in heavy menstrual bleeding and was as effective as prednisolone in traumatic hyphaema. Tranexamic acid was generally well tolerated. Most adverse events in clinical trials were of mild or moderate severity; severe or serious events were rare. Therefore, while high-quality published evidence is limited for some approved indications, tranexamic acid is an effective and well tolerated antifibrinolytic agent.

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The present study investigates the effects of several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on mouse palatal fusion in vivo and in vitro. Five different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents were injected into pregnant mice of the AKR-strain on day 13.5 of gestation. Paired palatal processes from 13.5- and 14.5-day-old mouse embryos were organ-cultured for 72 hours in control and anti-inflammatory drug-containing media. Each experimental group of animals and explants received one of the following drugs: naproxen, sulindac, indomethacin, diclofenac, and mefenamic acid. Drug treatment induced different frequencies of cleft palate in the offspring. The most teratogenic drug was sulindac, and indomethacin was almost ineffective. In vitro each drug prevented fusion of the palatine processes in treated explants, and the degree of inhibition was dependent on the stage of development at the time of explanation. In both the in vivo and in vitro experiments, the drugs prevented medial epithelial cell breakdown that normally occurs in the medial secondary palatal epithelium. The results obtained in the present study suggest that prostaglandins may play an important role in normal differentiation of the developing palatine region.

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Certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) of the fenamate chemical class are known to cause diarrhea in clinical use. Paradoxically, this action is shared by prostaglandins, against whose syntheses are inhibited by NSAID. This study was done to investigate the laxative potential of 5 NSAID (meclofenamate, flufenamate, mefenamate, indomethacin and aspirin). The ability to produce a laxative response was assessed by determining effects on fluid absorption in vitro in hamster everted sacs and by the enteropooling assay in hamster small intestine. In addition, the lytic action of these drugs on the erythrocyte membrane was determined to arrive at a possible mechanism of action. All of the NSAID, except aspirin, produced dose-related inhibition of fluid transport, similar to prostaglandin E1 and E2. The order of inhibition was flufenamate greater than meclofenamate greater than mefenamate greater than indomethacin. Like results were obtained when enteropooling was measured in vivo. Flufenamate and meclofenamate produced lumenal fluid accumulation comparable to two laxatives, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate and ricinoleic acid. Finally, the effects of these NSAID on fluid movement paralleled their lytic action on the erythrocyte membrane model, suggesting that NSAID may produce diarrhea in a manner similar to certain laxatives, by increasing mucosal permeability through membrane damage.

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The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C22H21N3O2, consists of two independent mol-ecules (A and B) having differing conformations. The differences mainly concern the dihedral angles which the hy-droxy-phenyl and di-methyl-phenyl rings subtend to the central phenyl-ene ring, these being 30.16 (6) and 58.60 (6)° in mol-ecule A and 13.42 (7) and 60.31 (7)° in B. With the exception of the dimethyphenyl substituent, the conformations of the rest of each mol-ecule are largely determined by intra-molecular O-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into chains extending parallel to the a axis in which the types of mol-ecules alternate in an …A…B…A…B… fashion.

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Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori was excluded in all patients. Of the 16 patients on NSAIDs, four had gastritis, four had erosions or ulceration and eight had a normal examination. Endoscopy was normal in all patients in the control group. The LI% (mean +/- S.E.M.) in the entire NSAID group was 4.09 +/- 0.29 and in the control group 3.57 +/- 0.29. No significant difference was observed. In the NSAID patients with gastritis and erosions or ulceration, the LI% was 4.99 +/- 0.61 and 3.07 +/- 0.32, respectively. There was no significant difference in LI% between the endoscopic subgroups of patients on NSAIDs or between patients on NSAIDs who had normal endoscopy and the control patients.

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885 women consulting their general practitioner with menorrhagia over four years.

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The activities of HL-PST and HL-CST were measured with 4 microM 4-nitrophenol and 60 microM dopamine (the sulfate acceptors) and 0.4 microM 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate [35S] (the sulfate donor). Samples of liver were obtained from five patients, aged 55-79 years, undergoing clinically indicated hepatectomy. The inhibition curves were constructed with at least five concentrations of the inhibitor.

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Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter aquatic environments via sewage treatment facilities and their potentially toxic effects on biota, particularly aquatic organisms, are of considerable concern. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of selected PPCPs on a freshwater crustacean (Thamnocephalus platyurus) and a fish species (Oryzias latipes). The 24-hr median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, indometacin, carbamazepine, propranolol, ifenprodil, clarithromycin and triclosan for T. platyurus were estimated to be 19.59, 3.95, 16.14, > 100, 10.31, 4.43, 94.23 and 0.47 mg/l respectively. Conversely, the 96-hr LC(50) values for these PPCPs were estimated at > 100, 8.04, 81.92, 45.87, 11.40, 8.71, > 100 and 0.60 mg/l for O. latipes, respectively. The toxic sensitivity of T. platyurus to these PPCPs, except for carbamazepine, was therefore higher than for O. latipes. No acute toxicity effects were associated with PPCPs, such as atenolol, disopyramide, famotidine, fluconazole, erythromycin and levofloxacin, in the two aquatic organisms at the concentrations tested in this study (> 100 mg/l). These findings may help us to understand the potential biological effects and risks associated with PPCP exposure in aquatic organisms. Further long-term studies are required to fully assess the growth and reproduction of these compounds on aquatic biota.

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Indomethacin is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis and has several uses, including the ability to encourage closure of a patent ductus in premature neonates. A rapid, accurate, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is described for measuring plasma concentrations of indomethacin. An acidic buffer (citrate, pH 3.0) was employed to alter the pH of the aqueous phase prior to extraction to minimise interference interference from endogenous compounds. Extraction of indomethacin from plasma was optimally achieved with petroleum ether (boiling fraction of 40-60 degrees C):dichloromethane (50:50). However, separation of indomethacin from plasma proteins was attempted unsuccessfully using acetonitrile precipitation; severe band broadening occurred due to injected sample solvent problems. The absolute recoveries for indomethacin and internal standard (mefenamic acid) were over 90% (n = 3). Precision was expressed as the coefficient of variation (n = 4), which was less than or equal to 8% at each of six indomethacin concentrations in the range 50-2,000 ng/ml. The limit of quantitation of indomethacin in plasma was 50 ng/ml (0.5 ml of plasma injected). We report an HPLC method for the quantitation of indomethacin in plasma that may have widespread applicability for routine drug assay laboratories.

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The present study investigated the applicability of a laccase based bioprocess for the treatment of a mixture containing 13 selected pharmaceuticals. To do so, laccase was immobilized as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (MAC-CLEAs) on amine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles using chitosan/1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC) as the cross-linking system. The activity recovery of laccase reached 61.4% under the optimal conditions of MAC-CLEAs formation. The latter exhibited enhanced storage stability over one year at 4°C and showed better temperature resistance compared to its soluble counterpart. The biocatalysts were properly recycled and the catalytic activity recovery was good even after a hundred and fifty batch reactions. Complete removal of pharmaceuticals like acetaminophen, diclofenac, mefenamic acid, atenolol and epoxy carbamazepine and partial removal of fenofibrate, diazepam, trimethoprim, and ketoprofen by laccase was achieved within 12h of incubation, whereas efficient removal of indometacin required the presence of mediator.

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Agents used to color, flavor, preserve or identify medication frequently used in the treatment of allergic diseases may in themselves produce severe allergic or toxic reactions. Some cross-react with Aspirin. Aminopyrine, Indomethacin (indocin), Mefensmic Acid (ponstel) to which an allergic patient may be sensitive. Three case reports are presented.

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Electronic searches for relevant randomised controlled trials of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Contents, the Cochrane Library and CINAHL were performed. Attempts were also made to identify trials from citation lists of review articles and drug companies were approached for unpublished data. In most cases, the first author of each included trial was contacted for additional information. An updated search was performed in September and October 2001 but no new eligible trials were identified.

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34 women with recurrent primary dysmenorrhea were given prescriptions for mefenamic acid and told to use it as needed for pain and cramps. 85% felt the dysmenorrhea had improved and 15 of the women said it was completely controlled. Virtually all felt it more effective than aspirin and 13 of 18 who could make a comparison considered it more effective than propoxyphene. There were 3instances of nausea or vomiting and 1 of sleepiness. A double-blind study is now underway.

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It has been recently described that some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are able to induce the shedding of L-selectin in neutrophils, an adhesion molecule that plays an essential role in the inflammatory response. We have found that, according to this capability, NSAIDs could be grouped into three categories. A high releaser group (flufenamic, meclofenamic, and mefenamic acids, diclofenac and aceclofenac), a group of moderate releasers (aspirin, indomethacin, nimesulide, flurbiprofen, and ketoprofen), and a non-releaser group (phenylbutazone and the oxicams, piroxicam and meloxicam). Only NSAIDs from the high releaser group shared diphenylamine in their chemical structure. The amine group of this chemical agent proved to be essential for the anti-L-selectin activity of diphenylamine-based NSAIDs. The presence of a carboxylic acid group in the diphenylamine (N-phenylanthranilic acid) highly increased its ability to reduce the L-selectin surface expression in neutrophils. Diphenylamine and N-phenylanthranilic acid neither affected COX activity in platelets nor modified the activation state of neutrophils. Diphenylamine-related compounds, which include the diphenylamine-based NSAIDs caused a variable reduction in the neutrophil intracellular ATP concentration, which correlated with the differential ability of such compounds to trigger L-selectin shedding (r = 0.97, p < 0.01). Diphenylamine-related compounds failed to down-regulate L-selectin in a tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE)-deficient murine monocytic cell line. Our data indicate that diphenylamine seems to be the structural core of NSAIDs accounting for their down-regulatory activity of L-selectin leukocyte expression. Diphenylamine and its related compounds exert this action on L-selectin through a prostaglandin-independent, TACE-dependent mechanism that seems to be linked to the capability of these agents to uncouple the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

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ponstel and alcohol 2016-02-19

The use buy ponstel of a zinc supplement in combination with mefenamic acid was superior in reducing primary dysmenorrhea compared to mefenamic acid alone.

ponstel capsule 2015-05-12

Organisms exposed to wastewater treatment works (WwTW) effluents accumulate complex mixtures of xenobiotics but there is a buy ponstel scarcity of information on the nature and impacts of these chemical mixtures. We applied metabolomics techniques as a novel approach to identify xenobiotics and their metabolites (the xenometabolome) that bioconcentrate in fish exposed to a WwTW effluent. Exposed juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) accumulated surfactants, naphthols, chlorinated xylenols, and phenoxyphenols, chlorophenes, resin acids, mefenamic acid, oxybenzone, and steroidal alkaloids in the bile or plasma, and there were perturbations in the plasma concentrations of bile acids and lipids. Exposure of adult roach (Rutilus rutilus) to 50% or 100% concentrations of the same effluent resulted in dose-dependent increases in plasma concentrations of xenometabolites as well as cyprinol sulfate and taurocholic acid, lysophospholipids, and a decrease in sphingosine levels (a key component of cell membrane lipids). Our findings reveal the highly complex nature of xenobiotics accumulating in effluent-exposed fish, and the great potential of metabolomics for both identifying plasma marker (bio)chemicals for monitoring exposure to wastewater effluents, and for targeting studies on potential consequent impacts on fish health.

ponstel 250mg capsules 2017-10-07

The effect of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition on the postprandial intestinal hyperemia was examined in the jejunum of anesthetized dogs. Both intravenous and intra-arterial infusion of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and mefenamic acid reduced resting jejunal blood flow and markedly enhanced the food-induced jejunal hyperemia. The jejunal vascular response to food did not change after either intravenous or intra-arterial infusion of the carrier solutions or intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II. The enhancement of the jejunal hyperemia was associated with an increase in the food-induced increase in jejunal oxygen consumption. Infusion of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors increased the mean amplitude of the monophasic intestinal contractions; however, this did not appear to play a role in the enhancement of the food-induced hyperemia. The study indicates that inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis has a marked effect on the postprandial intestinal hyperemia and that this may be due to its enhancement buy ponstel of the jejunal metabolic response to food. The prostaglandins involved and their mechanism of action are unknown.

ponstel 250 capsule 2016-04-13

Multivariate calibration methods are chemometric tools that may be applied to the analysis of spectroscopic data with multichannel detection. Two procedures, based on spectrophotometric and buy ponstel fluorimetric signals, are reported for the simultaneous determination of two fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin) and two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and mefenamic acid) using first- and second-order multivariate calibration methods. In the spectrophotometric method, an extractive procedure into chloroform using trioctylmethylammonium chloride-adogen as counter ion was optimized, with the object of extracting the analytes from urine samples and eliminating matrix interferences. After separation, the absorption spectrum of the organic phase was used as the analytical signal in a partial least squares method. A photoinduced spectrofluorimetric (PIF) method using excitation-emission fluorescence matrices, is proposed, to apply three-way chemometric calibration, with the aim of analyzing ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and diclofenac in urine samples without the previous extractive sample-cleaning step. For both procedures, recoveries around 100% were found for all the analytes. However, the PIF three-way chemometric method provides the most sensitive and selective procedure as the urine interferences are modulated using the three-way chemometric technique.

ponstel syrup 2017-01-02

In the presence of MEF, Papp of B, W and OA were increased from 1.69 ± 0.89 × 10⁻⁶, 1.57 ± 0.10 × 10⁻⁶ and 3.09 ± 0.70 × 10⁻⁶ cm/sec to 5.24 ± 0.27 × 10⁻⁶, 6.08 ± 0.19 × 10⁻⁶ and 4.13 ± 0.38 × 10⁻⁶, whereas their percentage of metabolism was decreased from 72.75 ± 2.44%, 73.27 ± 3.25% and 89.84 ± 2.99% to 21.11 ± 0.69%, 17.90 ± 5.55% and 45.44 ± 3.38%. PGE2 level was much lower in the co-administration group (49.04 ± 2.03 pg/ml) than in the MEF group (73. buy ponstel 13 ± 3.03 pg/ml) or RS group (494.37 ± 11.75 pg/ml) 4 h post MEF dosing, suggesting a synergic effect.

ponstel buy 2017-07-01

Auricular acupuncture (AA) has been shown to alleviate acute and chronic pain. We investigated the effects of auricular electroacupuncture (AE) on pain and analgesic drug consumption in the first 48 h after unilateral mandibular third molar tooth extraction under local anesthesia in a prospective, randomized, buy ponstel double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 149 patients.

ponstel generic 2015-08-05

In the carrageenin-induced edema test in rats, the anti-inflammatory activity of SL-573 was 1.6 times as potent as those of phenylbutazone (PB) and ibuprofen (IP), 3.3 times as potent as that of mefenamic acid (MF) and 6.7 times as potent as that of mepirizole (MP). In the yeast-induced edema test in rats, SL-573 showed equipotent activity with IP, the activity of which was 4 times as potent as that of MP. In the dextran-induced edema test in rats, the anti-inflammatory activity of SL-573 was significantly higher than those of IP and MP. SL-573 showed no anti-inflammatory activity in the formalin-induced edema test in rats in the buy ponstel same way as seen with IP and MP. SL-573 markedly inhibited the increase in capillary permeability in mice induced by intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid, and its activity was 12 times as potent as that of PB and 17 times as potent as that of MF. SL-573 showed anti-granuloma activity neither systemically nor locally. SL-573 showed equi-potent activity with PB in the adjuvant arthritis test in rats and had little effect on the healing process of the skin wound in rats. The effect of SL-573 on the carrageenin-induced edema was not diminished in the adrenalectomized rats. The gastric bleeding effect of SL-573 was significantly weaker than that usually seen in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. SL-573 did not induce intestinal perforation even at the high dose of 800 mg/kg. Additionally, SL-573 showed a protective effect on the indomethacin-induced intestinal lesions. These pharmacological profiles of SL-573 were considered to be quite characteristic as compared with those of known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.

ponstel dosage instructions 2017-06-30

Cytochrome P450 BM3 mutants are promising biocatalysts for the production of drug metabolites. In the present study, the ability of cytochrome P450 BM3 mutants to produce oxidative metabolites of structurally related NSAIDs meclofenamic acid, mefenamic acid and buy ponstel tolfenamic acid was investigated. A library of engineered P450 BM3 mutants was screened with meclofenamic acid (1) to identify catalytically active and selective mutants. Three mono-hydroxylated metabolites were identified for 1. The hydroxylated products were confirmed by NMR analysis to be 3'-OH-methyl-meclofenamic acid (1a), 5-OH-meclofenamic acid (1b) and 4'-OH-meclofenamic acid (1c) which are human relevant metabolites. P450 BM3 variants containing V87I and V87F mutation showed high selectivity for benzylic and aromatic hydroxylation of 1 respectively. The applicability of these mutants to selectively hydroxylate structurally similar drugs such as mefenamic acid (2) and tolfenamic acid (3) was also investigated. The tested variants showed high total turnover numbers in the order of 4000-6000 and can be used as biocatalysts for preparative scale synthesis. Both 1 and 2 could undergo benzylic and aromatic hydroxylation by the P450 BM3 mutants, whereas 3 was hydroxylated only on aromatic rings. The P450 BM3 variant M11 V87F hydroxylated the aromatic ring at 4' position of all three drugs tested with high regioselectivity. Reference metabolites produced by P450 BM3 mutants allowed the characterisation of activity and regioselectivity of metabolism of all three NSAIDs by thirteen recombinant human P450s. In conclusion, engineered P450 BM3 mutants that are capable of benzylic or aromatic hydroxylation of fenamic acid containing NSAIDs, with high selectivity and turnover numbers have been identified. This shows their potential use as a greener alternative for the generation of drug metabolites.

ponstel 250 reviews 2015-05-25

Pharmacokinetic interaction of sunitinib with diclofenac, paracetamol, mefenamic acid and ibuprofen was evaluated due to buy ponstel their P450 mediated metabolism and OATP1B1, OATP1B3, ABCB1, ABCG2 transporters overlapping features.

ponstel s dosage 2017-02-02

A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) often complicates the clinical course of preterm infants and increases the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), chronic lung disease (CLD) and death. The standard treatment to close a buy ponstel PDA is indomethacin. Its use is associated with renal, gastrointestinal and cerebral side-effects. Ibuprofen has been shown to be effective in closing a PDA without reducing blood flow velocity to the brain, gut or kidneys.

ponstel capsules 2015-06-24

In this study, we investigated buy ponstel the in vitro characteristics of mefenamic acid (MA) microparticles as well as their effects on DNA damage. MA-loaded chitosan and alginate beads were prepared by the ionotropic gelation process. Microsponges containing MA and Eudragit RS 100 were prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method. The microparticles were characterized in terms of particle size, surface morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release profiles. Most of the formulation variables manifested an influence on the physical characteristics of the microparticles at varying degrees. We also studied the effects of MA, MA-loaded microparticles, and three different polymers on rat brain cortex DNA damage. Our results showed that DNA damage was higher in MA-loaded Eudragit microsponges than MA-loaded biodegradable chitosan or alginate microparticles.

ponstel medication cost 2017-07-17

The pattern of analgesic use, abuse and incidence of analgesic-associated nephropathy in 79 patients with chronic headache was studied. Sixty-eight of these patients had migraine. Most patients had consumed a combination of analgesics (81%) while 19% had taken single analgesics for their headache. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the most commonly used analgesics (96.2%) followed by paracetamol (70.9%) and aspirin, phenacetin and caffeine compounds (5.1%). Mefenamic acid was the commonest nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug consumed (97.4%). Analgesic abuse which was defined as a minimum total of 1 kg of analgesics such as paracetamol or aspirin, phenacetin and caffeine compounds or 400 capsules/tablets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory buy ponstel drugs was noted in 65 patients. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the most commonly abused analgesics (89.2%) followed by paracetamol (38.5%). Forty-five of the 65 analgesic abusers had an intravenous urogram or ultrasound performed and renal papillary necrosis was documented in one patient. Three (4.6%) of the analgesic abusers had mildly raised serum creatinine levels. Mild proteinuria of less than 1 gm/litre was present in 27.7% of abusers. In conclusion, although analgesic use and abuse is common in patients with chronic headache, the short term incidence of analgesic-associated nephropathy (2.2%) and renal impairment (4.6%) was low. Prolonged observations will be necessary to ascertain the safety of these drugs for long term use.

ponstel dosage dysmenorrhea 2016-09-09

Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome is a recently described disorder with typical radiologic findings in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemisphere and cerebellum. The symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, focal neurologic deficits, and seizures. A 10-year-old male was hit on his back, resulting in backache. He was medicated with sodium diclofenate and mefenamic acid. The next day, he had edema and oliguria. By the third day, his blood pressure increased and he began to experience restlessness and worsening mental status. He then complained of headache and visual disturbances and had a seizure. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed buy ponstel abnormalities in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemisphere and cerebellum. The patient was treated with antiepileptics and calcium antagonists. His hypertension and seizures were well controlled. On the 22nd day, he was discharged without any neurologic or renal deficits. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome does not occur frequently in childhood, and this is the first case report of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome related to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. One should consider reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome as a side effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in daily medical treatment.

ponstel suspension 2015-02-13

Sixty patients with primary dysmenorrhea were enrolled in this prospective, open-labeled, randomized, standard-controlled study, conducted in the National Institute of Unani Medicine Hospital between February Zithromax 6 Pills 2010 and April 2011. In group A (20 cases), 3 g powder of fenugreek seed (3 capsules, 1 g each) was given orally twice daily from day 1 to 3 of menstrual cycle. Group B (20 cases) received the same dose of fenugreek seed as group A along with dry cupping therapy [two 4.2-cm and one 2.5-cm cups (internal diameter)], which was applied below the umbilicus for 15 min on day 1 and day 3 of menstrual cycle for 3 consecutive months. The control group C (20 cases) was given mefenamic acid, 500 mg twice daily, on the same protocol. The reduction in menstrual pain intensity was measured with well validated Visual Analogue Scale and safety of fenugreek seed was evaluated by clinical examination and laboratory investigations.

ponstel pill 2016-03-12

A Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire was administered to 1,066 women students from Mexico City. The questionnaire included general data and 12 symptoms related to dysmenorrhea. The mean age of the participants was 18 +/- 3.2 years. The mean age of menarche was 12.3 +/- 1.3 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 52.1% for the group < 15 years of age, 63.8% for women between 15-19 years, and 52.3% for the group of 20-24 years. The frequency of absenteeism as a result of dysmenorrhea in the group < 15 years was 4.3%, 9.3% for the group 15-19 years and 19.8% for the group 20-24 years Luvox Drug . Systemic symptoms accompanying dysmenorrhea were clustered for analysis. The most frequent symptoms associated with dysmenorrhea were nervousness, depression, irritability and sleeplessness. Self-medication was prevalent, the most utilized drugs being antispasmodics.

ponstel medication 2017-07-22

The diagnosis of DUB is made by the exclusion of organic disease as a cause of the abnormal menses; the condition accounts for about 80% of cases of menorrhagia. Of these, over 80% will have no abnormality of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis, and it is likely that the disorder is the result of local endometrial factors. There appears to be not only a preponderance of vasodilatory prostaglandins in the endometrium of women with Risperdal Good Reviews menorrhagia, but also an excessive increase in fibrinolytic activity within the uterine cavity. Once a diagnosis has been reached with the aid of history, examination, haematological and endocrine investigations, and dilatation and curettage when appropriate, medical treatment is the usual first line approach. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as mefenamic acid, or antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic or epsilon aminocaproic acids, will reduce blood loss by between 25 and 50%. Though the former drugs are relatively free from side-effects in healthy women, intracranial thrombosis has been reported with the latter (Agnelli et al, 1982). Medications which suppress ovarian function, such as danazol or gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues, are highly effective in lessening, or inhibiting, menstrual loss, but at the expense of side-effects and convenience respectively. The combined contraceptive pill may reduce blood loss by 50% but is not appropriate for older women. Cyclical gestagens such as norethisterone have been widely employed, particularly for the treatment of anovulatory cycles, but their place in the management of ovulatory DUB is less clear. If medical treatment fails hysterectomy should be considered, though less invasive surgical methods of endometrial ablation are being developed. Finally, it should be remembered that in the absence of associated signs or symptoms of iron-deficiency anaemia, heavy menstrual bleeding is a subjective complaint and up to 50% of women describing menorrhagia will have a measured monthly blood loss within normal limits.

ponstel dose 2015-08-01

We previously showed a role for a nonselective cation channel (NSCC) in the ETA-dependent action of endothelin-1 in mouse fibroblast and rabbit aortic smooth-muscle cell. To clarify the physiological significance of NSCCs in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced vasocontraction, we examined the effects of NSCC blockers such as mefenamic acid and SK&F 96365 on the contractions of deendothelialized rabbit aortic rings induced by a low (10[-10] M) or high (10[-8] M) concentration of ET-1. Mefenamic acid (< or =10[-3] M) had little effect on the contraction induced by 45 x 10(-3) M K+ or 1 x 10(-6) M Bay K-8644 in combination with 15 x 10(-3) M K+, indicating that it does not affect voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCs) and contractile mechanisms. The contraction by a low concentration of ET-1 was abolished after removal of extracellular Ca2+, but it was reduced only to 50% by a maximally effective concentration (10[-5] M) of nifedipine, an inhibitor of L-type VOCs (L-VOC). Mefenamic acid and SK&F 96365 inhibited the ET-1-induced contraction with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 10(-4) M and 2 x 10(-5) M, respectively, and abolished it at 10(-3) M and 10(-4) M. By contrast, nifedipine, mefenamic acid, or SK&F 96365 had little effect on the contraction by a high concentration of ET-1. The contraction induced by a low or high concentration of ET-1 was abolished by an ETA antagonist, BQ-123, but not by an ETB antagonist, BQ-788. These results demonstrate that the contraction induced by ET-1 is totally mediated exclusively by ETA, but that Ca2+ entry through NSCCs Plavix Type Drugs in addition to L-VOCs plays an important role in contractions induced by low concentrations of ET-1, whereas it plays only a minor role in contractions induced by high concentrations of ET-1.

ponstel medicine 2017-09-12

Based on the current definition of solubility, 15 of the 18 acidic NSAIDs in this study will be classified as Class II compounds as the solubility criteria applies to the entire pH range of 1.2 to Motilium Tablets 10mg 7.4, although the low solubility criteria does not hold true over the entire pH range. Whence, of the 18 acidic drugs, 15 can be classified as Class I based on the pH 7.4 solubility alone. This finding is intriguing because these drugs exhibit Class I behavior as their absorption does not seem to be dissolution or solubility limited. It could then be argued that for acidic drugs, the boundaries for solubility are too restrictive. Solubility at pH > 5 (pH in duodenum) may be more appropriate because most compounds are mainly absorbed in the intestinal region. Consideration for an intermediate solubility classification for highly permeable ionizable compounds that reflects physiological conditions seems warranted.

ponstel drug 2015-02-10

Like many clinical non-small-cell lung cancers, the Lewis lung carcinoma produces prostaglandins. The Lewis lung carcinoma was used as a model of both primary and metastatic disease to assess the ability of cyclooxygenase inhibitors (mefenamic acid, diflunisal, sulindac, and indomethacin), the collagenase inhibitor minocycline, and the lipoxygenase inhibitor phenidone to act as modulators of cytotoxic cancer therapies. Although none of the single modulators given i.p. daily on days 4-18 altered tumor growth or the number of metastases found on day 20, modulator combinations consisting of minocycline/a cyclooxygenase inhibitor and, especially, of phenidone/a cyclooxygenase inhibitor resulted in modest tumor growth delay and a decreased number of lung metastases on day 20. The most effective modulators of cisplatin (CDDP) were phenidone/sulindac and phenidone/indomethacin, which led to 2.4- to 2.5-fold increases in the tumor growth delay produced by CDDP. The most effective modulations of cyclophosphamide resulted from administration of minocycline, minocycline/sulindac, or phenidone/sulindac and led to 2.0- to 2.1-fold increases in tumor growth delay by cyclophosphamide. The most effective modulators of melphalan produced 4.5- to 4.7-fold increases in tumor growth delay by the Levaquin 5 Mg drug and were minocycline/sulindac, minocycline/mefenamic acid, and phenidone/sulindac. The most effective modulation of carmustine (BCNU) was obtained with minocycline/sulindac and minocycline/diflunisal leading to 2.8- to 3.1-fold increases in tumor growth delay by BCNU. Finally, the most effective modulation of radiation was obtained with minocycline/sulindac and phenidone/sulindac and resulted in 2.8- to 3.3-fold increases in tumor growth delay by radiation. The modulator combination that along with the cytotoxic therapies was most effective against metastatic disease was phenidone/mefenamic acid. There was no clear relationship between effective modulation of the cancer therapies and the degree of reduction in serum levels of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 by the agents in Lewis lung tumor bearing mice.

ponstel drug interaction 2017-04-29

The method established in this study is useful for identifying drugs with inhibitory potential against human UGT2B7. Among the nine NSAIDs investigated, mefenamic acid had Paxil Overdose the strongest inhibitory effect on UGT2B7-catalyzed AZTG in HLM. Thus, caution might be exercised when mefenamic acid is coadministered with drugs possessing UGT2B7 as a main elimination pathway.