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Precose (Acarbose)
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Precose

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Glucophage, Actos, Avandia, Amaryl, Glucovance, Micronase, Glycomet

 

Also known as:  Acarbose.

Description

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Generic Precose is a glucosidase inhibitor. It works by slowing down the enzyme that turns carbohydrates into glucose; it decreases blood sugar levels following a meal.

Precose is also known as Acarbose, Glucobay, Glucor, Rebose.

Generic name of Generic Precose is Acarbose.

Brand name of Generic Precose is Precose.

Dosage

Take Generic Precose by mouth with food.

If you also take charcoal or digestive enzyme preparations, do not take them within 2 to 4 hours before after taking Generic Precose.

Temporary insulin therapy may be necessary during stressful periods (such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery).

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Precose and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Precose are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Precose if you are allergic to Generic Precose components.

Be careful with Generic Precose if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have blockage of the stomach or intestine or are at risk for these problems.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have long-term (chronic) bowel inflammation, colon ulcers, or stomach or intestine problems that interfere with digestion or nutrient absorption.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have cirrhosis of the liver or unexplained abnormal liver function tests.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have diabetic ketoacidosis (high ketone levels) or severe kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have stomach or intestinal problems, liver problems, or kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) because the risk of their side effects, including bleeding, may be increased by Generic Precose; calcium channel blockers (eg, verapamil), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogen, isoniazid, nicotinic acid, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), phenytoin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), or thyroid hormone because they may increase or decrease Precose 's effectiveness; insulin or sulfonylureas (eg, glyburide) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Generic Precose; digoxin because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Precose.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

precose cost

Acarbose is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor proposed for the treatment of diabetic patients. It acts by competitively inhibiting the alpha-glucosidases in the intestinal brush border. The principal action of these enzymes is to convert nonabsorbable dietary starch and sucrose into absorbable monosaccharides (e.g. glucose). Enzyme inhibitors delay this conversion, slowing the formation and consequently the absorption of monosaccharides, and thus reducing the concentration of postprandial blood glucose. Both starch and sucrose are influenced, whereas lactose and glucose are not. Many studies in experimental animals, healthy volunteers and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have shown that acarbose decreases postprandial blood glucose, with a lesser reduction of fasting blood glucose, plasma triglycerides and postprandial insulin levels. In long term studies in NIDDM patients, acarbose significantly reduced glycosylated haemoglobin levels. Acarbose is only minimally absorbed from the gut and no systemic adverse effects have been demonstrated after long term administration. The drug allows undigested carbohydrates to pass into the large bowel where they are fermented causing flatulence, bloating and diarrhoea. These symptoms, which occur in approximately 30 to 60% of patients, tend to decrease with time and seem to be dose-dependent. They are minimised by starting therapy with low doses (such as 50mg 3 times daily) which may be effective in many patients. An increase in serum hepatic transaminases observed in earlier studies in the US, where doses of acarbose up to 900mg daily were used, has been not reported with the lower doses of the drug actually recommended [150 to 300mg (up to 600mg) daily]. In conclusion, acarbose may be useful in patients with NIDDM when diet alone is no longer able to maintain satisfactory blood glucose control. Furthermore, it may be a valid alternative to sulphonylurea or biguanide therapy when these drugs are contraindicated and insulin administration may be delayed. Acarbose seems also to be a useful adjunct to hypoglycaemic oral agents but its precise role in this field has not been fully clarified.

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The objective of this study was to systematically examine the in vitro health-promotion activities of rice bran protein hydrolysates. Rice bran proteins were fractioned into albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin, which were subjected to hydrolysis by four protease preparations, namely Alcalase, Neutrase, Flavourzyme and Protamax, and the inhibitory activities of the hydrolysates against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), were monitored over a hydrolysis period of 240 min. Active peptides in the hydrolysates were isolated by ultra-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography and the peptide sequences of the active fractions were identified by LC-MS/MS.

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Whole-body insulin sensitivity increased in both groups (mean [95% CI]) (H-RISK vs L-RISK: 0.8 [0.2, 1.4] vs 1.0 [0.4, 1.7]mg kg(-1) min(-1), p = 0.59), while body weight decreased (-4.8% [-6.1%, -3.5%] vs -4.6% [-6.0%, -3.3%], respectively). Hepatic insulin sensitivity remained unchanged, whereas hepatocellular lipid content fell in both groups (-7.0% [-9.6%, -4.5%] vs -6.7% [-9.5%, -3.9%]). Subcutaneous fat mass (-1,553 [-2,767, -340] cm(3) vs -751 [-2,047; 546] cm(3), respectively) visceral fat mass (-206 [-783, 371] cm(3) vs -241 [-856, 373] cm(3), respectively) and muscle fat content (-0.09% [-0.16%, -0.02%] vs -0.02% [-0.10%, 0.05%], respectively) decreased similarly. Insulin secretion remained unchanged, while the proinflammatory marker IL-18 decreased only after the L-RISK diet.

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We have previously reported that Amadori compounds exert anti-diabetic effects by lowering sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. In the present study we extended our recent findings to evaluate whether α-glucosidase inhibitor arginyl-fructose (AF) lowers blood glucose level in diabetic db/db mice, a genetic model for type 2 diabetes. The db/db mice were randomly assigned to high-carbohydrate diets (66.1% corn starch) with and without AF (4% in the diet) for 6 weeks. Changes in body weight, blood glucose level, and food intake were measured daily for 42 days. Dietary supplementation of AF resulted in a significant decrease of blood glucose level (p < 0.001) and body weight (p < 0.001). The level of HbA1c, a better indicator of plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time, was also significantly decreased for 6-week period (p < 0.001). Dietary treatment of acarbose® (0.04% in diet), a positive control, also significantly alleviated the level of blood glucose, HbA1c, and body weight. These results indicate that AF Maillard reaction product improves postprandial hyperglycemia by suppressing glucose absorption as well as decreasing HbA1c level.

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There were insufficient data comparing oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies with placebo/standard care (lifestyle advice) to inform clinical practice. There was insufficient high-quality evidence to be able to draw any meaningful conclusions as to the benefits of one oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapy over another due to limited reporting of data for the primary and secondary outcomes in this review. Short- and long-term clinical outcomes for this review were inadequately reported or not reported. Current choice of oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapy appears to be based on clinical preference, availability and national clinical practice guidelines.The benefits and potential harms of one oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapy compared with another, or compared with placebo/standard care remains unclear and requires further research. Future trials should attempt to report on the core outcomes suggested in this review, in particular long-term outcomes for the woman and the infant that have been poorly reported to date, women's experiences and cost benefit.

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Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate a strong association between an elevated colon cancer risk and increased fecal excretion of secondary bile acids, neutral sterols, and prolonged gastrointestinal transit time. Starch malabsorption, on the other hand, has been reported to be a possible protective factor in colon carcinogenesis. To study the impact of starch malabsorption on these parameters, 12 healthy volunteers consumed a diet rich in starch for two 4-week periods. During a double-blind crossover trial they received the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose (BAY g 5421) in one of the study periods and placebo in the other. During acarbose treatment stool wet weight increased by 68%, stool dry weight by 57%, and gastrointestinal mean transit time by 30%. Fecal concentrations (mg/g dry weight) of the neutral sterols coprostanol, coprostanone, campesterol, 4-cholesten-3-one, and beta-sitosterol decreased by 36.8, 48.7, 42.1, 34.6, and 39.4%, respectively, under acarbose. Concentrations of the major secondary bile acids, deoxycholic and lithocholic acid, decreased by 59.9 and 52.2%, respectively. In spite of an increased stool weight, also daily excretion (mg/day) of these two bile acids was lower under acarbose (47.9 and 36.6%, respectively) compared to placebo, whereas excretion of the main primary bile acid, cholic acid, rose from 22.58 mg/day to 379.80 mg/day during the acarbose period. The changes in fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion found during acarbose treatment may explain a protective effect of starch malabsorption on colon cancer development.

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To observe the effect of Yuquan Pill (YP) on proinflammatory cytokines in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2).

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Calcium antagonists are suspected of increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. On the basis of published reports, the JNC VI guidelines are recommended: calcium antagonists should not be used as first line treatment in diabetics.

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The present study investigated the effect of acarbose on insulin requirements and glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving exogenous insulin due to secondary failure of maximum dose sulphonylurea therapy.

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A systematic literature search and standardized data collection of randomized controlled trials on the pharmacological prevention of postprandial reductions in BP in adults using MEDLINE (1950-), EMBASE (1980-), and CINAHL databases was conducted up to July 2013. Bibliographies of relevant reports were also hand-searched to identify all potentially eligible studies.

precose 100 mg

Of the 63 study subjects, 29 in the HF group (91%) and 25 in the LF group (81%) completed the study Compared with the LF diet, the HF diet after 24 weeks decreased both mean daily blood glucose concentrations (P < 0.05) and number of hypoglycemic events (P < 0.01). When compliance to diet was taken into account, 83% of the subjects on the HF diet and 88% on the LF diet were compliant. In this subgroup, compared with the LF diet, the HF diet significantly reduced mean daily blood glucose concentrations (P < 0.001), HbA(1c) (P < 0.05), and number of hypoglycemic events (P < 0.01).

precose 50 mg

Since impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a major risk factor for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), some kinds of intervention aiming to prevent or to delay the onset of NIDDM in subjects with IGT might be considered. Besides life style modification, drug therapy which could correct insulin deficiency and insulin resistance, might prevent progression to NIDDM. One agent is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, which delays the absorption of glucose from the intestine. The resulting decrease in postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia could theoretically decrease insulin resistance in IGT subjects and, it is hoped, prevent or delay progression to NIDDM. Metformin, an antihyperglycemic drug of the biguanide class, may be effective in subjects with IGT by reducing hepatic glucose output, enhancing insulin sensitivity, or through other mechanisms such as weight loss. New insulin sensitizers, such as troglitazone and pioglitazone, improve insulin-mediated glucose disposal by enhancing tissue sensitivity to the actions of insulin and reversing the insulin resistance, characteristic of NIDDM. Sulfonylureas might be another candidates of drug intervention to IGT whose insulin secretory abilities are markedly reduced. As far as the question, "Can NIDDM be prevented or delayed?" is concerned, a prospective study using life style modification or above-mentioned drugs, should be performed on long-term basis.

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Trehalose (alpha,alpha-1,1-glucosyl-glucose) is essential for the growth of mycobacteria, and these organisms have three different pathways that can produce trehalose. One pathway involves the enzyme described in the present study, trehalose synthase (TreS), which interconverts trehalose and maltose. We show that TreS from Mycobacterium smegmatis, as well as recombinant TreS produced in Escherichia coli, has amylase activity in addition to the maltose <--> trehalose interconverting activity (referred to as MTase). Both activities were present in the enzyme purified to apparent homogeneity from extracts of Mycobacterium smegmatis, and also in the recombinant enzyme produced in E. coli from either the M. smegmatis or the Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene. Furthermore, when either purified or recombinant TreS was chromatographed on a Sephacryl S-200 column, both MTase and amylase activities were present in the same fractions across the peak, and the ratio of these two activities remained constant in these fractions. In addition, crystals of TreS also contained both amylase and MTase activities. TreS produced both radioactive maltose and radioactive trehalose when incubated with [(3)H]glycogen, and also converted maltooligosaccharides, such as maltoheptaose, to both maltose and trehalose. The amylase activity was stimulated by addition of Ca(2+), but this cation inhibited the MTase activity. In addition, MTase activity, but not amylase activity, was strongly inhibited, and in a competitive manner, by validoxylamine. On the other hand, amylase, but not MTase activity, was inhibited by the known transition-state amylase inhibitor, acarbose, suggesting the possibility of two different active sites. Our data suggest that TreS represents another pathway for the production of trehalose from glycogen, involving maltose as an intermediate. In addition, the wild-type organism or mutants blocked in other trehalose biosynthetic pathways, but still having active TreS, accumulate 10- to 20-fold more glycogen when grown in high concentrations (> or = 2% or more) of trehalose, but not in glucose or other sugars. Furthermore, trehalose mutants that are missing TreS do not accumulate glycogen in high concentrations of trehalose or other sugars. These data indicate that trehalose and TreS are both involved in the production of glycogen, and that the metabolism of trehalose and glycogen is interconnected.

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5 dogs with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus.

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The inhibitory effects of natural and synthetic inhibitors on the intestinal membrane-bound hydrolase, alpha-glucosidase (AGH), were evaluated by using an immobilized cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B support. Immobilized AGH (iAGH) inhibition study by synthetic inhibitors (acarbose and voglibose) revealed that the magnitude of inhibition differed from that in the free AGH (fAGH) study: IC50 value of acarbose in iAGH-maltase assay system, 340-430 nM; fAGH, 11 nM. iAGH-maltase inhibition by both inhibitors was influenced by blocking reagents with different functional groups (COOH, OH, CH3, and NH2 groups). On the other hand, significant iAGH-sucrase inhibitory activity was observed only when using the negatively charged support induced by 0.1 M beta-alanine. The Km values obtained in the iAGH assay system were similar to those from the fAGH method. With natural inhibitors, the iAGH-sucrase inhibitory activity of D-Xylose, with in vivo glucose suppression, increased twice compared to that in fAGH. Green tea extract gave almost the same inhibition for both AGH assay systems.

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LH:FSH ratio and total testosterone concentrations decreased (P<0.05) and ovulation rates increased in both groups. Reduction in weight and BMI was only significant in the acarbose group.

precose patient review

Prevention of diabetes has been tried by several groups with varying degree of success. Prediabetic population are the ideal target for the purpose. In this study, prediabetic subjects are selected from the high-risk groups, like those having obesity, family history of diabetes, past history of gestational diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia; and are included in the study when their fasting plasma glucose was found to be below 110 mg/dl and 2 hours postglucose (75g) plasma glucose remained between 110 and 200 mg/dl. After giving advice for lifestyle changes to all for a period of 3 months, those who had their blood glucose values in the impaird glucose tolerance (IGT) range were given either metformin, rosiglitazone or acarbose, the rest continued with diet and exercise only. Total follow-up period was 3 years. All groups maintained blood sugar in the euglycaemic range till the end of the 3-year period.

precose 25 mg

Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 is known for the production of the α-glucosidase inhibitor and anti-diabetic drug acarbose. Acarbose (acarviosyl-maltose) is produced as the major product when the bacterium is grown in medium with maltose, while acarviosyl-glucose is the major product when glucose is the sole carbon source in the medium. In this study, a state-of-the-art proteomics approach was applied combining subcellular fractionation, in vivo metabolic labeling and shotgun mass spectrometry to analyze differences in the proteome of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 cultures grown in minimal medium containing either maltose or glucose as the sole carbon source. To study proteins in distinct subcellular locations, a cytosolic, an enriched membrane, a membrane shaving and an extracellular fraction were included in the analysis. Altogether, quantitative proteome data was obtained for 2497 proteins representing about 30% of the ca. 8270 predicted proteins of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110. When comparing protein quantities of maltose- to glucose-grown cultures, differences were observed for saccharide transport and metabolism proteins, whereas differences for acarbose biosynthesis gene cluster proteins were almost absent. The maltose-inducible α-glucosidase/maltase MalL as well as the ABC-type saccharide transporters AglEFG, MalEFG and MstEAF had significantly higher quantities in the maltose growth condition. The only highly abundant saccharide transporter in the glucose condition was the monosaccharide transporter MstEAF, which may indicate that MstEAF is the major glucose importer. Taken all findings together, the previously observed formation of acarviosyl-maltose and acarviosyl-glucose is more closely connected to the transport of saccharides than to a differential expression of the acarbose gene cluster.

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Every diabetes treatment contributes to the control of postprandial blood glucose, yet some agents more specifically target this goal. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, led by acarbose, mainly address postprandial glucose control. These agents inhibit intestinal disaccharidases through a competitive effect and can be used either as the sole treatment or in combination with other antidiabetic drugs. Other agents improve insulin secretion kinetics. This is the case for repaglinide et nateglinide, which are efficient in controlling postprandial blood glucose, and to a lesser degree, fasting blood glucose. These agents shortly and quickly stimulate insulin secretion and should be available soon. In oral therapy secondary failures, trials are currently being conducted to clarify the role of fast-acting insulin analogs, as monotherapy or in combination. Finally, insulin sensitizing agents are being investigated as a way to improve postprandial glucose efflux by potentiating insulin effects. The optimal strategy for the use of these different therapeutic agents remains to be established, as well as their long-term effects on diabetic complications.

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Subjects with IGT were randomly treated in a double-blind fashion with placebo (n = 10) or acarbose (n = 8) at 100 mg t.i.d. for 4 months. All subjects were submitted before randomization and at the end of the study to a standardized breakfast and a 12-h daytime plasma glucose and plasma insulin profile, and insulin sensitivity was measured as steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) using the insulin suppression test.

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precose medicine 2016-10-01

The binding of several different active site mutants of Bacillus circulans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase to the inhibitor acarbose has been investigated through measurement of Ki values. The mutations represent several key amino acid positions, most of which are believed to play important roles in governing the product specificity of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase. Michaelis-Menten parameters for the substrates alpha-maltotriosyl fluoride (alphaG3F) and alpha-glucosyl fluoride (alphaGF) with each mutant have been determined by following the enzyme-catalyzed release of fluoride with an ion-selective buy precose fluoride electrode. In both cases, reasonable correlations are observed in logarithmic plots relating the Ki value for acarbose with each mutant and both kcat/Km and Km for the hydrolysis of either substrate by the corresponding mutants. This indicates that acarbose, as an inhibitor, is mimicking aspects of both the ground state and the transition state. A better correlation is observed for alphaGF (r = 0.98) than alphaG3F (r = 0.90), which can be explained in terms of the modes of binding of these substrates and acarbose. Re-refinement of the previously determined crystal structure of wild-type CGTase complexed with acarbose [Strokopytov, B., Penninga, D., Rozeboom, H. J., Kalk, K. H., Dijhuizen, L., and Dijkstra, B. W. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 2234-2240] reveals a binding mode consistent with the transition state analogue character of this inhibitor.

precose tablets 2016-05-26

There is a worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes, with numbers predicted to reach over 210 million by the year 2010. Important risk factors for type 2 diabetes are obesity, physical inactivity and dietary factors. Recent evidence shows that type 2 diabetes can certainly be delayed, and possibly prevented, by intensive lifestyle intervention, and therapies including acarbose, metformin, orlistat and the glitazones in selected populations. However, the UK has not had a successful record in trials which aim to prevent diabetes, and therefore implementation of effective and successful intensive lifestyle intervention to prevent diabetes may prove difficult in the UK. Other 'non-glucose lowering' agents, such as statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, may have a role to buy precose play in the prevention of diabetes.

precose cost 2015-08-31

The effect of 50-, 100-, 200-, and 400-mg oral doses of acarbose, a competitive inhibitor of intestinal alpha-glucosidases, on the postprandial release of gut and pancreatic hormones after a 2.2 MJ carbohydrate-rich mixed test meal was determined in five normal subjects according to a double-blind, Latin-square protocol. All the doses of acarbose tested slowed the postprandial plasma glucose rise, without evidence of dose dependency, while maximal inhibition of integrated insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to 31 +/- 8% and 28 +/- 7% of control values, respectively, was obtained at the 400-mg dose. The enteroglucagon response was increased to a maximum of 905 +/- 262% of control at the 200-mg dose, and total motilin responses were slightly but not significantly elevated. After one week of regular acarbose administration at 100 mg three times daily, the effects of the 100-mg dose on insulin and enteroglucagon responses were slightly enhanced, and there was no evidence of intestinal adaptation in the form of diminished postprandial endocrine responses. The observed effects are attributed to impairment buy precose of carbohydrate digestion in the upper small intestine and suggest that the optimal ratio of desired to unwanted effects is obtained at low doses of acarbose.

precose dosing 2015-09-15

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a good source of protein, vitamins, minerals and complex carbohydrates. The objective was to compare protein profile, including anti-nutrient proteins, and potential bioactive peptides of improved common bean cultivars grown in Mexico and Brazil. Bean protein isolates (BPI) were prepared from 15 common bean cultivars and hydrolyzed using pepsin/pancreatin. Thirteen proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE and protein in-gel tryptic-digestion-LC/MS. Protein profile was similar among common bean cultivars with high concentrations of defense-related proteins. Major identified proteins were phaseolin, lectin, protease and α-amylase inhibitors. Lectin (159.2 to 357.9 mg lectin/g BPI), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (inh) (4.3 to 75.5 mg trypsin inh/g BPI), Bowman-Birk inhibitor (5.4 to 14.3 μg trypsin-chymotrypsin inh/g BPI) and α-amylase inhibitor activity (2.5 to 14.9% inhibition relative to acarbose/mg BPI) were higher in Mexican beans compared to Brazilian beans. Abundant peptides were identified by HPLC-MS/MS with molecular masses ranging from 300 to 1500 Da and significant sequences were SGAM, DSSG, LLAH, YVAT, EPTE and KPKL. Potential bioactivities of sequenced peptides were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE), dipeptidyl peptidase IV buy precose inhibitor (DPP-IV) and antioxidant capacity. Peptides from common bean proteins presented potential biological activities related to control of hypertension and type-2 diabetes.

precose 25 mg 2016-11-04

The first crystal structures of a two-domain, prokaryotic glucoamylase were determined to high resolution from the clostridial species Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum with and without acarbose. The buy precose N-terminal domain has 18 antiparallel strands arranged in beta-sheets of a super-beta-sandwich. The C-terminal domain is an (alpha/alpha)(6) barrel, lacking the peripheral subdomain of eukaryotic glucoamylases. Interdomain contacts are common to all prokaryotic Family GH15 proteins. Domains similar to those of prokaryotic glucoamylases in maltose phosphorylases (Family GH65) and glycoaminoglycan lyases (Family PL8) suggest evolution from a common ancestor. Eukaryotic glucoamylases may have evolved from prokaryotic glucoamylases by the substitution of the N-terminal domain with the peripheral subdomain and by the addition of a starch-binding domain.

precose dosage 2017-05-08

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are widely used especially in Asian countries as a treatment option for type 2 diabetes patients with high postprandial glycemia (PPG). The higher carbohydrate in the Indian diets lead to greater prandial glycemic excursion, increased glucosidase, and buy precose incretin activity in the gut and may need special therapeutic strategies to tackle these glucose peaks. This is the subgroup analysis of Indian subjects who participated in the GlucoVIP study that investigated the effectiveness and tolerability of acarbose as add-on or monotherapy in a range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 1996 Indian patients were included in the effectiveness analysis. After 12.5 weeks (mean), the mean change in 2-hour PPG from baseline was -74.4 mg/dl, mean HbA1c decreased by -1.0%, and mean fasting blood glucose decreased by -37.9 mg/dl. The efficacy of acarbose was rated "very good" or "good" in 91.1% of patients, and tolerability as "very good" or "good" in 88.0% of patients. The results of this observational study suggest that acarbose was effective and well tolerated in the Indian patients with T2DM.

precose medication 2016-04-13

Type 2 diabetes plays a major role in public health, affecting about 400 million adults. One of the used strategies to control type 2 diabetes is the inhibition of α-amylase activity to reduce post-prandial blood glucose levels. Therefore, in past decades, the search of new α-amylase inhibitors has led to the evaluation of natural products as a source of these compounds. Pouteria torta (Sapotaceae) is widespread in Brazil and bears edible fruits. Epicarp and pulp crude extracts of fresh fruits were studied for in vitro α-amylase inhibition activity. The pulp did not present activity while epicarp, usually considered as waste, showed a high α-amylase inhibitory capacity when compared with acarbose and Triticum aestivum. Therefore, an assay-guided fractionation study buy precose of epicarp crude extract was performed. Fraction VI shows very high inhibitory activity with IC50 of 9 μg/mL. However, subsequent fractionation led to lower inhibition potential (IC50 of 22.1 μg/mL). The qualitative characterization of fraction VI were performed by chromatographic and spectrometric analysis and showed the presence of epicatechin, catechin, sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity were also assessed and there seemed to be no correlation between phenolic or flavonoids-rich fractions and antioxidant capacity or α-amylase inhibitory activity.

precose 100 mg 2016-03-10

The bark and stems of red maple (Acer rubrum) are reported to contain bioactive phenolics but its aerial parts, namely, flowers and leaves, remain largely unexplored. This is unfortunate considering that various parts of the red maple were used for traditional medicinal purposes by the indigenous peoples of eastern North America, where this species is found. Herein, we report the identification of twenty-five (1-25) phenolics, including two new galloyl derivatives (1 and 2), from red maple flowers and leaves. Of these, ten compounds (1-10), including the new compounds, were isolated and identified by NMR and HRESIMS data while the remaining fifteen compounds (11-25) were identified by HPLC-DAD analyses ( buy precose by comparison with chemical standards). The isolates (1-10), along with the clinical drug, acarbose, were evaluated for their alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activities.

precose 50 mg 2015-06-12

In rats, the period of refeeding after a fast is associated with accelerated weight gain without a concomitant increase in food intake. In this study the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, was used to delay carbohydrate absorption in normal adult rats, and the effects on body weight, food intake, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined. Refeeding with acarbose in the food (500 mg/kg) reduced the rate of weight gain compared to refeeding without acarbose but did not change food intake. Acarbose also lowered midjejunal mass and blunted the refeeding-induced rise in certain brush border disaccharidase and intracellular glycolytic buy precose enzymes. However, acarbose refed rats still had accelerated weight gain compared to nonfasted rats, implying that the refeeding response was not totally abolished. These studies suggest that inhibition of carbohydrate absorption during refeeding might have a role in the maintenance of diet-induced weight loss.

precose drug class 2016-04-07

Diabetes is characterized by hyperphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, elevations in blood and urinary glucose, and alterations in the adrenergic nervous system. Insulin treatment is effective in reversing most of the adverse conditions of diabetes in the streptozotocin-treated rat. Acarbose (BAY G 5421), an intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, decreases postprandial glycemia by delaying carbohydrate absorption and also affords some beneficial effects in the diabetic animal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic insulin (< or = 2 U/day) with and without acarbose treatment (20 mg/100 g of diet) on the metabolic and adrenergic parameters altered in streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, intravenously)-induced diabetes in female rats. Insulin dosage was changed weekly after the first 2 weeks of treatment in both insulin-treated groups in an attempt to maintain a level of blood glucose that was comparable to that achieved with acarbose treatment alone. Insulin dosage was reduced to a greater extent in the dual-treated group than in the group treated with insulin alone. Diabetic rats were hyperphagic, polydipsic, and polyuric within 1 week of streptozotocin treatment. Each treatment alone was effective in reducing these alterations. However, these reductions were more apparent in the combined therapy group. Only in this combined therapy group was glycated hemoglobin returned to normal. All buy precose treatments also prevented the significant weight loss observed in untreated diabetic animals. Adrenergic responses were assessed by monitoring the rise in tail skin temperature associated with administration of isoproterenol. Diabetic rats were less responsive than controls, and each of the treatments restored this response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

precose drugs 2016-06-19

The digestive tract plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. The important fact is that cells of the digestive tract are also the place of production of numerous regulatory peptides. Their use in the treatment of diabetes has been subject to study for many years. The paper examines the synthetic analogue of the human hormone amylin, the buy precose secretion of which coincides with the secretion of insulin. The synthetic analogue pramlintide is used in treatment of DM1T as well as DM2T. Likewise, a group of intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitors--acarbose in this country--was introduced into clinical practice some years ago. Both drugs share their glucose-lowering effects, but first of all they influence postprandial hyperglycemia like other antidiabetic agents of this large group affecting PPG such as incretin mimetics, DPP-4, etc. Both pramlintide and acarbose have find their specific in the treatment of postprandial blood glucose.

precose generic name 2017-04-28

A total of 20 trials evaluating 13 antihyperglycaemic agents were included. Compared with placebo/control, all antihyperglycaemic agents reduced HbA1c levels, albeit by differing magnitudes [range 7 mmol/mol (0.6%) for acarbose to 13 mmol/mol (1.20%) for liraglutide]. Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors reduced weight (1.43-2.07 kg) whereas thiazolidinediones, glargine and sitagliptin caused weight gain (1.48-3.62 kg) compared with buy precose placebo/control. Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, rosiglitazone and liraglutide decreased systolic blood pressure compared with placebo/control, pioglitazone, glargine and sitagliptin (2.41-8.88 mm Hg). Glargine, thiazolidinediones, liraglutide, sitagliptin and canagliflozin increased hypoglycaemia risk compared with placebo/control (relative risk 1.92-7.47), while glargine and rosiglitazone increased hypoglycaemia compared with most antihyperglycaemic agents (relative risk 2.81-7.47). No antihyperglycaemic agent increased the risk of urinary tract infection, but canagliflozin increased the risk of genital tract infection by 3.9-fold compared with placebo/control.

acarbose precose medication 2017-09-09

The thermodynamics of ligand binding to the starch-binding domain (SBD) of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger has been studied using titration calorimetry. The ligand binding was studied both with the SBD fragment as well as glucoamylase G1 which contains both a catalytic domain and SBD. The ligands were beta-cyclodextrin and three thiopanose analogues [panose = alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-D-Glcp] each including an alpha-(1-->6) thioglycosidic linkage at the non-reducing end. beta-Cyclodextrin binds more strongly than the thiopanose analogues and these have a slightly increasing binding constant with chain length. The reactions are enthalpy-driven with unfavourable contributions from entropy and the variations in enthalpy and entropy compensate each other linearly. SBD was shown to have two binding sites that appear to bind identically and independently in the isolated binding domain, whereas they interact with each other in a negatively cooperative fashion when the catalytic domain of glucoamylase is present (glucoamylase G1). In glucoamylase G1 one site of SBD has an increased binding constant compared to the SBD fragment, whereas the other has the same association constant. The change in binding constant and induced cooperativity were not due to interactions with the catalytic binding site, buy precose since binding of beta-cyclodextrin was the same both when the catalytic site was occupied by the strong inhibitor acarbose and when the catalytic site was free.

precose patient review 2015-01-19

The present observations indicate that besides improving glucose homeostasis in diabetes, OA and MA suppress postprandial hyperglycaemia mediated in part via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysis and reduction of glucose transporters in the Ponstel Dosage gastrointestinal tract. Inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase can significantly decrease the postprandial hyperglycaemia after a mixed carbohydrate diet and therefore can be an important strategy in the management of postprandial blood glucose levels in NIDDM patients.

precose drug 2016-12-26

Type 2 diabetes is associated with substantially Motrin Childrens Dosage increased cardiovascular mortality. The need to reduce the progression of atherosclerosis alongside lowering blood glucose levels is now well established. Ideally, pharmaceutical treatment should address both of these needs. This review summarises current evidence of the anti-atherosclerotic effects exerted by oral antidiabetic agents. Metformin has so far consistently succeeded in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and exerting beneficial effects on lipids. Of the new agents, thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) have been most widely studied. They have a favourable effect on fat distribution and improve lipid profile, fibrinolysis and endothelial function. Moreover, they reduce blood pressure and inflammatory markers, attenuate the progression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and may reduce the rates of coronary restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. Glinides (repaglinide and nateglinide) have also been documented to improve endothelial function and lipid profile, to reduce oxidative stress, platelet activity and inflammatory markers, and to diminish the progression of CIMT. Finally, acarbose may significantly reduce new cases of hypertension and cardiovascular events, as well as diminishing the progression of CIMT in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Interestingly, some of these beneficial effects appear to be independent of the antidiabetic action. Thus, oral antidiabetic agents are now emerging as useful tools for the attenuation of the atherosclerotic activity and for the protection of the vasculature in patients with type 2 diabetes.

precose generic 2016-06-06

Glycemic variability, an HbA1c-independent risk factor, has more deleterious effects than sustained hyperglycemia in the development of diabetic complications. This Paxil Dose Reduction study analyzed the characteristics of glycemic variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with HbA1c < 6.5% in duration of twice daily premixed insulin treatment and the effect of further treatment with acarbose.

precose dose 2016-11-06

A 47-year-old woman with medical history of migraine, depression, hypercholesterolemia, iron deficiency anemia, and peptic ulcer disease presented with complaints of frequent episodes of dizziness, blurring of vision, and anxiety over the past 4 months. These episodes usually occurred 1-2 hours after eating and resolved with ingestion of sugary foods. Home glucometer readings during typical symptoms were 47-64 mg/dL. Physical exam revealed a healthy-appearing middle-aged female with BMI of 28. Laboratory data after an overnight fast showed serum blood glucose 77 mg/dL and AM cortisol 9.6 (5-25 µg/dl). Hemoglobin A1C, thyroid function tests, IGF-1, liver function tests, and kidney function were in normal range. She was instructed to bring a typical meal to the clinic for monitoring of postprandial glucose levels. Three hours after ingestion of the meal, she developed typical adrenergic symptoms during which laboratory analysis revealed a serum glucose level of 44 mg/dL, C-peptide of 2.9 (0.8-3.1 ng/ml), insulin level of 32 (0-17 µIU/lt), negative sulfonylurea screen, and insulin antibodies. She was treated with 15 grams of oral glucose, which alleviated her symptoms. Medical therapy with acarbose was attempted, but did not lead to significant reduction in hypoglycemic events. CT abdomen/pelvis confirmed the presence of a Seroquel Generic tumor in the tail of the pancreas. The patient subsequently underwent partial pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and lymph node resection, with resolution of symptoms. Histopathological analysis confirmed insulinoma.

precose tabs 2017-01-21

It has been previously demonstrated that hyperglycaemia activates haemostasis; diabetes mellitus is considered a thrombosis-prone state. Acarbose, by inhibiting dietary carbohydrate absorption, reduces post-meal hyperglycaemia. In this study we evaluated the effect of post-meal hyperglycaemia on two markers of coagulation activation: prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 and D-dimer. Seventeen non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients maintained on diet therapy alone were randomly assigned to receive- with a cross-over study design-acarbose (100 mg orally) or placebo before a standard meal. Blood samples for measurement of plasma glucose, insulin, prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 and D-dimer were drawn at 0, 60, 120 and 240 min. After both placebo and acarbose, hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia which followed a standard meal were accompanied by a significant increase of plasma concentration of prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 and D-dimer in comparison to their baseline values. Acarbose administration significantly reduced the rise of glucose, insulin, prothrombin fragments 1 Aciphex Dosage Information + 2 and D-dimer from 0 to 240 min in comparison to placebo. We conclude that post-meal hyperglycaemia, at the level reached by many diabetic patients on diet therapy alone, induces a coagulation activation. Acarbose, by decreasing post-meal hyperglycaemia, may be useful in reducing meal-induced activation of haemostasis in diabetic patients.

precose reviews 2015-09-19

To value the effectiveness of Acarbose in Mesalamine Generic Asacol the metabolic control of 17 juvenile onset diabetes.

buy precose online 2016-09-18

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major public health issue with rates increasing globally. Gestational diabetes, glucose intolerance first recognised during pregnancy, usually Diovan Generic Substitute resolves after birth and is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Treatment options can include oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies.

precose user reviews 2016-03-04

The efficiencies of a single dose of nateglinide (120 mg) and acarbose (50 mg) for lowering postprandial Zyrtec 40 Tablets hyperglycemia were similar. Compared to acarbose, nateglinide significantly increased postprandial insulin release after a standard meal test in patients with type 2 diabetes. Nateglinide acutely decreased postprandial 120 min FFA concentrations and 240 min ADMA levels more significantly than acarbose. The fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased and the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level decreased significantly, but the fasting levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and ADMA were unchanged after 4 weeks of treatment with nateglinide. Acarbose did not affect fasting lipid profiles or the ADMA levels after 4 weeks of treatment.

precose buy 2016-08-23

Tandem mass spectrometry is currently used in newborn screening programmes to quantify the level of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots for detection of Adalat Y Alcohol metabolites associated with treatable diseases. We have developed assays for lysosomal enzymes in rehydrated dried blood spots in which a set of substrates is added and the set of corresponding enzymatic products are quantified using tandem mass spectrometry with the aid of mass-differentiated internal standards. We have developed a multiplex assay of the set of enzymes that, when deficient, cause the lysosomal storage disorders Fabry, Gaucher, Hurler, Krabbe, Niemann-Pick A/B and Pompe diseases. These diseases were selected because treatments are now available or expected to emerge shortly. The discovery that acarbose is a selective inhibitor of maltase glucoamylase allows the Pompe disease enzyme, acid alpha-glucosidase, to be selectively assayed in white blood cells and dried blood spots. When tested with dried blood spots from 40 unaffected individuals and 10-12 individuals with the lysosomal storage disorder, the tandem mass spectrometry assay led to the correct identification of the affected individuals with 100% sensitivity. Many of the reagents needed for the new assays are commercially available, and those that are not are being prepared under Good Manufacturing Procedures for approval by the FDA. Our newborn screening assay for Krabbe disease is currently being put in place at the Wadsworth Center in New York State for the analysis of approximately 1000 dried blood spots per day. Summary We have developed tandem mass spectrometry for the direct assay of lysosomal enzymes in rehydrated dried blood spots that can be implemented for newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders. Several enzymes can be analysed by a single method (multiplex analysis) and in a high-throughput manner appropriate for newborn screening laboratories.

precose drug interactions 2015-06-25

The results indicated that xanthones from SI were powerful agents for antidiabetes.

precose acarbose tablets 2017-07-13

The exact contributions of postprandial and fasting glucose increments to overall hyperglycemia remain controversial. The discrepancies between the data published previously might be caused by the interference of several factors. To test the effect of overall glycemic control itself, we analyzed the diurnal glycemic profiles of type 2 diabetic patients investigated at different levels of HbA(1c).