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Peptic ulcers complicated by penetration into the surrounding tissue and presenting as an intra-abdominal mass simulating a malignancy are uncommon. We report on a case of a 56-yr-old physician with a 40-yr history of peptic disease. Due to recent and transitory right flank pain, an ultrasound then a computed tomography scan demonstrated a 4-cm retropancreatic mass. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the mass showed an acute and chronic inflammatory exudate. After a course of medical treatment for peptic ulcer disease and 5 mo after the biopsy, the mass remarkably decreased in size. In view of the clinical and FNAB findings, the lesion likely developed as a result of penetration of the duodenal ulcer into the retropancreatic space. Awareness of this uncommon complication of peptic gastroduodenal ulcer disease is helpful in the diagnosis of this benign lesion. A failure in making a firm diagnosis by considering the aspirate material as nonrepresentative may lead to an unnecessary repeat biopsy or an invasive procedure.
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To assess the 12-month safety of dexlansoprazole MR in patients with symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
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The best available evidence supports the use of short-course (10 days) PPI post-endoscopic variceal ligation to reduce ulcer size if ulcer healing is a concern. Practices such as high-dose infusion and prolonged use should be discouraged until evidence of benefit becomes available.
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In an open-label, two-way crossover study, 45 Helicobacter pylori-negative patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease were randomized to receive one of two regimens: 30 mg lansoprazole or esomeprazole 40 mg once daily. Intragastric pH was assessed by 24-hour pH monitoring on day 5 of each regimen. Dosing was increased to twice daily and pH was reassessed on day 10. Following a 14-day washout, patients were crossed over to the other medication and the dosage regimens and pH assessments were repeated.
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A total of 64 patients were enrolled. Of these, 17 patients were excluded from the study. The two groups were comparable in terms of baseline clinicopathologic characteristics. Four weeks after EMR, the two groups did not differ with respect to ulcer stage (p = .475) or ulcer-related symptoms (p = .399). However, the ulcer reduction ratio was significantly higher in the Hp group (0.028 +/- 0.024 vs. 0.065 +/- 0.055, p < .05). No differences were observed between the two groups with regard to drug compliance, adverse drug event rates, or bleeding rates.
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A strict correlation between Helicobacter pylori eradication and an increase in platelet count has previously been reported in patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). To clarify the pathogenesis of H. pylori-induced ITP and the factors predicting the platelet response to H. pylori eradication therapy, we evaluated the markers of atrophic gastritis in ITP patients.
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Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is defined as the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus. It occurs in healthy infants and can be considered physiological process. Uncomplicated GER can present with recurrent vomiting or regurgitation without any other symptoms and is usually managed by educating, reassuring, and guiding the parent without other intervention. GER disease (GERD) refers to the appearance of troublesome symptoms or complications (erosive esophagitis, ulceration, Barrett's esophagus) and may warrant acid suppression. Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective pharmacologic agents available for the treatment of children with GERD. In the pediatric practice only omeprazole, lansoprazole and esomeprazole are available over the first year of life. The empiric use in infants with nonspecific symptoms (excessive crying, regurgitation, feeding refusal, chronic cough) is frequent without randomized controlled study. Our paper will focus on the correct indications, dosages, duration of treatment and safety of PPI use in pediatric population.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a marked antral nodularity but no evidence of bleeding lesions in all the patients. Given the histology and the fact that rapid urease test results were positive, chronic active gastritis with H. pylori was diagnosed in all these cases. H. pylori was successfully eradicated in all the patients. There was no evidence of IDA in any of the follow-up examinations between 27 and 50 months after anti-H. pylori therapy.
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To perform a systematic review on the efficacy of intermittent and on-demand therapy with either histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors for patients with erosive oesophagitis or symptomatic heartburn.
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One hundred and twelve H. pylori-positive patients either with peptic ulcer (56 duodenal ulcers: 25 active and 31 with a history of ulcer; 13 gastric ulcers: nine active and four with a history of ulcer) or gastritis (43) were included in an open, randomized, controlled trial. H. pylori infection was initially detected by CLO-test and histology on antral and corpus biopsies. H. pylori-positive patients were randomized to receive L plus clarithromycin (C) 250 mg b.d. plus tinidazole (T) 500 mg b.d. (LCT) or RBC plus C 250 mg b.d. and T 500 mg b.d. for 7 days (RbcCT). L or RBC were administered for a further 3 weeks in patients with active peptic ulcers. A second endoscopy was performed at least 6 weeks after the end of therapy for the assessment of H. pylori infection by CLO-test and histology. Eradication was assumed if all the tests were negative for H. pylori.
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Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)- based triple therapy has been a recent trend for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, with the PPI-amoxicillin-clarithromycin (PPI/AC) regimen being one of the most popular. We have reported the effectiveness of PPI/AC regimens in the Japanese population and have demonstrated that the effectiveness of 40 mg rabeprazole, a recently developed PPI, is similar to that of 40 mg of omeprazole and 60 mg of lansoprazole when used in combination with amoxicillin and clarithromycin. In this study, we focused on whether 20 mg of rabeprazole is effective in our patient population by comparing that dosage with 40 mg of rabeprazole and 60 mg of lansoprazole. In all, 308 H. pylori-infected patients [236 men and 72 women; age (mean +/- SEM) 49.3+/-0.6 years] with peptic ulcer disease (N = 270) or nonulcer dyspepsia (N = 38) were randomly assigned to one of three different PPI/AC regimens for seven days: LAC (N = 104), consisting of lansoprazole 30 mg twice a day, amoxicillin 500 mg three times a day, and clarithromycin 200 mg twice a day; RAC (N = 104), consisting of rabeprazole 20 mg twice a day, amoxicillin 500 mg three times a day, and clarithromycin 200 mg twice a day; and the R1/2AC regimen (N = 100), which included rabeprazole 10 mg twice a day, amoxicillin 500 mg three times a day, and clarithromycin 200 mg twice a day. Cure of the infection was determined by the [13C]urea breath test one month after completion of the treatment. Intention-to-treat based and per-protocol based cure rates for the LAC, RAC, and R1/2AC regimens were 82.7 (95% CI, 74-89) and 88.7% (81-94), 85.6 (77-92) and 89.8% (82-95), and 87.0 (79-93) and 89.7% (82-95), respectively. Although adverse effects were reported by 20.3% of the patients, these affected compliance in only five patients in the RAC and LAC regimens and none in the R1/2AC group. Overall complete compliance was achieved in 94.7% of interviewed patients. In conclusion, the effectiveness of the PPI/AC regimen with 20 mg of rabeprazole is comparable with and even safer than that of 40 mg of rabeprazole and 60 mg of lansoprazole in our patient population.
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Most patients with GERD who take twice-daily PPI to control heartburn are able to successfully step down to once-daily dexlansoprazole 30 mg.
Microbial pathogens, one of them is Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), have frequently been implicated in the atherogenesis. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and plays a pivotal role in the regulation of vascular tone. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is the most potent endogenous NOS inhibitor. Elevated levels of ADMA have been reported in many circumstances associated with a high cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the eradication of H. pylori infection affects serum ADMA levels.
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Over a 20-year period, patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome were enrolled in a prospective trial evaluating the efficacy of lansoprazole. Following dose stabilization, patients were followed on a 6-monthly basis with interval history, physical examination, endoscopy with gastric biopsies, gastric acid analysis and laboratory studies.
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There were minor modifications of fundic argyrophil cell population and of gastrinaemia during the study period. They were not related to chronic atrophic gastritis. However, survey is mandatory in patients treated with high dose proton pump inhibitors, in those in whom gastrinaemia is elevated and when treatment duration is longer than 5 years.
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This open-label, prospective trial demonstrates that LOAD is a highly active regimen for the treatment of HP in treatment-naive patients. A large randomized controlled trial is warranted to further evaluate the efficacy of this regimen.
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This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, 8-way crossover study. In 9 healthy Helicobacter pylori-negative cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 homozygous extensive metabolizers, intragastric pH was measured for 24 hours on day 7 of treatment with rabeprazole, omeprazole, and lansoprazole orally administered once daily at reduced and standard doses.
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To examine the effect of iatrogenic hypochlorhydria on intragastric acetaldehyde production from ethanol after a moderate dose of alcohol, and to relate the findings to the changes in gastric flora.
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To determine the association between H pylori infection and serum ghrelin levels in patients without atrophic gastritis.
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To assess the effect of once-daily lansoprazole on safety and to characterize the pharmacodynamic profile of lansoprazole in a subset of subjects <1 year of age. The effect of lansoprazole on predefined GERD-associated symptoms was also assessed.
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In H pylori-negative CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers, LPZ 30 mg OD induced a significantly faster inhibition of gastric acid secretion than RPZ 10 mg.
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The study group represented 21 patients (median age 47 years, 86% male, 91% Caucasian). Historically, complicated ulcer disease was frequent and symptoms had been present for a median of 10 years before study entry. All patients responded to lansoprazole (median dose 90 mg/day) with excellent control of gastric acid hypersecretion. Mucosal relapse was infrequent and no major complications developed while on therapy.
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To understand the role of gastric acid and its inhibition in the pathogenesis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.
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EFFECTS AND INCONVENIENCIES OF THE OLDER PRODUCTS: The proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are now universally considered the treatment of choice for management of gastric-acid-related diseases, mainly gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). These drugs share similar properties: general structure, acid-activation step, covalent binding to the proton pump of the gastric parietal cell via the production of covalent disulphide bonds, relatively stable inhibition of H+,K+-ATPase. However, the older PPIs (omeprazole, lansoprazole et pantoprazole) have notable limitations. These drugs exhibit substantial interpatient variability and may have significant interactions with other drugs. These first-generation PPIs also do not achieve a rapid and sustained suppression of gastric acid, leading to the development of new acid-pump antagonists. The new-generation PPIs, esomeprazole and rabeprazole, offer several pharmacokinetic advantages: lower oxidative hepatic metabolism rate via the CYP 2C19 reducing the activity variations due to genetic polymorphisms and decreasing the risk of significant drug-drug interactions (advantages mainly for rabeprazole), lower metabolic clearance of esomeprazole (S-enantiomer of omeprazole) increasing plasma concentrations and acid suppression of this new PPI, higher accumulation of rabeprazole in the parietal cell due to its higher pKa. Gastric pH studies and therapeutic trials have demonstrated significant advantages of esomeprazole and rabeprazole compared with the older PPIs, which omeprazole is the prototype: a greater inhibition of acid secretion, a more rapid onset of action to provide reflux symptoms relief over 24 hours with lower GERD-related cost for rabeprazole, a sustained acid suppression, cost-effectiveness advantages for esomeprazole in the healing and maintenance of erosive esophagitis compared with lansoprazole, reduced potential for clinically significant drug-drug interactions with rabeprazole compared with omeprazole and esomeprazole. Due to their properties, esomeprazole and rabeprazole are the best candidates for "on demand" treatment of GERD.
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Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and proton pump inhibitors may exert immune-mediated effects in human gastric mucosa. T-cell immune response plays a role in Helicobacter pylori-induced pathogenesis. This study evaluated effects of celecoxib and lansoprazole on T-helper (Th) 1 and Th2 immune response in human gastric mucosa.
Increased bodily CO2 concentration alters cellular pH as well as sleep. The proton pump, which plays an important role in the homeostatic regulation of cellular pH, therefore, may modulate sleep. We investigated the effects of the proton pump inhibitor "lansoprazole" on sleep-wakefulness. Male Wistar rats were surgically prepared for chronic polysomnographic recordings. Two different doses of lansoprazole (low: 1 mg/kg; high: 10 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally in the same animal (n = 7) and sleep-wakefulness was recorded for 6 hrs. The changes in sleep-wakefulness were compared statistically. Percent REM sleep amount in the vehicle and lansoprazole low dose groups was 9.26 ± 1.03 and 9.09 ± 0.54, respectively, which increased significantly in the lansoprazole high dose group by 31.75% (from vehicle) and 34.21% (from low dose). Also, REM sleep episode numbers significantly increased in lansoprazole high dose group. Further, the sodium-hydrogen exchanger blocker "amiloride" (10 mg/kg; i.p.) (n = 5) did not alter sleep-wake architecture. Our results suggest that the proton pump plays an important role in REM sleep modulation and supports our view that REM sleep might act as a sentinel to help maintain normal CO2 level for unperturbed sleep.