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Reglan (Metoclopramide)
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Reglan

Generic Reglan is used for short term treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in certain patients who do not respond to other therapy. It is used to treat symptoms of a certain digestive problem in diabetic patients (diabetic gastroparesis).

Other names for this medication:

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Metoclopramide

 

Also known as:  Metoclopramide.

Description

Generic Reglan is a gastrointestinal stimulant and anti-nauseant. It works by increasing the movement of the stomach and intestines to help move food and acid out of the stomach more quickly. It also works in certain areas in the brain to decrease nausea.

Generic name of Generic Reglan is Metoclopramide.

Reglan is also known as Metoclopramide, Maxolon, Degan, Maxeran, Primperan, Pylomid.

Brand name of Generic Reglan is Reglan.

Dosage

Take Generic Reglan by mouth 30 minutes before meals unless.

It may take several days to weeks for Generic Reglan to work.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Reglan suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Reglan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Reglan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Reglan if you are allergic to Generic Reglan components.

Be careful with Generic Reglan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Do not take Generic Reglan if you have seizures (e.g., epilepsy), bleeding, blockage, or perforation in your stomach or intestines, or tumors on your adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma).

Do not take Generic Reglan if you are taking cabergoline or pergolide, medicines, such as phenothiazines (e.g., chlorpromazine), that may cause extrapyramidal reactions (abnormal, involuntary muscle movements of the head, neck, or limbs).

Be careful with Generic Reglan usage in case of having depression, asthma, heart failure, high blood pressure, diabetes, Parkinson disease, blood problems (eg, porphyria), kidney problems, or low levels of an enzyme called methemoglobin reductase.

Be careful with Generic Reglan usage in case of taking Cisapride or droperidol because side effects, such as muscle rigidity, increased heart rate, and altered mental abilities, may occur; Anticholinergic medicine (eg, hyoscyamine), certain antihistamines (eg, diphenhydramine), or narcotic pain medicines (eg, codeine) because they may decrease Reglan 's effectiveness; Acetaminophen, alcohol, levodopa, phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), sedatives (eg, zolpidem), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (eg, fluoxetine), succinylcholine, or tetracycline because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Generic Reglan; Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (eg, phenelzine) because the risk of serious side effects (eg, high blood pressure, seizures) may be increased; Cabergoline, digoxin, or pergolide because their effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Reglan.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Generic Reglan suddenly.

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The combinations were relatively stable, with all drugs maintaining over 90% of their initial chemical potency for at least 1 week. There were no evident changes in either the physical appearance or pH values of the solutions over the course of the study.

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In this prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, patients who had undergone breast surgery and were experiencing PONV during the first 3 hours after anesthesia received either granisetron 40 microg/kg IV, droperidol 20 microg/kg IV, or metoclopramide 0.2 mg/kg IV. Patients were observed for 24 hours after administration of study drug. Emetic episodes were recorded by nursing staff who were blinded to treatment assignment.

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To investigate the effects of acute hyperprolactinemia on the 24 h LH pulsatile pattern, 11 women in the early follicular phase (EF, days 3 and 4) and 8 postmenopausal women (PMW) were studied before and during administration of metoclopramide, a dopamine receptor antagonist. Sequential 24 h infusions of either metoclopramide (MCP, 30 micrograms/kg/h) or normal saline were conducted and pulsatile LH activity assessed for 48 hrs. In both EF women and PMW, a prompt (within 90 min, p less than 0.001) and sustained (greater than 45 micrograms/L, p less than 0.001) release of PRL was induced by MCP infusions. MCP-induced hyperprolactinemia failed to modify the LH pulsatile activity in both EF women and PMW. These observations suggest that acute hyperprolactinemia due to dopaminergic blockade has no discernible effect on LH pulsatility and that the reduced LH pulse frequency observed in association with endogenous hyperprolactinemia may result from different neuroendocrine mechanism(s) and/or is time dependent.

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The substituted benzamide drugs YM 09151-2 and clebopride potently inhibited apomorphine-induced stereotyped behaviour in the rat and caused displacement of the specific binding of [3H]spiperone to D-2 binding sites on striatal membranes in low nanomolar concentrations. Other substituted benzamide drugs including metoclopramide, sultopride and flubepride also inhibited stereotyped behaviour to a greater or lesser degree, but were less potent in displacing [3H]spiperone from D-2 sites. YM 09151-2 and clebopride only weakly displaced specific binding of [3H]piflutixol to D-1 sites on rat striatal membranes, and only weakly inhibited striatal dopamine stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, when compared with cis-flupenthixol. The other substituted benzamide drugs did not displace [3H]piflutixol or inhibit dopamine stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in the concentration range used. Clebopride and YM 09151-2 were highly lipophilic with apparent partition coefficient (log P') values equivalent to those of classical neuroleptic compounds, such as cis-flupenthixol. In contrast, the other substituted benzamide drugs were markedly less lipophilic. A log P' value of approximately 2 was required before inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity or displacement of [3H]piflutixol binding occurred. However, in excess of this value there was no correlation between either inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity or displacement of [3H]piflutixol binding and the lipophilicity of the various compounds. We conclude that potent lipophilic substituted benzamide drugs, like other members of the substituted benzamide series, are selective D-2 receptor antagonists. Inherent steric factors within the drug series would appear to dictate activity at D-1 and D-2 sites, although lipophilicity may contribute to actions in these environments.

reglan nausea dose

The effects of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) on ventilation were investigated by continuous measurements of intrabuccal pressure in unrestrained eel. Intravenous administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (30 micrograms.kg-1) caused a large increase in ventilatory frequency (+ 100%) and amplitude (+ 140%). The 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced hyperventilation was blocked by the 5-HT3-receptor antagonists metoclopramide (1.0 mg.kg-1) or MDL72222 (1.0 mg.kg-1), and was insensitive to the 5-HT1/2-receptor antagonist methysergide (3.0 mg.kg-1) and to the 5-HT4-receptor antagonist DAU 6285 CL (3.0 mg.kg-1). The hyperventilatory response to 5-hydroxytryptamine could be mimicked by the 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-phenylbiguanide (300 micrograms.kg-1). These results strongly implicate the 5-HT3-receptor as the mediator of the 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced hyperventilation in eel.

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The early and delayed groups were similar in age (median 62 years vs. 64 years; P=0.17), sex (males 65% vs. 63%; P=0.91), and postoperative cases (31% vs. 33%; P=0.82) and had similar proportions who received mechanical ventilation (95% vs. 95%; P=1.00), an inotrope or vasopressor (63% vs. 70%; P=0.17), renal replacement therapy (8% vs. 10%; P=0.71), opiates (77% vs. 80%; P=0.60), antibiotics (89% vs. 91%; P=0.72) and metoclopramide (46% vs. 55%; P=0.11). A significantly larger proportion of the early group received an aperient (54% vs. 29%, P<0.001) and experienced diarrhoea (38% vs. 27%, P=0.04), but the groups had similar proportions affected by constipation (42% vs. 43%, P=0.91).

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Chest pain is an alarming symptom; it justifies many visits to the emergency department (ED). The etiology is often unknown. Chest wall pain in the presence of migraine headache, although not a common occurrence, is intriguing when it resolves with antimigraine treatment.

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From the study cohort (n = 681,104), 3239 sudden cardiac death cases were matched to 12,572 controls. The adjusted odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) for sudden cardiac death with current use of domperidone alone was 1.71 (0.92-3.18) versus non-use of study medications, 1.26 (0.68-2.34) versus current PPI use, and 0.40 (0.17-0.94) current metoclopramide use. The adjusted odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) relative to exposure to no study drug for domperidone >30 mg/day (eight cases, five controls) was 3.20 (0.59-17.3) and 1.65 (0.89-3.07) for age ≥61 years (27 cases, 49 controls). The odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) was 3.17 (1.72-5.83) for within-person periods of domperidone use versus non-use in the case-crossover analysis.

reglan headache medication

The clinical development of ondansetron for the prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting has been progressing for 5 years, and continues as new directions of research are being addressed. Large multicentre studies have demonstrated the efficacy of ondansetron in the prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting, but no large comparator studies have been reported. Several studies are now being undertaken to compare ondansetron with other currently used antiemetics such as droperidol and metoclopramide, assessing efficacy, safety, pharmacoeconomic, and quality of life parameters. The majority of studies to date have been performed in gynaecological surgery patients receiving general anaesthesia--a population that experiences a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Clinical development of ondansetron is therefore progressing to establish its efficacy in a wider surgical population, including paediatrics, the elderly, non-gynaecological surgery, and as retreatment in patients with failed prophylactic antiemetic therapy.

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Domperidone and cisapride, both reduced the number of abdominal constrictions when given orally or intraperitoneally. Domperidone (5 mg/kg) inhibited it to the extent of 57.0 % after po and 54.6 % after ip. The inhibition after cisapride (5 mg/kg) was 65.1 % (po) and 71.6 % (ip). Naloxone pretreatment reduced this inhibition (57.0 % vs 10.3 % for domperidone and induced hyperalgesia by antagonizing the inhibition and enhanced analgesia to the extent of 28.4 % for cisapride). The reaction time was increased by domperidone (10 mg/kg, ip) from 1.6 s +/- 1.0 s to 14.8 s +/- 0.5 s and cisapride (10 mg/kg, ip) from 3.3 s +/- 1.0 s to 14.8 s +/- 0.5 s.

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In S2CM09, 92 patients treated 118 headaches during mild pain. Rates of pain-free response were higher 2 hours after dosing with sumatriptan 50 mg (51%) or 100 mg (67%; P < 0.05) compared with placebo (28%), and were higher with early treatment of mild pain compared with treatment of moderate/severe pain at 2 hours (sumatriptan 50 mg: mild pain, 51%; moderate/severe pain, 31%; P < 0.05; sumatriptan 100 mg: mild pain, 67%; moderate/severe pain, 36%) and 4 hours (50 mg: 75% vs 56%; 100 mg: 90% vs 61%; P < 0.05). Early intervention also resulted in less redosing than when moderate/severe pain was treated (50 mg: 21% vs 32%; 100 mg: 20% vs 29%). More attacks treated early with sumatriptan 50 or 100 mg were associated with normal function 4 hours after dosing compared with placebo (70% and 93% vs 46%, respectively). Sustained pain-free response rates 2 to 24 hours after early dosing with sumatriptan 50 or 100 mg were also higher (34% and 53%, respectively) compared with treatment of moderate/severe pain (19% and 24%, respectively). Early treatment with sumatriptan 100 mg produced significantly higher pain-free rates at 2 hours after dosing (P < 0.001) than did ergotamine plus caffeine (S2BT25: 69% vs 34%, respectively) or aspirin plus metoclopramide (S2BT26: 73% vs 25%, respectively).

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The release of cerebral acetylcholine from terminals in the cerebral cortex has been shown to be regulated by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) but it is not known which subtype of the 5-HT receptor is involved. 5-HT receptor agonists increase acetylcholine levels in vivo, indicating a reduced turnover, and reduce release of acetylcholine from striatal slices in vitro. Depleting 5-HT by inhibiting synthesis or by destroying the neurons containing 5-HT potentiates acetylcholine release, and increases acetylcholine turnover in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Selective antagonists for the 5-HT3 receptor subtypes which seem to have effects on mood and activity may exert their effect through the regulation of acetylcholine release in the cortex and limbic system. Radioligand binding studies show a high density of 5-HT3 receptors in the cholinergic-rich entorhinal cortex and we provide evidence that a reduction in cortical cholinergic function can be effected in vitro by 5-HT3 receptors.

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We have studied the effect of i.v. metoclopramide on renal vascular resistance in nine healthy volunteers. Peak systolic and end-diastolic frequencies were measured using duplex Doppler ultrasound of a renal interlobar artery, before and after the administration of i.v. metoclopramide 10 mg, and the resistance index derived. There was no significant change in mean arterial pressure or resistance index following metoclopramide.

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A predictive decision analytic model using previously published clinical and economic evaluations, and costs of medical care in Canada.

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Metoclopramide administered intravenously (i.v.) immediately before injection of propofol, after mixing with propofol, or after a rubber tourniquet for 1 min before propofol injection will reduce pain induced by propofol injection. In this study, these three different techniques in reducing propofol injection pain with metoclopramide were compared with lidocaine or saline to evaluate the most effective method in reducing propofol injection pain.

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Alizapride, a new antiemetic of the benzotriazole-line, enterally given, has been used in a randomized double blind trial including 40 patients suffering from radiogenic gastro-intestinal syndrome. Compared to metoclopramide, alizapride caused a faster regression of inappetence and of the frequency of daily vomiting. Drug-induced side-effects could not be seen.

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The effect of metoclopramide on presynaptic dopamine receptors was investigated in the cat cardioaccelerator nerve preparation. Metoclopramide, a substituted benzamide derivative, antagonized inhibitory action of apomorphine on positive chronotropic responses induced by sympathetic nerve stimulation in cat hearts, in vivo. Neither phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent, nor indomethacin a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, antagonized the effect of apomorphine. Apomorphine did not alter the positive chronotropic effects of intravenously administered noradrenaline. Metoclopramide potentiated stimulation-induced positive chronotropic responses. These results suggest that metoclopramide blocks the presynaptic dopamine receptors at the cat heart.

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The authors describe an evaluation of the Du Pont Prep. off-line automatic centrifugal sample processing system, used in the authors' Drug Investigation Unit over the past two years. In comparison to liquid-liquid extraction, the authors found that assay precision has generally been improved, absolute recovery was quantitative, reliability has been good and the use of the system has resulted in notable labour saving. However, the cost per test based on a seven-year amortization of capital cost shows that the system is more expensive. Assays for urinary opiates, serum tricyclic antidepressants, serum isoxicam, serum valproate, serum metoclopramide and serum pindolol are presented and the merits of the method are compared with those for manual liquid-liquid extraction procedures.

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From november 1981 to january 1982, 80 consecutive patients received high dose metoclopramide, adjoined to different cancer chemotherapy regimens containing cisplatine, dacarbazine, actinomycin D or mithramycin. Nineteen of them (23,75%) had no chemotherapy induced nausea or vomiting, 30 (37,5%) had nausea alone or vomited only once, and 17 (21,3%) had 3 to 5 episodes of vomiting. The overall efficacy of high-dose metoclopramide was 83,7 per cent. It has been seen whatever the chemotherapeutic agents used, and was inchanged for the following courses in 33 of 37 patients who received 2 to 4 courses. In 25 out of 33 patients who had already received the same chemotherapy without high dose metoclopramide, the digestive tolerance have been improved by the antiemetic treatment. Toxicity of high dose metoclopramide had been encountered in 17 (21,5%) of the patients and necessited this treatment to be stopped in 10. There were mainly extrapyramidal syndroms, diarrhea and drownsiness. The toxicity of high dose metoclopramide was of concern mainly in patients younger than 30, and/or when dosage escalation have been attempted.

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In connection with all highly or very highly emetogenic chemotherapies, an antiemetic prophylaxis should be initiated on the day of therapy, especially when using platinum or most of the cyclophosphamide-based regimes for cancer treatment. The recommended prophylaxis consists of a combination of 5-HT(3) antagonists with a corticosteroid. To combat the so-called delayed emesis on the days following therapy, all patients should undergo an oral corticoid therapy, possibly in combination with MCP (especially platinum-therapy patients), less frequently with 5-HT(3) antagonists. With these means of prophylaxis emesis can be prevented/avoided completely in most patients, and nausea can at least be reduced. It is sufficient to administer a single dose of 5-HT(3) antagonists prior to chemotherapy. For ondansetron and granisetron, the best documented substances within this class of drugs, 8 mg (ondansteron) and 3 mg (granisetron) are considered standard dosages. Among the corticoids, most data have been accumulated for dexamethasone. A standard dose of 10 to 20 mg can be administered prior to chemotherapy. Right after and especially on the days following chemotherapy higher dosages seem to be indicated.

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We investigated the relationships among gastrointestinal sounds, gastrointestinal manometric findings, and small intestinal transit time in healthy fasted humans.

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Patients at our Stoma Outpatient Clinic underwent baseline evaluation, and those with symptoms of constipation (prolonged periods between bowel movements, passage of pasty or hardened fecal effluent, and associated symptoms such as abdominal discomfort or bloating, flatulence, and pain with passage of effluent into the stoma) received individualized dietary recommendations that typically included an increase in dietary fiber and fluid intake, along with increased fluid intake. The outcomes of dietary changes were evaluated during a follow-up visit 3 months later. If dietary changes alone did not improve constipation symptoms, we prescribed a psyllium-based bulk-forming agent, an osmotic stool softener, and a probiotic, with or without a prokinetic agent such as metoclopramide taken 3 times daily.

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reglan oral dose 2016-03-25

The release of metoclopramide hydrochloride (a very water soluble cationic drug) and diclofenac sodium (a sparingly soluble anionic drug) from pellets coated with Surelease containing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) at different coating loads was investigated. The release rates of either drug at each coating composition decreased as the coating load increased. Inclusion of HPMC E15 increased the release rates of both drugs compared to pellets coated only with Surelease. This was thought to be due to the leakage of the soluble part of the film (HPMC E15) during dissolution, which left pores for drug release. The Surelease:HPMC buy reglan E15 ratio had a major role in the release rates of drugs. Addition of HPMC E15 into Surelease did not change the release mechanism for metoclopramide hydrochloride (the mean value of n approximately 0.57) from that of Surelease alone, and diffusion remained the main mechanism controlling the release. However, the release exponent (approximately 1.28) increased for diclofenac sodium on addition of HPMC E15, indicating a dissolution-controlled mechanism. Despite its lower water solubility, diclofenac sodium was released slightly faster than metoclopramide hydrochloride from pellets coated with Surelease containing HPMC E15 at equivalent coating loads.

reglan user reviews 2017-11-20

To evaluate the comparative efficacy of buy reglan enteral cisapride, metoclopramide, erythromycin, and placebo for promoting gastric emptying in critically ill patients with intolerance to gastric enteral nutrition (EN).

reglan 10mg dosage 2015-07-17

In this study, metoclopramide was compared with other pharmacological agents for preventing post-operative pain. Sixty Sprague-Dawley male rats, weighing 310-345 g were included in the study; 1 cm surgical incision, including skin, facia, and muscle was made to the plantar surface of rear foot of all anaesthetized rats. Rats were randomized into four groups. In group 1 (group S) 2 cm3 saline, in group 2 (group M) 2 cm3 metoclopramide (5 mg/kg) in buy reglan group 3 (group T) 2 cm3 tramadol (45 mg/kg), in group 4 (group M+T) half doses of group M and group T was given intraperitoneally. Post-operative pain was assessed after 2 h, first and second days of incision. Post-operative pain scores were found to be significantly lower in group M, group T and group M+T when compared with the control group. But there was no significant difference between these groups. We concluded that metoclopramide, with low cost, fewer side-effects and being significantly effective for preventing post-operative pain, can be an alternative to tramadol.

reglan medication metoclopramide 2016-06-09

In a randomized, double-blind and clinical trial study, 65 women with BC undergoing chemotherapy were referred buy reglan to Breast Cancer Research Center, Tehran, Iran, between May 2013 to June 2014. Regimen for ginger group for 5 days before and 5 days after chemotherapy was: 2 times a day and 500 mg capsules of powdered ginger root in addition to a routine antiemetic regimen consisting of dexamethasone, metoclopramide and aprepitant (DMA) capsules. Chamomile group similarly was: 2 times a day and 500 mg capsules of Matricaria chamomilla extract in addition to a routine antiemetic regimen consisting of DMA capsules. Control group, routine antiemetic regimen consisting of DMA capsules.

reglan oral medication 2016-12-22

In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial we evaluated the efficacy of 12.5 mg dolasetron i.v. and 20 mg metoclopramide (MCP) i.v. in preventing PONV in 387 patients (ASA I-III) undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were allocated randomly to one of three main groups: Group D (n = 129) received 12.5 mg dolasetron i.v., Group MCP (n = 129) 20 mg MCP i.v., and Group C (n = 129) saline as placebo i.v. Using a multifactorial study design, one third of each main group (n = 43) was further randomized to receive either buy reglan general anesthesia with desflurane, isoflurane or IVA with propofol and remifentanil. PONV, postoperative piritramide and droperidol consumption were documented.

reglan medication 2016-12-11

Twenty-five of 132 patients (18.9 %) were administered aprepitant for secondary prophylaxis against emesis during the second cycle of chemotherapy. The buy reglan incidences of acute and delayed nausea were 52 and 100 % in the first cycle, but 8 and 72 % in the second cycle. The incidences of acute and delayed vomiting were 20 and 100 % in the first cycle, but 0 and 36 % in the second cycle. No patients required rescue medications or intravenous rehydration during the second cycle. Aprepitant was not associated with additional adverse events.

reglan 40 mg 2017-10-20

A two-stage sequential design is presented to facilitate a single interim analysis in crossover trials with serial patient entry. The interim analysis is based on a linear statistic that combines data from individuals observed for only one treatment period with data from those observed for both periods (Cook, R. J., 1995, Biometrics 51, 932-945). The final analysis is based on the usual test statistic used in crossover trials. The size of this procedure is controlled by partitioning the experimental type I error rate over the two analyses and deriving the appropriate critical values. We investigate the design implications of adopting this procedure over the usual analysis for crossover trials by examining the necessary sample size inflation factors to maintain power, and indicate the expected savings in terms of the number of responses required. Data from a study designed to compare two antiemetic therapies for previously untreated chemotherapy patients (Osaba, D., et al buy reglan ., 1986, Clinical and Investigative Medicine 9, 225-231) are used to illustrate the procedure.

reglan renal dosing 2016-11-25

The chemistry, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, stability, compatibility, and dosage of ondansetron hydrochloride are described, and clinical studies of the use of ondansetron for the prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting induced by antineoplastic therapy are reviewed. Ondansetron hydrochloride is a buy reglan specific antagonist of serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptors, both in the chemoreceptor trigger zone and in the GI tract. Peak plasma concentrations of ondansetron occur approximately one hour after an oral dose and 6 to 20 minutes after an i.v. dose. The mean elimination half-life is approximately 3.5 hours in healthy volunteers, but it is extended in elderly patients (mean of 7.9 hours). In clinical trials, ondansetron has been shown to provide excellent control of nausea and vomiting in patients treated with cisplatin. Comparisons of ondansetron with metoclopramide in patients treated with various types of chemotherapy have shown better response rates with ondansetron. Ondansetron has also been shown to be effective in controlling nausea and vomiting in patients receiving cyclophosphamide with an anthracycline and in patients receiving combination therapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. Adverse effects appear to be mild and include headache, constipation, diarrhea and transient abnormalities in liver function tests. The dose of ondansetron (as the hydrochloride salt) for the prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults is 0.15 mg/kg i.v. every four hours for three doses, beginning 30 minutes before antineoplastic therapy. The efficacy of ondansetron is comparable to that of metoclopramide, and the adverse-effect profile is much less problematic. The cost of ondansetron is much higher than that of metoclopramide; thus its use should be limited to patients at high risk for metoclopramide-induced adverse effects and patients in whom metoclopramide is ineffective.

reglan nausea medication 2015-02-13

Five Cebus apella monkeys with persistent neuroleptic-induced dyskinesia were given a single dose of sulpiride (20 mg/kg i.m.). The dyskinesia was reduced in all five although four developed attacks of acute dystonia which had to be reversed by anticholinergic medication in buy reglan three animals. In one monkey the administration of classic neuroleptics had earlier been shown to induce a typical sequence of events. First there was a similar reduction of dyskinesia as seen in the other monkeys, 1-2 days later there was noticed a rebound deterioration lasting for several days. Metoclopramide 0.5 mg/kg, caused such a rebound effect (for 2 days), whereas sulpiride did not.

reglan dose 2015-08-06

To provide optimal care for the pediatric patient undergoing strabismus surgery, it is important to understand the unique anesthetic considerations buy reglan for strabismus surgery and to appreciate how each decision regarding the anesthetic technique can alter these considerations.

reglan max dose 2017-06-18

Chemotherapy-induced emesis is the most severe side effect in term of patient's perception. Current anti-emetic regimen as high dose metoclopramide can achieve a complete response in less than 60% of patients. The HT3 receptors appear to be the principal mediator of the emetic effect and their blockade have a clear activity in the prevention of acute drug-induced emesis, superior to reference regimens. buy reglan

reglan liquid dose 2016-12-21

Among the patients, 151 reported nausea or emesis. These patients experienced a longer duration of surgery and anesthesia and lost more blood than patients with no buy reglan complaints. The frequency of improvement in the flurbiprofen group was significantly higher than that in the metoclopramide group at 5, 10 and 15 min (p < 0.05) after administration, and of that in the droperidol group at 15 min after administration (p < 0.05).

reglan tabs 2015-11-27

Migraine headache can be debilitating. If initiated early, aggressive management may buy reglan prevent severe disability and failure at school. It must be noted that treatments available for use for acute migraine headache in children and adolescents are off-label. Their use is widespread, but double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are still unavailable for this age group.

reglan nausea dose 2015-10-25

We conclude that metoclopramide is not effective in preventing buy reglan postoperative nausea and vomiting after gynecologic operations. Droperidol, tropisetron, and ondansetron are effective; however, the sedating effects of droperidol and tropisetron should be considered.

reglan 10mg tab 2016-06-06

Control of glucose and ketone body metabolism is integrated by a variety of hormones. Insulin is the major anabolic hormone, and its actions are antagonized by rapidly acting catabolic hormones, such as glucagon and the catecholamines, and by others such as cortisol, growth hormone and the thyroid hormones, which generally have more delayed effects. In the normal human subject, the effects of catabolic hormones to raise blood glucose are limited by a compensatory increase in insulin secretion, and these effects are enhanced in insulin deficiency. Hyperketonaemic actions of the catabolic hormones may result from increased supply of non-esterified fatty acids from lipolysis, although glucagon has a major direct action to increase ketogenesis at the liver. As expected, these actions are also restricted in normal humans by the compensatory rise in insulin secretion. Hyperketonaemia does, however, occur with adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), even in the presence of mildly elevated insulin concentrations. These catecholamines may assume particular importance in mobilization of lipid fuels in milder forms of stress, when insulin secretion is normal or Elavil Normal Dosage mildly increased. In severe stress, when there is catecholamine-induced suppression in insulin secretion, lipolytic and hyperketonaemic effects of all the catabolic hormones may be manifest. Starvation in humans also results in diminished insulin secretion and increased catabolic hormone secretion. The relative importance of individual hormones in lipid mobilization during starvation is uncertain, although glucagon, growth hormone, noradrenaline and, possibly, dopamine may all play a part.

reglan tablets 2015-04-24

This systematic review examined the effectiveness of parenteral ketorolac (KET) in acute migraine. Suprax Liquid Storage Acute migraine headaches are common emergency department presentations, and despite evidence for various treatments, there is conflicting evidence regarding the use of KET. Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and gray literature sources were conducted. Included studies were randomized controlled trials in which KET alone or in combination with abortive therapy was compared with placebo or other standard therapy in adult patients with acute migraine. Two reviewers assessed relevance, inclusion, and study quality independently, and agreement was measured using kappa (k). Weighted mean differences (WMD) and relative risks are reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the computerized search identified 418 citations and 1414 gray literature citations. From a list of 34 potentially relevant studies (k = 0.915), 8 trials were included, involving over 321 (141 KET) patients. The median quality scores were 3 (interquartile range: 2-4), and two used concealed allocation. There were no baseline differences in 10-point pain scores (WMD = 0.07; 95% CI: -0.39, 0.54). KET and meperidine resulted in similar pain scores at 60 minutes (WMD = 0.31; -0.68, 1.29); however, KET was more effective than intranasal sumatriptan (WMD = -4.07; 95% CI: -6.02 to -2.12). While there was no difference in pain relief at 60 minutes between KET and phenothiazine agents (WMD = 0.82; 95% CI: -1.33 to 2.98), heterogeneity was high (I(2)  = 70%). Side effect profiles were similar between KET and comparison groups. Overall, KET is an effective alternative agent for the relief of acute migraine headache in the emergency department. KET results in similar pain relief, and is less potentially addictive than meperidine and more effective than sumatriptan; however, it may not be as effective as metoclopramide/phenothiazine agents.

reglan dosage 2016-04-04

A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for effectiveness, and population-based case series for adverse events and fetal outcomes. Treatments: vitamins B6 and B12, ginger, acupressure/acupuncture, hypnotherapy, antiemetics, dopamine antagonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists, intravenous (i.v.) fluids, corticosteroids, enteral and parenteral feeding or other novel treatment. Two reviewers extracted data and quality assessed studies. Results were narratively synthesised; planned meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and incomplete reporting. A simple economic evaluation considered the Uroxatral 10mg Tablets implied values of treatments.

reglan iv dose 2016-11-10

4-Amino-5-chloro-substituted benzamides have been shown to increase gastric motility in-vivo and enhance field-stimulated and peristaltic contractions in-vitro. The present experiments examined the contractile response to a series of benzamides in the guinea-pig non-stimulated ileum. Four benzamides elicited contractions in the isolated ileum which were expressed as a percentage of the contraction induced by 1 microM acetylcholine (% acetylcholine response = 12 +/- 2, 19 +/- 3, 26 +/- 2, 51 +/- 3, n = 13, 8, 17, and 21, with EC50 values of 0.85, 1.8, 5.7, and 14.2 microM for cisapride, zacopride, metoclopramide, and ML-1035 (4-amino-5-chloro-2-((2-methylsulphinyl)-ethoxy)-N- (2-(diethylamino)-ethyl)-benzamide hydrochloride), respectively). ML-1035 contractions were completely blocked by atropine and tetrodotoxin, while ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium was ineffective. Metoclopramide has been reported to sensitize postjunctional muscarinic receptors, however, ML-1035 did not enhance acetylcholine-induced contractions. Tropisetron (ICS 205-930, 1 microM), caused a parallel rightward shift in the concentration-response curve for both ML-1035 and zacopride (EC50 = 14.2 +/- 1.3 and 1.8 +/- 0.8 microM in the absence, and 26 +/- 2.7 and 6.9 +/- 2.3 microM in the presence of tropisetron for ML-1035 and zacopride, respectively) with apparent pKB values of 5.9 and 6.0 for the respective compounds. 5-Hydroxytryptaminergic receptor desensitization by 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) and Parlodel 5mg Tablets 5-methoxytryptamine (5-HT4), attenuated the response to ML-1035.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

reglan 60 mg 2016-10-28

Apomorphine-induced climbing and sniffing behaviours in mice were antagonize by low doses of SCH 23390 and metoclopramide. The selective D-2 dopamine receptor agonists, LY 171555 and RU 24926, and some other dopamine agonists (piribedil, lergotrile, bromocriptine) exerted only inhibitory effects on spontaneous behaviours. The selective D-1 dopamine receptor agonist, SK&F 38393, did not modify the climbing score but increased the sniffing and decreased the gnawing scores compared to the scores of control mice. Typical climbing and stereotyped behaviours were produced by the Zanaflex Capsules combination of SK&F 39383 with LY 171555, RU 24926 or with the other dopamine agonists tested. These data suggest that the stimulation of D-1 dopamine receptors is required for the induction of climbing and stereotyped behaviours in mice.

generic reglan price 2016-02-02

Intravenous dopamine has been shown to increase renal plasma flow in man. The role of endogenous dopamine in the maintenance of renal plasma flow has not been described. We speculated that if endogenous dopamine activity is important in the maintenance of renal plasma flow, then high doses of a potent dopamine blocking drug such as metoclopramide would decrease renal flow. To test this hypothesis, we measured renal plasma flow using a single-injection technique with 131I-labeled orthoiodohippurate. Measurements were made before and after the administration of high doses of metoclopramide (1 to 2.5 mg/kg) to 20 patients receiving metoclopramide as an antiemetic before chemotherapy. Seven control subjects underwent sequential measurements of renal plasma flow without intervening metoclopramide dosing. Mean (+/- SD) renal plasma flow did not change in the control population (from 441 +/- 198 to 437 +/- 117 ml/min), but declined significantly in the patients who received metoclopramide (443 +/- 115 ml/min before metoclopramide and 387 +/- 137 ml/min after metoclopramide; P less than 0.001). In 25% of our study population the decline in renal plasma flow was greater than 20% below baseline levels. The magnitude of the effect did not Aricept Generic Availability appear to correlate with the pretreatment creatinine clearance, age, or sex of the patients. We conclude that high doses of metoclopramide decrease renal plasma flow in man. These data suggest a role for dopamine in the maintenance of renal plasma flow in patients receiving intravenous hydration. Changes of the magnitude we observed may well be of clinical importance. These findings therefore also suggest the possibility of metoclopramide potentiation of cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

reglan 4 mg 2015-06-28

Forty Stage IV head and neck cancer patients were entered on a multimodality trial of induction chemotherapy (cisplatin + infusional 5-fluorouracil), surgery, and radiation. During chemotherapy, the patients of Group A (the first 19 patients) were medicated with metoclopramide. The patients of Group B (the next 21 patients) were medicated with droperidol. The groups were comparable. The response rate (complete + partial) was 32% for Group A and 52% for Group B (p = 0.16). Primary site (p = 0.08) and surgical margin (p = 0.005) clearance of tumor were better in Group B. Nodal disease Inderal Generic Name responded poorly to chemotherapy in both groups. Tumor necrosis (p = 0.006) and granulation tissue (p = 0.07) were reduced in surgical specimens after chemotherapy in Group B. The drugs were well tolerated with reversible toxicity; nausea/vomiting (p = 0.01) and weight loss (p = 0.07) after chemotherapy, were increased in Group B. The 2-year survival was 26% for Group A and 62% for Group B (p = 0.027). The median survival was 15 months for Group A and 33 months for Group B (p = 0.05). Progression-free survival improved in Group B (p greater than 0.17). These improvements in response and survival did not appear to reflect changes in surgical or radiotherapy management, but may have reflected an uninhibited effect of cisplatin in Group B. It is theorized that the metabisulfite formulated with metoclopramide altered the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of cisplatin. This resulted in the poor response to chemotherapy and poor survival in Group A. An analysis of a randomized trial comparing metoclopramide (formulated with metabisulfite) versus a control antiemetic can confirm the data presented in this pilot study. Overall, our patients survived as well as others in comparable multimodality studies in Europe and the United States.

reglan maximum dose 2017-12-05

Buspirone-stimulated prolactin release has been employed as an indirect measure of central serotonin activity; however, it is not clear whether serotonergic or dopaminergic systems are responsible for this response. In an attempt to further elucidate the mechanism, we studied the prolactin response to buspirone in eight subjects in the presence of maximal dopaminergic receptor blockade with metoclopramide under placebo-controlled, double-blind conditions. The prolactin response to buspirone in the presence of metoclopramide was not statistically different from that to placebo under the same conditions. The demonstration of further prolactin release by a bolus of thyrotropin-releasing hormone under maximal dopaminergic receptor blockade provided evidence against potential pituitary prolactin depletion by metoclopramide. These results lend further support to a dopaminergic mechanism in buspirone-induced prolactin secretion; therefore, further caution is warranted in interpreting the results of this challenge test as a measure of serotonergic activity in the brain.

reglan pediatric dose 2017-03-11

Provide guidelines for management of breastfeeding complications.

reglan 10 mg 2015-05-18

The effects of five antiemetic drugs on the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) were studied in five groups, each comprising eight healthy volunteers. Cyclizine, prochlorperazine and metoclopramide have a desirable functional effect on LOS, while promethazine and droperidol were associated with evidence of increased gastro-oesophageal reflux.

reglan 30 mg 2015-10-27

A single injection of metoclopramide induced a large decrease in maximal urethral closure pressure (53 to 90%; mean 71%, p < 0.001--Anova). The decrease with placebo, 5 to 44% (mean 26%), was not significant (Anova test: p = 0.06).

reglan generic 2016-12-27

The administration of buscolysin and cerucal in the pharmacoradiography of the stomach and the region of the small intestine was tested on every 50 patients. In these cases the differentiated range of action of the two preparations was shown. Buscolysin can be regarded as remedy of choice for the hypotonic duodenography, whereas cerucal is conspicuously suited for the functional diagnostics especially of the regions of antrum and bulb. By the aimed administration of the two preparations a complex functional diagnostics of stomach and duodenum is possible.