Muscle weakness, neuropathy, and transient rises in hepatic enzyme activity have been reported with the use of the antiarrhythmic agent amiodarone. A 68 year old teetotaller with normal liver function was given amiodarone for resistant supraventricular arrhythmias. He presented 19 months later with vomiting, muscle weakness and wasting, sensory neuropathy, and hepatomegaly. Liver biopsy showed fibrosis and the presence of hyaline. The amiodarone was withdrawn. Three months later he developed ascites. Oesophageal varices were found and he later died. The liver showed micronodular cirrhosis. The large volume of distribution and long half life of amiodarone may explain the persistence of toxicity, which may have been aggravated by simultaneously administered doxepin in this case. Amiodarone should be withdrawn if abnormal liver function or neuropathy develops.
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A novel spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of doxepin hydrochloride in commercial dosage forms. The method is based on the fluorescent ion pair complex formation of the drug with eosin Y in the presence of sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer solution of pH 4.52 which is extractable in dichloromethane. The extracted complex showed fluorescence intensity at lambdaem=567 nm after excitation at 464 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the working range of 0.1-0.8 microg ml(-1). Under the optimized experimental conditions, present method is validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The limit of detection for the developed method is 2.95 ng ml(-1). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of doxepin hydrochloride in commercial dosage forms. The results are compared with the reference spectrofluorimetric method.
Unilateral periventricular pseudocysts (PVPC), manifesting as ipsilateral headache have been only rarely reported in adults.
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A novel method has been investigated for the selective and sensitive determination of a range of tricyclic antidepressants including amitriptyline, doxepin, nortriptyline, promazine, chlorpromazine, imipramine, clomipramine, desipramine, protriptyline and trimipramine using electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL). The ECL mechanism is based on the reaction between tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)3(2+)] and the tertiary amino groups on the antidepressants. After selecting the best operating parameters calibration curves were obtained over three orders of magnitude for amitriptyline, doxepin, nortriptyline, promazine and chlorpromazine. Linear calibrations were used to obtain limits of detection in the range 0.09-0.24 microgram ml-1 with relative standard deviations below 4% for five replicate samples. Rapid depression in the signal was observed with repeat analysis of imipramine, clomipramine, protriptyline, desipramine and trimipramine due to electrode fouling by the oxidation product of the reaction. Use of a lower concentration of the compound was found to alleviate the problem. Finally the concentration of doxepin was determined in a pharmaceutical preparation.
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Single-solute adsorption equilibrium isotherms of three basic drugs: buspirone, doxepin and diltiazem were determined by frontal analysis in a reversed-phase system composed of an octadecylsilica packing material and a buffered mobile phase containing acetonitrile. The adsorption data were fitted to the bi-Langmuir model. Within the framework of this model, the adsorption of the drugs is assumed to occur on two distinct kinds of sites with different average adsorption energies. The data are consistent with the assumption that the low energy sites account for the hydrophobic interactions between the solutes and the chemically bonded alkyl chains and the high energy sites account for the ion-exchange interactions between the residual active silanols and the protonated bases. Multisolute, overloaded band profiles were also measured for the three binaries and for mixtures of the three drugs. Theoretical band profiles were calculated using the equilibrium dispersive model and the ideal adsorbed solution theory model which uses the parameters determined from the correlation of the single-solute adsorption data. Good agreement was found between the experimental and calculated overloaded band profiles.
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A young nurse was found dead in her flat. In chemical-toxicological analysis the following femoral blood drug concentrations were determined: paroxetine 0.176 mg/l, doxepine 82.12 mg/l, desmethyldoxepine 0.34 mg/l. Additionally the drug concentrations were determined in various body fluids and organs. The results of the described fatality are discussed. For interpretation of toxicologic results in antidepressant fatalities ratios of parent drug to metabolite and postmortem drug redistribution should be taken into account.
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Placebo for 1 week, 2 weeks of titration with either drug in the dosage range of 75 mg/day up to a maximum of 200 mg/day.
Forty-seven trials were identified. Twenty-four, 12, and 11 trials evaluated anticholinergic drugs, drugs with anticholinergic and calcium antagonistic properties, and alternative regimens, respectively. Data regarding treatment effects of anticholinergic drugs are consistent with a high therapeutic efficacy and characteristic side effects. Therapeutic efficacy and side effect patterns of terodiline, an agent with anticholinergic and calcium antagonistic properties, were comparable to those of anticholinergic agents. Terodiline, however, has been withdrawn from the market because of its association with cardiac arrhythmia. Of the investigated alternative drug regimens, the papaverine-like smooth muscle relaxant flavoxate was reported to be ineffective. Studies investigating the dopamine agonist bromocryptine, the alpha-adrenoceptor blocker prazosin, or the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor agonist baclofen showed subjective and/or objective improvement of symptoms without reaching statistical significance, whereas the tricyclic antidepressant doxepin, the neurotoxin capsaicin, and the prostaglandin synthase inhibitor flurbiprofen led to statistically significant subjective and/or objective improvement of symptoms. No data for subjective and/or objective improvement of symptoms could be extracted from the studies using the anticholinergic and calcium antagonistic agent propiverine and the calcium antagonist thiphenamil.
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CYP2D6 poor metaboliser genotype and co-medication with inhibitors of CYP2D6 were associated with higher plasma concentrations than the drug-specific median plasma concentration when normalised to dose; plasma concentrations of CYP2C19 extensive metabolisers and smokers were significantly lower than the drug-specific median. Five of the six CYP2D6 poor metabolisers experienced side effects. Response was not associated with plasma concentrations above or below the lower limit of a presumed therapeutic range.
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A sensitive method suitable for the determination of tricyclic and other antidepressants in postmortem and clinical specimens is presented. The procedure, which utilizes reversed-phase HPLC combined with dual ultraviolet wavelength detection, enables the separation of 17 commonly prescribed antidepressants and some selected metabolites in a single extraction. Peak purity was confirmed using absorbance ratios at 220 nm and 254 nm wavelengths and revealed little interference from other eluting analytes. The blood detection limit for most antidepressants was 50 ng/ml. The most commonly observed antidepressants in 281 forensic cases analysed over a two-year period with the described method were dothiepin, amitriptyline, nortriptyline and doxepin.
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Antihistamines often are self-administered at night as over-the-counter (OTC) sleep aids, but their next-day residual sedative effect has never been evaluated using a reliable quantitative method such as positron emission tomography (PET). We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in which we evaluated the residual effect the next day after nighttime administration of diphenhydramine, a commonly used OTC sleep aid, in terms of brain H₁ receptor occupancy (H₁RO) measured using ¹¹C-doxepin-PET. We also compared the results of diphenhydramine with those of bepotastine, a second-generation antihistamine. Eight healthy adult male subjects underwent PET measurement the morning (11:00) after random oral administration of diphenhydramine (50 mg), bepotastine (10 mg), or placebo the night before (23:00). Binding potential ratios and H₁ROs were calculated in different brain regions of interest such as the cingulate gyrus, frontotemporal cortex, and cerebellum. Subjective sleepiness and plasma drug concentration also were measured. Calculation of binding potential ratios revealed significantly lower values for diphenhydramine than for bepotastine or placebo in all regions of interest (P < 0.01). Cortical mean H₁RO after diphenhydramine treatment was 44.7% compared with 16.6% for bepotastine treatment (P < 0.01). Subjective sleepiness was not significantly different among the subjects treated with each test drug or the placebo. In conclusion, the next-day residual sedative effect after nighttime administration of the OTC sleep aid diphenhydramine was verified for the first time by direct PET measurement of H₁RO. Taking into account the possible hangover effect of OTC antihistamine sleep aids, care needs to be taken during their administration.
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The therapeutic efficacy, plasma levels, and psychomotor effects of tryptophan (L-tryptophan), clomipramine hydrochloride, and doxepin were investigate in "neurotically" depressed outpatients. The tricyclic antidepressants were significantly more efficacious than tryptophan in inducing remission. The alleviation of depression was preceded by an improvement of the initially slow information-processing rates in the depressed patients. The plasma levels of the tricyclics that were associated with a therapeutic response were significantly lower than those reported in "endogenously" depressed inpatients.
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This work characterizes a new methodologic and pharmacologic approach to control terrestrial and space motion sickness (SMS). The experimental design allowed separate evaluation of drug action on susceptibility and adaptability, and used repeated measures to approximate the chronic stressful motion of microgravity. Daily exposure to cross-coupled angular acceleration for 5 consecutive days demonstrated that the efficacy of doxepin and scopolamine plus amphetamine in the prevention of autonomic system dysfunction was not only apparent on the first test day (P < .01), but was also evident in the substantially enhanced resistance developed over the 5-day test period (P < .01) as compared with placebo. This indicates that daily use of these medications does not diminish therapeutic efficacy (tolerance). The efficacy of doxepin was anticipated because it possesses pharmacologic properties similar to those of established anti-motion sickness drugs. Comparable efficacy after doxepin loading for 4 hours, 3 days, or 21 days suggests a mechanism distinct from its antidepressant effects, possibly related to its potent antihistaminergic actions. Use of doxepin has operational significance to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, in comparison with current preparations of scopolamine plus amphetamine, because of doxepin's minimal impact on cognitive performance, and most importantly, its favorable pharmacokinetic profile, particularly its long half-life.
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Blood pressure measurements were collected from 36 depressed geriatric outpatients (ages 55 to 81 years) enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of doxepin and imipramine. Mean systolic postural changes were 25.9 mm Hg for imipramine, significantly higher than the 10.5 mm Hg for doxepin, and 12.4 mm Hg for placebo. The orthostatic drop in the imipramine group was only weakly related to dose and did not correlate with amount of pretreatment orthostatic hypotension or with duration of treatment. The increased orthostatic hypotension occurred early in treatment and at low doses of imipramine. Accordingly, caution is advised in the use of imipramine for the elderly.
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We have investigated the predictive value of single dose levels for steady state levels of two commonly used antidepressants, doxepin (DOX) and imipramine (IMI) in a population of 40 outpatients with unipolar depression. After a wash-out period, patients were given 75 mg of either doxepin or imipramine and blood samples were drawn 16 h after the dose. Treatment was continued for 2 weeks on a fixed 100 mg/day dose and after that the dose was adjusted according to patients' response. Drugs and their demethylated metabolites were determined weekly using a GC technique. There was a large (more than 5-fold) inter-individual variation in both the single dose and steady-state levels of the two drugs. However, a significant correlation was found between the single-dose levels and initial steady-state levels for both. The respective linear regression equations were: DOX (parent drug & demethylated metabolite): y = 1.4x + 16.8; r = 0.75, p less than 0.001; IMI (parent drug & demethylated metabolite): y = 3.1x + 4.9; r = 0.85; p less than 0.001. These results confirm, in a population of depressed outpatients, previous findings of a significant correlation between single dose and steady state plasma levels of imipramine, and indicate for the first time that such a correlation also exists for another commonly used tricyclic antidepressant, doxepin. From this relationship, dose requirement can be estimated for individual patients to achieve a desired steady-state concentration of total tricyclics (parent drug & metabolite).
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The findings from this study suggest the effective therapeutic approaches for itch. The major limitations are that there are small numbers of available RCTs and methodological differences across studies.
Depression is a psychiatric disorder. Chaihu-Shugan-San (CSS) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula suggested in the treatment of depression, but its effectiveness and safety are not well defined. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of CSS in depression therapy.
The composition of the micelles in binary mixtures of the cationic amphiphilic antidepressant drugs nortriptyline, amitriptyline, and doxepin has been determined from an analysis of the variation of the critical micelle concentration from conductivity measurements, as a function of solution composition. Assessment of the nonideality of mixing in terms of the interaction parameter from the regular solution approximation showed small deviations from ideal mixing, with negative interaction parameters for nortriptyline/amitriptyline systems and positive interaction parameters for mixtures of nortriptyline and doxepin. These differences in nonideality have been attributed to differences in the packing of the drugs in the mixed micelles arising from differences in the structure of the hydrophobe.
Nine or 10 serial steady-state plasma measurements of amitryptyline, desipramine, desmethyldoxepin, doxepin, imipramine, nortriptyline, or protriptyline were made in 23 depressed patients. Each patient was monitored for compliance by pill counts, and sampling time was controlled carefully to determine intrapatient variability of steady-state tricyclic levels on a day-to-day basis. The coefficients of variation during serial sampling of the various ingested drugs were: amitriptyline, 21%; desipramine, 26%; doxepin, 21%; imipramine, 14%; nortriptyline, 13%; and protriptyline, 17%. The therapeutic ranges for the tricyclic antidepressants are relatively wide, so coefficients of variation of these magnitudes indicate that the position of an individual patient in relation to the optimal therapeutic range can be reliably determined on a clinical basis.
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At the same dose, internal exposure to doxepin differed by more than ten-fold between the CYP2D6 genotype groups. CYP2D6 may have an effect on platelet serotonin explained by salvage pathways of 5-methoxytryptamine to serotonin mediated by CYP2D6; however, this finding requires further confirmatory experiments.
Topical doxepin, available as a 5% cream, is indicated for the treatment of pruritus secondary to eczematous dermatoses in adults. Diminished skin integrity and the application of a massive quantity of doxepin 5% cream to a large body surface area contributed to the toxicity in this child. Since the safety and efficacy of doxepin cream has not been established in children younger than 12 years, it should be used with caution in this population.
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To determine current patterns and predictors of use of prescription medications commonly used for insomnia (MCUFI) in the U.S.
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The administration of serotonin reuptake inhibitors alone or in combination with other medication which increases the level of 5-hydroxytryptamine, i.e. serotonin, in the synaptic cleft mainly leads to hyperthermia. According to a recent study, however, the application of a selective 5-HT(1a) agonist to transgenic mice with a prominent overexpression of the 5-HT(1a) receptor lead to immobility and hypothermia. These findings might help to explain the hypothermia observed in the case of the intoxicated 16-year-old.
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We considered randomized trials comparing anxiolytic or antidepressant drugs to placebo or an alternative therapeutic control for smoking cessation. We excluded trials with less than 6 months follow-up.
Tricyclic antidepressants are extremely valuable drugs when they are used in suitable patients, principally those suffering from endogenous depressions. Diagnosis of depression is of major importance in determining the nature of treatment to be used. Differences between most tricyclics are minor for the most part, involving different degrees of sedative or anticholinergic properties. With the exception of doxepin, they are about equally effective in blocking the amine pump mechanism, which is believed to be the pharmacologic action most pertinent to their antidepressant action. A wide range of dose must be explored if patients are to be treated properly. For the most part, doses are defined empirically, either by alleviation of depression or by intolerable side effects. Dosage schedules should be flexible initially but during therapeutic and maintenance periods, single daily doses are possible. Maintenance doses should be reduced to the lowest consistent with continued relief. Treatment should be brief if the episode of depression is the first and is not severe, but may be prolonged for years in patients with a history of frequent and severe recurrences of depression. Other drugs may sometimes be required, and psychological approaches to treatment are always required. ECT should be available for selected instances of severe depression. The hazards of tricyclics are well known and generally are extensions of known pharmacologic effects. Careful prescribing of these drugs can minimize the consequences of suicidal or accidental overdose.
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A total of 26 postmarketing cases of allergic contact dermatitis to doxepin 5% cream were reported to the Food and Drug Administration. Our findings suggest that allergic contact dermatitis was more common when treatment duration exceeded the recommended 8 days. Allergic contact dermatitis to doxepin cream should be considered in patients whose condition fails to improve or worsens with doxepin use.
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Doxepin (DOX) and desmethyldoxepin (DMD) kinetics were examined in seven depressed patients receiving single daily doses of 150 mg DOX for 1 to 3 wk. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 12, 15, 18, and 24 hr after the first dose, at bedtime before doses 7, 14, and 21, and at 4, 12, 15, 18, and 24 hr after the last dose. Plasma concentrations of DOX and DMD were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Clinical response to DOX treatment was evaluated by the Zung self-rating depression scale and the Hamilton rating scale for depression. Mean DOX t1/2 after the first dose was 17.7 hr, and it rose to 21.8 hr after the last dose. Mean DMD t1/2 was not significantly affected by multiple dosing (34.2 hr after first dose and 37.1 hr after last dose). Mean values for plasma clearance, volume of distribution, and first-pass metabolism were 0.87 l/hr/kg, 23.8 l/kg, and 69.5%. In depressed patients kinetics were in the normal range. Steady-state concentrations of DOX and DMD were reached within 2 wk of beginning DOX dosing. The concentration-response curve indicated strong correlation between total DOX concentration (DOX + DMD) and antidepressant effect (r2 = 0.76).