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This paper presents three cases investigated by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner where hydroxycarbazepine, the active metabolite of the anticonvulsant prodrug oxcarbazepine, was detected in the biological specimens submitted for toxicological analysis. Hydroxycarbazepine was quantitated using a single-step pH 5 extraction and detection on a DB-5 column by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection. In the three cases, the heart blood concentrations were 34.6, 40.5, and 3.7 mg/L, respectively. In cases 2 and 3, the peripheral blood concentrations were 36 and 4.1 mg/L, respectively. In each case, the medical examiner ruled that the hydroxycarbazepine was an incidental finding to the cause of death.
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The prevalence of PSE was 7.0% in CI patients. The TOAST etiology disclosed large-artery atherosclerosis in 68 patients (45%), cardioembolism in 63 patients (42%), and undetermined cause in 19 patients (13%). CVD risk profile showed obesity of 18 patients (12%), current smoker of 30 patients (20%), hypertension of 75 patients (50%), diabetes mellitus of 32 patients (21%), dyslipidemia of 15 patients (10%), and atrial fibrillation of 63 patients (42%). CBZ or PHT administration increased serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels significantly compared to baseline and AED-untreated controls. Those levels were not increased significantly in other AED and control groups. Serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ statistically in all groups.
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Cerebellar atrophy occurs in a considerable percentage of patients with chronic focal epilepsy and obviously increases the susceptibility for cerebellar AEs of carbamazepine.
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Six patients with classic benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes, treated with carbamazepine (four patients) or sodium valproate (two patients) evolved atypically because the epileptic disorder, diffusion of the electroencephalographic (EEG) discharges during wakefulness, and continuous spike-and-wave during slow sleep associated with severe neuropsychologic abnormalities worsened. These features appeared after a seizure-free interval varying for 2 weeks to 1 year 6 months after initiating therapy and remitted when the previous anticonvulsant drug was discontinued and either substituted with another drug or the patient was left without any treatment. Once the initial antiepileptic drug was discontinued and after a period roughly proportional to the duration of the clinical-EEG complication, the evolution of the patients' seizures was not unusual for this type of epilepsy, with patients eventually becoming free of both seizures and medication and reaching normal school achievement. The clinical complications cannot be attributed solely to the drugs. It must also be related to the underlying substract (i.e., the specific epileptic syndrome involved) that in some patients becomes susceptible to atypical evolution when either product is administered.
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Bipolar disorder, overweight, and obesity are each national public health problems. Overweight and obesity also appear to be related to mood disorders, and patients with bipolar disorder, in particular, may be at greater risk for overweight and obesity than individuals in the general population. This risk may be due to factors associated with the illness itself and/or with medications used to treat bipolar disorder.
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Growing evidence suggests that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may be useful in managing some eating disorders. In the present paper, we provide a brief overview of eating disorders, the rationale for using AEDs in the treatment of these disorders and review the data supporting the effectiveness of specific AEDs in the treatment of patients with eating disorders. In addition, the potential mechanisms of action of AEDs in these conditions are discussed. Of the available AEDs, topiramate appears to have the broadest spectrum of action as an anti-binge eating, anti-purging and weight loss agent, as demonstrated in two placebo-controlled studies in bulimia nervosa and three placebo-controlled studies in binge-eating disorder (BED) with obesity. Topiramate may also have beneficial effects in night-eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder, but controlled trials in these conditions are needed. The results of one small controlled study suggest that zonisamide may have efficacy in BED with obesity. However, both topiramate and zonisamide are associated with adverse effect profiles that may limit their use in patients with eating disorders. Phenytoin may be effective in some patients with compulsive binge eating, particularly if co-morbid EEG abnormalities are present, but available data are too varied to allow definitive conclusions to be made. Carbamazepine and valproate may be effective in treating patients with bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa when they are used to treat an associated psychiatric (e.g. mood) or neurological (e.g. seizure) disorder; otherwise, both agents, particularly valproate, are associated with weight gain. In conclusion, AEDs have an emerging role in the management of some eating disorders.
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The seasonal variations in the occurrence of carbamazepine, atenolol, metoprolol, sotalol, and acebutolol were studied at seven sites along River Fyris from December 2007 to December 2008. Samples were collected from the effluent of a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), at one upstream site, and five downstream sites of the WWTP. During one occasion in May 2008, water samples were collected at different locations and depths in the recipient lake. All analytes except of acebutolol were present in both the river and the lake at quantifiable amounts at all sampling occasions. Carbamazepine was found in similar concentrations (about 90 ng L(-1)) at all sampling sites and all studied depths (0.5-40 m) in the lake, indicating high environmental persistence of this compound. A clear seasonal pattern was observed for the natural attenuation of the beta-blockers in the river, with the highest attenuation occurring in summer and the lowest in winter. The loss of beta-blockers on a distance of 1320 m reached up to 75% during summer time but was insignificant during winter. The seasonal variations in the loss followed the seasonal variations in water temperature and chlorophyll a mass flow suggesting that biotransformation and adsorption are the main processes responsible for the loss of the studied pharmaceuticals in River Fyris downstream the WWTP.
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Changes in body weight were evaluated in 349 patients from a study comparing efficacy of add-on therapy with tiagabine (TGB), carbamazepine (CBZ) or phenytoin (PHT). TGB add-on therapy showed no significant weight changes when added to either PHT or CBZ. CBZ add-on therapy showed a significant percentage weight gain of a mean body increase of 1.5% (P = 0.002). Adjunctive TGB therapy had no significant effect on total body weight, while adjunctive CBZ therapy was associated with weight gain.
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Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a relatively common cause of morbidity and mortality. Many factors can contribute to ADRs, including genetics. The degree to which genetics contributes to ADRs is not entirely clear and varies by drug, as well as the type of ADR. Pharmacogenetics and, more recently, pharmacogenomics have been applied to the field of ADRs for both predictable ADRs and hypersensitivity drug reactions. Evaluations for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and thiopurine S-methyltransferase are commonplace clinical tests to reduce hematologic problems associated with drugs, such as dapsone and azathioprine, respectively. Numerous pharmacogenetic associations have been discovered for immediate hypersensitivity reactions to β-lactams, aspirin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; however, the clinical utility of testing for these genetic associations has not been established. In contrast, pharmacogenetic testing for HLA-B*1502 before carbamazepine in patients of certain Asian ethnicities and testing for HLA-B*5701 before abacavir treatment are recommended. This review will focus on pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics and their role in reducing ADRs, especially those caused by drug hypersensitivity reactions.
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Although there is no information about the appropriate concentrations or vehicles for suspected drugs, photopatch testing could be reliable for identification of causes of photosensitive drug eruptions. Besides piroxicam (a well-known photosensitizer) and carbamazepine, isoniazid and triflusal were identified as the causes of the reactions.
In this Phase IIIb, open-label, eight-week, observational, polypharmacy study, adult subjects were started on CBZ-ERC 200mg and titrated over four weeks to optimal dose (1600mg/d maximum). Concomitant lithium and atypical antipsychotics (olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole) were permitted. Safety assessments included adverse events, laboratory parameters, physical examination, medication history, vital signs, and electrocardiogram. Efficacy measures included the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and Clinical Global Impressions Scale-Bipolar Version (CGI-BP). All data were summarized using descriptive statistics.
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Known P-gp substrate drugs ivermectin and cyclosporin A altered rhodamine efflux by 90% and 95%, respectively. Experimental drugs altered rhodamine efflux weakly (diazepam, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and phenobarbital) or not at all (carbamazepine, felbamate, phenytoin, topirimate, and zonisamide).
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Inappropriate AED therapy was commonly prescribed regimen for elderly inpatients. Some recommendations are discussed for a better care of elderly inpatients with epilepsy.
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Citations obtained from MEDLINE searches (1985-September 2001) using lamotrigine as a text word, articles identified in reference lists of pertinent articles, abstracts presented at conferences, and research data from GlaxoSmithKline.
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This study was to establish the population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model of pharmacologically active metabolite of oxcarbazepine (OXC) and to estimate PPK parameters for the optimal individuation administration of OXC in Chinese children with epilepsy.
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Gelastic epilepsy or laughing seizures have been historically related to children with hypothalamic hamartomas. We report three adult patients who had gelastic epilepsy, defined as the presence of seizures with a prominent laugh component, including brain imaging, surface/invasive electroencephalography, positron emission tomography, and medical/surgical outcomes. None of the patients had hamartoma or other hypothalamic lesion. Two patients were classified as having refractory epilepsy (one had biopsy-proven neurocysticercosis and the other one hippocampal sclerosis and temporal cortical dysplasia). The third patient had no lesion on MRI and had complete control with carbamazepine. Both lesional patients underwent resective surgery, one with complete seizure control and the other one with poor outcome. Although hypothalamic hamartomas should always be ruled out in patients with gelastic epilepsy, laughing seizures can also arise from frontal and temporal lobe foci, which can be surgically removed. In addition, we present the first case of gelastic epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis.
Regarding the central and peripheral effects of levomepromazine and some of its metabolites, the observed metabolic interaction between this neuroleptic and carbamazepine may be of pharmacological and clinical importance.
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No statistical differences were found between the two treatments in the reduction of seizure frequencies, in overall neurotoxicity, or in overall systemic toxicity. The frequencies and clinimetric scores of certain adverse effects did differ (e.g., more monotherapy patients remained sedated, and more polytherapy patients gained weight). Fewer polytherapy patients withdrew because of adverse effects (14 vs. 22%), although this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.15). Neuropsychological assessment did not show significant differences.
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(Arylalkyl)azoles (AAAs) emerged as a novel class of antiepileptic agents with the invention of nafimidone and denzimol. Several AAA derivatives with potent anticonvulsant activities have been reported so far, however neurotoxicity was usually an issue. We prepared a set of ester derivatives of 1-(2-naphthyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)ethanone oxime and evaluated their anticonvulsant and neurotoxic effects in mice. Most of our compounds were protective against maximal electroshock (MES)- and/or subcutaneous metrazol (s.c. MET)-induced seizures whereas none of them showed neurotoxicity. Nafimidone and denzimol have an activity profile similar to that of phenytoin or carbamazepine, both of which are known to inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) as well as to enhance γ-aminobutiric acid (GABA)-mediated response. In order to get insights into the effects of our compounds on VGSCs and A-type GABA receptors (GABAARs) we performed docking studies using homology model of Na(+) channel inner pore and GABAAR as docking scaffolds. We found that our compounds bind VGSCs in similar ways as phenytoin, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine. They showed strong affinity to benzodiazepine (BZD) binding site and their binding interactions were mainly complied with the experimental data and the reported BZD binding model.
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A series of 2-substituted-6-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)benzo[d]oxazoles were synthesized. The anticonvulsant effect and neurotoxicity of the compounds (intraperitoneally) were evaluated with the maximal electroshock (MES) test, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (sc-PTZ), and rotarod tests in mice. 2-Phenyl-6-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)benzo[d]oxazole (3g) was the most active and also had the lowest toxicity. In the anti-MES potency test, it showed median effective dose (ED(50)) of 29.5 mg/kg, a median toxicity dose (TD(50)) of 285 mg/kg, and a protective index (PI) of 9.7, which is greater than the reference drug, carbamazepine, which has a PI of 6.4.
A retrospective review of the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of OXC oral suspension in a tertiary medical center in Taiwan was conducted and included children (1-9 years old) and infants (<1 year old) diagnosed with epilepsy, which was classified into idiopathic partial, symptomatic partial, or multifocal subtypes. The OXC oral suspension (Trileptal(®); Novartis) was given in a gradual dose titration, from an initial 7.5 mg/kg/day to 30 mg/kg/day within 1 month in all cases.
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There is little evidence to suggest that AED treatment administered prophylactically is effective or not effective in preventing post-craniotomy seizures. The current evidence base is limited due to the differing methodologies employed in the trials and inconsistencies in reporting of outcomes. Further evidence from good-quality, contemporary trials is required in order to assess the effectiveness of prophylactic AED treatment compared to control groups or other AEDs in preventing post-craniotomy seizures properly.
To review the effects of carbamazepine and its derivatives for the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychoses.
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Here, we explore the role that sorption to mineral surfaces plays in the fate of two commonly encountered effluent-derived pharmaceuticals, the anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine. Adsorption isotherms and pH-edge experiments are consistent with electrostatics governing anticonvulsant uptake on metal oxides typically found in soil and aquifer material (e.g., Si, Al, Fe, Mn, and Ti). Appreciable, albeit limited, adsorption was observed only for phenytoin, which is anionic above pH 8.3, on the iron oxides hematite and ferrihydrite. Adsorption increased substantially in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactants, species also commonly encountered in wastewater effluent. For carbamazepine, we propose the enhanced uptake results entirely from hydrophobic interactions with apolar tails of surfactant surface coatings. For phenytoin, adsorption also arises from the ability of surfactants to alter the net charge of the mineral surface and thereby further enhance favorable electrostatic interactions with its anionic form. Collectively, our results demonstrate that although pristine mineral surfaces are likely not major sinks for phenytoin and carbamazepine in the environment, their alteration with organic matter, particularly surfactants, can considerably increase their ability to retain these emerging pollutants in subsurface systems.
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The present study shows the effect of omeprazole administration on the pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release preparation of carbamazepine in healthy male volunteers. Multiple dose administration of omeprazole increased the Cmax, AUC0-infinity and elimination half life (t1/2e) of carbamazepine. The results suggest that drug monitoring should be carried out when carbamazepine is coadministered with omeprazole.