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Tofranil

Generic Tofranil is a member of the family of drugs called tricyclic antidepressants. Generic Tofranil is used to treat depression. Generic Tofranil is also used on a short-term basis, along with behavioral therapies, to treat bed-wetting in children aged 6 and older. Sometimes Generic Tofranil is prescribed to treat bulimia, attention deficit disorder in children, obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Pamelor, Norpramin, Silenor, Zonalon, Aventyl, Norpress, Elavil

 

Also known as:  Imipramine.

Description

Generic Tofranil is used to treat depression. Generic Tofranil is also used on a short-term basis, along with behavioral therapies, to treat bed-wetting in children aged 6 and older. Sometimes Generic Tofranil is prescribed to treat bulimia, attention deficit disorder in children, obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

Generic Tofranil is a member of the family of drugs called tricyclic antidepressants.

Tofranil is also known as Imipramine, Antideprin, Deprenil, Deprimin, Deprinol, Depsonil, Dynaprin, Eupramin, Imipramil, Irmin, Janimine, Melipramin, Surplix, Antidep, Apo-Imipramine, Chrytemin, Daypress, Depsol, Ethipramine, Fronil, Imidol, Imimine, Imine, Imiprex, Imiprin, Impril, Medipramine, Melipramine, Mipralin, Novopramine, Primonil, Pryleugan, Sermonil, Sipramine, Talpramin, Tofnil, Tofranil-PM, Venefon.

Generic name of Generic Tofranil is Imipramine hydrochloride.

Brand names of Generic Tofranil are Tofranil, Tofranil-PM.

Dosage

Take Generic Tofranil orally.

Take Generic Tofranil with or without food.

For adults

The usual starting dose is 75 mg a day. The maximum daily dose is 200 mg.

For children

Total daily dosages for children should not exceed 2.5 mg for each 2.2 pounds of the child's weight. Doses usually begin at 25 mg per day. This amount should be taken an hour before bedtime. If needed, this dose may be increased after 1 week to 50 mg (ages 6 through 11) or 75 mg (ages 12 and up), taken in one dose at bedtime or divided into 2 doses, 1 taken at mid-afternoon and 1 at bedtime.

Aged people

The usual dosage should start with 25 to 50 mg per day. The dose may be increased as necessary, but effective dosages usually do not exceed 100 mg a day.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Tofranil suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Tofranil and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Tofranil overdosage: agitation, bluish skin, convulsions, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, drowsiness, heart failure, high fever, involuntary writhing or jerky movements, irregular or rapid heartbeat, lack of coordination, low blood pressure, overactive reflexes, restlessness, rigid muscles, shock, stupor, sweating, vomiting.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Tofranil are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Tofranil if you are allergic to Generic Tofranil components.

Be very careful with Generic Tofranil if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Generic Tofranil if you are recovering from a recent heart attack or take MAO inhibitors, such as the antidepressants Nardil and Parnate.

Be very careful with Generic Tofranil if you have diabetes, hypoglycemia, a history of mental disorders.

Be very careful with Generic Tofranil if you are taking albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin), antidepressants that act on serotonin, including Prozac, Paxil and Zoloft, antipsychotic drugs such as Mellaril and chlorpromazine, barbiturates such as Nembutal and Seconal, blood pressure medications such as Catapres, Carbamazepine (Tegretol), cimetidine (Tagamet), decongestants such as Sudafed, drugs that control spasms, such as Cogentin, Epinephrine (EpiPen), Flecainide (Tambocor), Guanethidine, Methylphenidate (Ritalin), Norepinephrine, other antidepressants such as Elavil and Pamelor, Phenytoin (Dilantin), Propafenone (Rythmol), Quinidine, thyroid medications such as Synthroid, tranquilizers and sleep aids such as Halcion, Xanax, and Valium.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not participate in any activities that require full alertness if you are unsure about your ability.

Try to stay out of the sun as much as possible.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Tofranil taking suddenly.

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Forty of 42 patients (95%) completed the trial, of whom 23 (58%) responded to treatment. Highly significant improvement was documented on measures of depression, reversed neurovegetative symptoms, and somatic symptoms. Response was significantly correlated with severity of depression (pre-MAOI score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression), severity of a composite score of anergic and reversed neurovegetative features, and low levels of improvement during initial imipramine/interpersonal psychotherapy. Of patients who met criteria for proposed subforms of anergic or atypical depression, 67% (18/27) responded (p less than .05); 77% (17/22) of patients who scored above the mean on the composite measure of anergic and reversed neurovegetative features responded (p less than .01).

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To identify the factors that influence response to treatment of vesical instability.

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These results support the distinction between early-onset and late-onset dysthymic disorder.

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Sixty out-patients with different nosological types of depression were assigned at random to three different treatment groups and were treated under double-blind conditions for 6 weeks. Two groups received diclofensine in capsules of either 15 or 25 mg, and a third group received capsules with imipramine 25 mg. The dosage schedule provided an initial dose of 2 capsules/day which was to be gradually increased up to a maximum dose of 9 capsules/day. The daily mean dosages actually given over the entire trial period were 64.0 mg diclofensine for group I, 97.6 mg diclofensine for group II, and 102.9 mg imipramine for group III. All treatment groups showed a good improvement of the patients' clinical states within the 6-week period, but the imipramine-treated patients improved more slowly than the diclofensine-treated patients. This was demonstrated by the mean total scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Evaluation of different factors of the HDRS yielded differences between the two drugs in favour of diclofensine for the factor 'inhibition' from the end of week 1 until the end of week 3 and for the factor 'somatic complaints' during week 3. Side effects were - dose dependently - less frequent, less severe, and lasted shorter in the diclofensine-treated patients than in the imipramine-treated ones. The most frequently reported side effects in the diclofensine-treated patients were dry mouth, insomnia, dizziness, and agitation. In the imipramine group side effects were mainly dry mouth, tremor, dizziness, and sleepiness. In conclusion, this study shows an impressively faster onset of efficacy of diclofensine over imipramine, a finding which should be replicated by further studies.

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The Bmax of [3H]imipramine (IMI) binding has been reported to be reduced in platelets of depressed untreated patients as compared with normal controls. However, it has also been suggested that this difference could be related to the failure to take into account seasonal variations in the binding parameters for [3H]IMI recognition sites in platelets. For this reason, [3H]IMI binding was studied throughout 1 year in platelet membranes from 11 control volunteers, with blood samples collected once a month. The Bmax and Kd values of [3H]IMI binding showed no significant variation throughout the 12-month period of the study. These results indicate that in the control population, the platelet [3H]IMI binding parameters remain stable, and that the decrease in Bmax observed in depressed untreated patients reflects a genuine difference, which may be considered to be a biological marker in depression.

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Twenty-nine cases of self-poisoning with antidepressants (amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, maprotiline, doxepine, nortriptyline, opipramol) were examined by frequent observation of CNS effects, heart rate, blood pressure and standard ECG, 24h-ECG-monitoring, measurement of systolic time intervals, EEG recordings and frequent measurement of serum levels of antidepressants and primary metabolites. None of the patients died. Maximum total serum antidepressant level (parent compound + desmethyl metabolite) ranged from 20 to 2200 micrograms/l, with concentrations above 500 micrograms/l in 11 cases. The serum amitriptyline concentration remained high for 3-4 days in some of the severely intoxicated patients and the decay curves were compatible with partly saturated elimination. A degree of unconsciousness and the occurrence of excitation and hallucinations were generally seen in cases with total serum antidepressant levels above 500 micrograms/l. Grand mal seizures occurred more frequently at high antidepressant levels, but could not be predicted from the EEG recordings. Increased heart rate and prolonged QRS- and QTc-intervals were significantly correlated with the total serum antidepressant level. 24 h-ECG-monitoring revealed no serious arrhythmias or instances of heart block. Hypotension was only seen initially in few patients. Systolic time interval measurements showed changes suggesting impaired myocardial performance (elevated PEP/LVET ratio) at intermediate (60-500 micrograms/l) but not high (greater than 500 micrograms/l) total serum antidepressant levels. Measurement of serum concentration in antidepressant intoxication is important for identification of patients with high serum levels and the corresponding risk of developing toxic reactions, and to exclude patients with a low concentration who do not require intensive observation.

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In the presence of 10(-6) M atropine, 5-HT induced a positive chronotropic and inotropic effect in isolated guinea-pig atrium preparation. Both propranolol, a beta-adrenoceptor blocker, and imipramine, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor, did not affect the response induced by 5-HT, indicating that a tyramine-like mechanism is not involved. The positive chronotropic effect of 5-HT was mimicked by several 5-HT3 receptor agonists. N omega-Methyl-5-HT, reported to have a high affinity for 5-HT1B recognition sites, was found to act as a 5-HT3 receptor agonist with higher efficacy. The other 5-HT receptor agonists tested did not produced any responses. The positive chronotropic effect of 5-HT was inhibited by various 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, such as tropisetron, granisetron, ondansetron, cisapride and zacopride, but it was unaffected by various 5-HT receptor antagonists which are not selective for 5-HT3 receptor. Thus, the positive chronotropic response to 5-HT is a direct effect, and it was suggested to be mediated by 5-HT3 receptor subtype with rather an atypical profile.

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Anxiety and depression are among the most common conditions cited by those seeking treatment with complementary and alternative therapies, such as exercise, meditation, tai chi, qigong, and yoga. The use of these therapies is increasing. Several studies of exercise and yoga have demonstrated therapeutic effectiveness superior to no-activity controls and comparable with established depression and anxiety treatments (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy, sertraline, imipramine). High-energy exercise (i.e., weekly expenditure of at least 17.5 kcal per kg) and frequent aerobic exercise (i.e., at least three to five times per week) reduce symptoms of depression more than less frequent or lower-energy exercise. Mindful meditation and exercise have positive effects as adjunctive treatments for depressive disorders, although some studies show multiple methodological weaknesses. For anxiety disorders, exercise and yoga have also shown positive effects, but there are far less data on the effects of exercise on anxiety than for exercise on depression. Tai chi, qigong, and meditation have not shown effectiveness as alternative treatments for depression and anxiety.

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Lithium is the established standard in the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder, but several new drugs have been assessed for this indication. We did a network meta-analysis to investigate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of available pharmacological treatment strategies for bipolar disorder.

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The preliminary results of wall-incorporated antireflux valve are encouraging. It is technically simple and easy. It is not time consuming and requires a shorter ileal segment than that required for the intussuscepted valve. Staples are not used. The vascular pedicle is not manipulated. The wall-incorporated valve is suitable for the normal, dilated, or short ureter. Despite limited clinical experience, the valve may provide a reliable technique for reflux prevention in bladder substitutes.

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Bacopa monniera Wettst. (syn. Herpestis monniera L.; Scrophulariaceae) is a commonly used Ayurvedic drug for mental disorders. The standardized extract was reported earlier to have significant anti-oxidant effect, anxiolytic activity and improve memory retention in Alzheimer's disease. Presently, the standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera (bacoside A - 38.0+/-0.9) was investigated for potential antidepressant activity in rodent models of depression. The effect was compared with the standard antidepressant drug imipramine (15 mg/kg, ip). The extract when given in the dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg, orally once daily for 5 days was found to have significant antidepressant activity in forced swim and learned helplessness models of depression and was comparable to that of imipramine.

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In the learned helplessness model, rats that received bilateral microinjection of HSV-CREB into the dentate gyrus showed significantly fewer escape failures in the subsequent conditioned avoidance test than those injected with control vector (HSV-LacZ). In contrast, microinjection of HSV-CREB in either the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex did not produce an antidepressant response. In the forced swim test, CREB expression in the dentate gyrus resulted in a significantly shorter immobility time than those injected with HSV-LacZ.

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Alprazolam is the first of the triazolobenzodiazepines to be studied in a large population of depressed patients. In a six-week, double-blind multicenter comparison of alprazolam, imipramine hydrochloride, and placebo in the treatment of 723 patients with depression, the two active drugs were statistically more effective than placebo. Alprazolam was at least as effective as imipramine in relieving depressive symptoms, significantly more effective in relieving somatic symptoms, and showed an earlier onset of activity in some measurements. Anticholinergic side effects were reported most often by patients receiving imipramine, while drowsiness was the only side effect reported most often in the alprazolam group. The Feighner Diagnostic Criteria and prestudy and poststudy intercenter conferences with videotaped patient interviews ensured interrater reliability.

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The activity of some metabolizing enzymes was assessed in the liver microsomes of Acomys cahirinus, mice and rats. The enzymatic studies were followed by the determination of cerebral level of apomorphine (APO), imipramine (IMI) and its metabolite desipramine (DMI) of animals treated with a single dose of APO or IMI. It was found that the level of cytochrome P-450 and the activity of IMI demethylase and glucuronyltransferase in the liver microsomes of rats was significantly higher than those in the liver microsomes of Acomys and mice. The brain levels of APO, IMI and DMI were different in investigated species and IMI and DMI levels in the brain of Acomys, mice and rats corresponded to the activity of IMI demethylase in the liver microsomes of these species.

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Relationship between the chronic and excessive exposure to glucocorticoids and the development of psychiatric disorders, including depression, has been described in the literature. We decided to investigate whether a combination of agents with antidepressant activity (i.e., imipramine, ketamine, and Zn(2+)) may influence/reverse the depressogenic effect of dexamethasone therapy. The antidepressant-like effect was assessed by the forced swim test in adult mice. The inhibitory activity of dexamethasone was dose-dependent: only the highest tested dose of the glucocorticoid (i.e., 64 μg/kg) given as a single injection increased immobility time, whereas 16 μg/kg/day of dexamethasone administered repeatedly (for 14 days) induced a significant alteration in animal behavior. Both the acute or sub-chronic administration of the active doses of imipramine (10 mg/kg), Zn(2+) (30 mg/kg), and ketamine (30 mg/kg), and the combinations of their per se inactive doses reversed the inhibitory activity of dexamethasone (16 μg/kg/day) administered for 14 consecutive days. Whereas a single injection of an inhibitory dose of dexamethasone (64 μg/kg) was not able to abolish the antidepressant effect of imipramine (5 mg/kg), Zn(2+) (10 mg/kg), and imipramine-Zn(2+) combination (2.5 and 5 mg/kg, respectively) given once a day for 14 consecutive days. Our findings indicate that the chronic dexamethasone injection procedure has some potential as an animal model of depression and they further support the theory of interplay between glutamatergic neurotransmission and the chronic or excessive exposition to glucocorticoids.

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ERPs are described as a new dependent variable class allowing a dynamic exploration of cognitive activities. Attentional processes play a fundamental role in those activities. An original conception of attention is outlined. In this view, attention is considered as responsible of managing of different cognitive processes. The interest of attentional impairment assessment with ERPs particularly in psychiatric disorders such as depression is underlined. This is illustrated by Buchsbaum M.S. et al. (1988) study. These authors recorded EPs, during a continuous performance test, in 3 groups of depressive patients under amoxapine, imipramine or placebo. Results showed in the amoxapine group and enhanced N120 amplitude in midline and right parietal cortex. In normal subjects, an amplitude increase in those areas usually reflects a selective attention effect. Behavioral performance was improved in the amoxapine group compared to that of patients who received imipramine or placebo. This improvement as soon as 48 h after drug administration could be related to the higher amoxapine affinity for serotonin S2 receptors.

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Initial lithium-TCA treatment reduced depressive symptoms significantly more than TCA alone. The difference was evident from 1(st) week onward and persisted at 4 weeks.

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The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different terpenes on IMH permeation in EtOH:W (2:1) system. Permeation studies of IMH were carried out with unjacketed Franz diffusion cells through rat skin. The flux of IMH with terpenes was found to be significantly higher than that in control (EtOH:W, 2:1) (P<0.05). Amongst all studied terpenes, menthol, terpineol, cineole and menthone were found to be effective permeation enhancers for IMH. It was found that the contribution of diffusivity in enhanced permeation of IMH was much higher in comparison to partitioning of IMH in skin with terpene treatment. Results of this study were explained with the help of H-bond breaking potential and self-association of terpenes. In order to elucidate the effect of terpenes on stratum corneum barrier FT-IR was used.

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SSRI and the SNRI reboxetine inhibit RWA at doses not suppressing LOC. RWA may represent a simple behavioral readout of positively motivated behavior that merits further attention for psychopharmacology.

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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment in a variety of psychiatric syndromes (especially mood disorders). However one of its adverse effects is neurocognitive dysfunction. Declarative memory impairment after ECT is unquestionable and well investigated. There are only few ambiguous studies focused on nondeclarative and immediate memory changes during ECT.

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The present study was designed to investigate the central nervous system activity of terpene GABA (and piracetam) derivatives designated as BF-1, BF-2, BF-3, BF-4, BF-5, BF-6. We assessed their anticonvulsant activity in the two main mouse models of seizures (MES-test, PTZ-test), an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test (FST), as well as an influence on spontaneous locomotor activity. Our study demonstrated the strong anticonvulsant activity of (1S,3R,7R)-(-)-3,8,8-trimethyl-4-aza-bicyclo[5.1.0]acetate-5-one hydrochloride (compound BF-2) in the PTZ-test. Activity of BF-2 was equipotent to ethosuximide (380 mg/kg, po) in the PTZ-test, when used at a dose of 100 mg/kg, po. No neurotoxic effects were demonstrated by administration of all tested compounds. Moreover, BF-2, BF-3, BF-6 compounds significantly reduced the immobility time in FST at both doses (by 21-50%), while BF-5 induced a significant anti-immobility effect only when used at a dose of 100 mg/kg (by 39%). The compound BF-6 used at the dose of 30 mg/kg was the most active (50% reduction), and the effect was similar to the result obtained with classical antidepressant--imipramine. The motor stimulatory activity was demonstrated by BF-1 compound at the dose of 100 mg/kg with no effect at a lower (30 mg/kg) dose. On the other hand, the BF-3 at 30 mg/kg significantly decreased spontaneous activity during 30 min observation period, while no alteration in this activity during 6-min observation was detected. At present, it is not possible to indicate which mechanisms of novel, active terpene GABA derivatives are involved in the demonstrated antidepressant-like activity. Although further studies are needed to solve this issue, these data suggest a potential value of the examined terpene GABA derivatives.

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The release of 3H-(-)-noradrenaline (NA) from rat vas deferens in vitro was examined under various experimental conditions. It was found that in normal and reserpinized vas deferens the release of NA evoked by (+)-amphetamine (5 X 10(-6) M) or low external Na+ (26 mM) was antagonized by imipramine methiodide and desipramine, inhibitors of the NA uptake, but was not dependent on the presence of Ca2+ in the medium and was not antagonized by the potent local anaesthetic agent bethoxycaine. The release evoked by veratridine in reserpinized tissue was antagonized by the uptake inhibitors but was in normal tissue only partially inhibited in presence of Ca2+ but almost completely in absence of Ca2+. The release by high K+ (117 mM)+low Na+ (26 mM) in normal tissue was dependent on the presence of Ca2+ and was antagonized by the muscarinic agonists carbacholine and metacholine and by high concentrations of desipramine. In the reserpinized vasa the corresponding release was not dependent on Ca2+ and was not antagonized by the muscarinic agents but was inhibited by high concentrations of desipramine.

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To characterise the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes mediating contraction of the inferior alveolar artery. Additionally, to determine the role of cyclooxygenase products, nitric oxide, endothelium, monoamine oxidase and 5-HT uptake in modulating contraction of inferior alveolar arteries to 5-HT.

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Compared to current practice, CBT by a psychologist on a public salary is the most cost-effective intervention for both generalized anxiety disorder (A$6900/DALY saved; 95% UI A$4000 to A$12 000) and panic disorder (A$6800/DALY saved; 95% UI A$2900 to A$15 000). Cognitive behavioural therapy results in a greater total health benefit than the drug interventions for both anxiety disorders, although equity and feasibility concerns for CBT interventions are also greater.

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This report describes a middle-aged female who received imipramine for 7 days, developed severe cholestatic jaundice with features similar to primary biliary cirrhosis, and then improved clinically over the next 12 mo. Biochemical and histologic abnormalities persisted over a 14-yr period of follow-up, though subsequent administration of haloperidol may have influenced the long-term course. High levels of circulating immune complexes were also found 14 yr later, which raises questions about the relationship of primary biliary cirrhosis to drug-induced liver injury. A review of the literature on imipramine- and phenothiazine-related hepatic injuries reveals multiple similarities, and this case provides further evidence for a common hepatic reaction to the two drugs.

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75 outpatients who presented to an affective disorder clinic received the dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Following 1 week observation, and following 1 week on low-dose imipramine HCl, all patients who remained depressed (Hamilton score 16 or greater) were given a full clinical trial of imipramine HCl (150-300 mg/day) over a minimum 3- to 5-week period. Of the 45 patients who required this trial and who received imipramine HCl for at least 3 weeks, there was no relationship between DST suppression or nonsuppression vs. clinical response to imipramine HCl. There was a statistically significant trend for suppressors (negative DST) to respond either spontaneously or to low-dose imipramine HCl as opposed to nonsuppressors (positive DST).

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One hundred and fifty-two women undergoing mastectomy were randomly assigned to routine care or routine care plus monitoring by a specialist nurse. The nurse detected and referred 76% of her patients for psychiatric help. Only 15% of the routine care subjects that warranted help were referred. Twelve to eighteen months after surgery, morbid anxiety and depression were less common in the monitored (5% and 5%) than in the control (30% and 50%) group. This difference appeared to be due primarily to psychiatric treatment which included antidepressant medication, anxiolytic drugs, and supportive psychotherapy. Few affective disorders remitted without such treatment. In a further study, the effects of antidepressant medication plus cognitive therapy and cognitive therapy alone were compared. Both treatments alleviated depression in the short term but the improvement was sustained in the long term only in those given combined treatment.

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The intracerebroventicular (i.c.v.) administration of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) to rodents was shown to have antidepressant-like effects in imipramine-resistant depression-model mice. In order to utilize GLP-2 as a clinical treatment tool for depression, we herein focused on the intranasal delivery that is non-invasive approach, because the i.c.v. administration is invasive and impractical. In the present study, we prepared a GLP-2 derivative containing cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) and a penetration accelerating sequence (PAS) (PAS-CPPs-GLP-2) for the intranasal (i.n.) administration. PAS-CPPs-GLP-2 (i.n.) exhibited antidepressant-like effects in the forced-swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in naïve mice as well as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) treated-mice. However, PAS-CPPs-GLP-2 (i.v.) and the GLP-2 derivative containing CPPs without a PAS (CPPs-GLP-2) (i.n.) did not affect the immobility time in the mouse FST. Moreover, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled PAS-CPPs-GLP-2 (i.n.), but not FITC-labeled CPPs-GLP-2 (i.n.) was distributed through the mouse brain after the FST session. These results suggest that PAS-CPPs-GLP-2 is effective for i.n. delivery to the brain, and may be useful in the clinical treatment of major depression.

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3-Carboethyl coumarin (I) was converted to coumarin 3-acid hydrazide (II). This on reaction with appropriate aldehyde yielded 3-arylidino amino coumarin (III). Compound III on diazotisation and reaction with ferric chloride yielded the corresponding formazans viz. 3-substituted phenyl azoarylidino, amido coumarins (IVa1-a10) and oxadiazoles viz. 2-aryl-5-(3-coumarinyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (Va1-a3), respectively. Simultaneously 3-carboethyl coumarin on hydrolysis gave 3-carboxy coumarin (VI) which on reaction with aryl amine in methylene chloride yielded 3-(N-aryl)amido coumarin (VIIa1-a3). The compounds were screened for their antidepressant activity against a tricyclic buy tofranil antidepressant (imipramine). Compounds IVa4, IVa5 and IVa9 exhibited activity better than imipramine with no toxicity (ALD50 greater than 1000 mg/kg) but IVa5 showed some side effects.

tofranil tablets 10mg 2016-05-17

The identity of a peptidase activity with human serum pseudocholinesterase (PsChE) purified to apparent homogeneity was demonstrated by co-elution of both peptidase and PsChE activities from procainamide-Sepharose and concanavalin-A--Sepharose affinity chromatographic columns; comigration on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; buy tofranil co-elution on Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and coprecipitation at different dilutions of an antibody raised against purified PsChE. The purified enzyme showed a single protein band on gel electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions. SDS gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, followed by silver staining, also gave a single protein band (Mr approximately equal to 90,000). Peptidase activity using different peptides showed the release of C-terminal amino acids. Blocking the carboxy terminal by an amide or ester group did not prevent the hydrolysis of peptides. There was no evidence for release of N-terminal amino acids. Potent anionic or esterase site inhibitors of PsChE, such as eserine sulphate, neostigmine, procainamide, ethopropazine, imipramine, diisopropylfluorophosphate, tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide and phenyl boronic acid, did not inhibit the peptidase activity. An anionic site inhibitor (neostigmine or eserine) in combination with an esterase site inhibitor (diisopropylfluorophosphate) also did not inhibit the peptidase. However, the choline esters (acetylcholine, butyrylcholine, propionylcholine, benzoylcholine and succinylcholine) markedly inhibited the peptidase activity in parallel to PsChE. Choline alone or in combination with acetate, butyrate, propionate, benzoate or succinate did not significantly inhibit the peptidase activity. It appeared that inhibitor compounds which bind to both the anionic and esteratic sites simultaneously (like the substrate analogues choline esters) could inhibit the peptidase activity possibly through conformational changes affecting a peptidase domain.

tofranil diet pill 2017-10-04

The aim of the experiments was to determine whether chronic pretreatment with viloxazine decreased the sensitivity of mice to the sedative effects of a beta agonist clenbuterol. Mice were subjected to chronic oral treatment with viloxazine (128 mg/kg twice daily) and then given a single administration of 32 mg/kg PO followed by clenbuterol (0.125 mg/kg IP) before being tested in a standard photocell activity meter. Imipramine, administered at the same doses in the same experimental conditions, was used as a comparison compound. The results showed that chronic but not acute viloxazine buy tofranil decreased the hypoactivity induced by clenbuterol, suggesting the induction of beta receptor subsensitivity. With imipramine the results were in the same direction but less clear. The findings are discussed in terms of the eventual specificity of the viloxazine effect to subsensitivity in beta-2 receptors.

tofranil syrup 2016-02-09

The antidepressant-like effects of CEKb and KbF-ethyl-ac were measured using the forced swimming test (FST) performance of male mice in single (acute), short-term and chronic modalities buy tofranil . Treatments in all modalities were made 1h before swimming test. The KbF-ethyl-ac was analyzed by LC-DAD-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS in order to identify the active components.

tofranil generic 2016-05-24

Schizophrenic patients exhibit impairments in filtering of sensory information, as can be assessed by use of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response and P50 suppression paradigms. In the treatment of negative symptoms or depressive syndromes during the course of schizophrenia antidepressants are often combined with antipsychotic medication. However, antidepressants increase monoaminergic activity, which has been suggested to decrease sensory gating, although these presumptions are mostly based on results from animal studies. Currently, little is known about monoaminergic modulation of sensory filtering in humans, and the few reports that can be found buy tofranil in literature show discrepancies with animal studies. The current study was designed to study the effects of increased monoaminergic activity on sensory filtering and habituation of healthy volunteers. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design, 20 healthy male volunteers received either placebo or a dose of 50 mg imipramine (a dual-acting antidepressant), after which they were tested in a P50 suppression paradigm, a PPI paradigm, and an habituation of the startle reflex paradigm. Imipramine significantly decreased PPI as well as P50 suppression. No significant differences between the two treatments were observed on habituation of the acoustic startle reflex. Since sensory filtering is usually already reduced in patients with schizophrenia, the current results call for caution in the widespread use of dual-acting antidepressants in the treatment of depressed or negative symptoms in these patients.

tofranil low dose 2015-08-20

This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of mirtazapine and imipramine on not only the distressing symptoms of cancer patients such buy tofranil as pain, nausea, vomiting, appetite loss, and sleep disturbances but also depressive and anxiety symptoms.

tofranil 200 mg 2017-11-28

Arousal disorders, which belong to parasomnias in ICSD, have some disfunction in the process from sleep to awakenings. And the undesirable behaviors, such as wandering and screaming, are observed in the middle of awakening. Arousal disorders contain 1) confusional arousal, 2) sleepwalking, buy tofranil and 3) sleep terrors. Their common characteristics are the following items. 1) these symptoms frequently can be observable in infants, 2) these symptoms appear after awakenings especially from slow wave sleep, 3) the organic change has not been proven, 4) patients lose memory about the episode in the next morning, 5) natural improvement of symptoms can be expected after puberty. Confusional arousal is considered as a partial episode of sleepwalking and sleep terrors.

tofranil reviews 2017-06-17

The aim of the present study was the investigation of pretreatment effects with clonidine (0.06 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]), lithium (1 mEq, i.p.) or quinine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) on the activities of various drugs acting on noradrenergic and/or serotonergic systems in the mouse tail suspension test. Drugs used in the present study included: the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and dothiepin, the heterocyclic antidepressant trazodone, the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine, the atypical antidepressants mianserin and iprindole, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist ipsapirone, the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist ritanserin, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. Clonidine, lithium and quinine differentially enhanced the effects of several psychotropic buy tofranil /drugs administered at sub-active doses. The activity of iprindole (32 mg/kg, i.p.) was not potentiated by pretreatment with clonidine, lithium or quinine. Our results suggest that lithium exerted additive effects via postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor activation, quinine via potassium ion channel blockade of 5-HT3 receptors, while clonidine did so primarily via action at 5-HT2 receptors.

tofranil 25 mg 2016-03-11

The results showed that a strong and dose-dependent antidepressant effects in different mice models. The main findings of the MEBM significantly reduced the duration of immobility times in the forced swimming test (p < 0.001). Likewise, the extract significantly decreased the immobility time in the tail suspension test (p < 0.001). Moreover, we employed an additional measurement of locomotor activity test to check the motor stimulating activity of buy tofranil the MEBM. The extract also significantly increased the locomotion, rearing and defecation effects in comparison to the control group (p < 0.001).

tofranil pm reviews 2017-11-24

CBZ affects not only the metabolism of IMI and its metabolites, but buy tofranil also their protein binding. Therefore, despite considerable reductions in total serum levels of IMI and DMI, but when the unchanged free fraction concentration of these compounds is maintained, a dosage elevation of IMI does not seem to be necessary after CBZ addition to TCA therapy.

tofranil drug class 2015-11-13

These results indicate that successful antidepressant treatment with sertraline or imipramine can alleviate buy tofranil the severe psychosocial impairments found in chronic depression.

tofranil bedwetting reviews 2015-07-02

The automated experimental system enabled efficient and accurate analysis of the three murine behaviors during FST at once. Climbing could be more sensitive parameter buy tofranil to detect anti-depressant-like effect than immobility in this system.

tofranil 150 mg 2017-09-12

A variety of evidence indicates that [3H]desipramine can label neuronal norepinephrine uptake sites in brain membranes. Pretreatment of rat cerebral cortical membranes with 0.3 M KCl increases the ratio of high affinity to low affinity saturable [3H]desipramine binding. With this improved tissue preparation, we have confirmed our earlier observation that the high affinity [3H]desipramine binding component (KD = 2 to 4 nM) is associated with norepinephrine neuronal uptake sites. The potencies of various antidepressant drugs in reducing [3H]desipramine binding correlate with their inhibition of neuronal [3H]norepinephrine accumulation. Like the norepinephrine uptake system, high affinity [3H]desipramine binding is dependent both on sodium and chloride, with half-maximal stimulation by 10 mM chloride. Although bromide can substitute for chloride to stimulate binding, other anions, including iodide, fluoride, acetate, citrate, and phosphate, are inactive. Comparable sodium and anion regulation of [3H]imipramine binding to serotonin uptake recognition sites also is observed. The association of [3H]desipramine binding sites with neuronal norepinephrine uptake sites is supported further by the selective abolition of high affinity [ Trandate 300 Mg 3H]desipramine binding following the destruction of central norepinephrine neurons by intraperitoneal administration of DSP-4 (N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine). In vitro incubation of cerebral cortical membranes with DSP-4 also selectively abolishes the high affinity [3H]desipramine binding, an effect which cannot be reversed by repeated washing of the membranes, suggesting that DSP-4 alkylates neuronal norepinephrine uptake sites.

tofranil medication 2015-01-11

This study investigates the sex-dependence of the effects of microsomal enzyme inducers (phenobarbitone, isosafrole and ethanol) on the hepatic phase I metabolism of lignocaine and imipramine. It is shown that all of the inducers exert sex-dependent effects on the enzymes activities known to be sex related in the rat, e.g. lignocaine N-deethylase activity is decreased by phenobarbitone pretreatment in the male but increased by the same treatment in the female. The inducers tend to decrease the sex differences seen in untreated animals. Ethanol may give this effect by its action of decreasing serum testosterone levels but the mechanism of action of the other compounds is uncertain. It is possible that the sex-dependent cytochrome P-450 species are selectively sensitive to the action of the compounds in terms of induction, repression or inhibition. It is clear, however, that the Zyloprim Generic Equivalent effects of the pretreatments are related to the sex differences in phase I metabolism in the rat.

tofranil mg 2016-10-12

Currently, there are limited treatment options for major depressive disorder in children and adolescents compared to the options available for adults. Many effective treatments used Daily Cialis Pill for adult depression, such as the tricyclic antidepressants, lack efficacy when given to children and adolescents.

tofranil generic name 2017-09-18

Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) is an important herb in the traditional African and Ayurvedic medicines. The stem barks are used in the treatment of hypertension, insomnia, tumour, depression, rheumatism and as a tonic. This study was carried out to investigate antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effect of the hydroethanol stem Feldene Flash Dosage bark extract of M. indica (HeMI) in mice.

tofranil 50 mg 2017-08-15

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of polyamines, can be demonstrated in cultured, bovine, aortic endothelial cells (EC). Serum, serotonin and thrombin produce a rise in ODC activity. The serotonin-induced ODC activity is significantly blocked by imipramine (10(-5) M) or Lilly 110140 (10(-6) M). Preincubation of EC with these blockers together almost completely depresses the 5-HT-stimulated Bactrim Normal Dose ODC activity. These observations suggest a manner by which platelets may maintain EC structural and metabolic soundness.

tofranil y alcohol 2016-09-21

The cross talk between dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in the brain has multiple neurophysiological and behavioral implications. Primary neuronal cultures of embryonic wild type (+/+) and serotonin transporter knockout (-/-) mice were used as a model to 75 Mg Diflucan elucidate the possibility of plasticity at the level of serotonin uptake. Serotonergic neurons were identified in midbrain-hindbrain cultures of both wild type and knockout mice, using polyclonal anti-serotonin antibodies. Adding serotonin (10 microM) to wild type midbrain-hindbrain cultures increased the intensity of serotonin immunostaining, but did not change the number of serotonergic neurons. This increased intensity of serotonin staining was blocked by the serotonin transporter inhibitors fluoxetine and imipramine, but not with the dopamine transporter inhibitor nomifensine. In serotonin transporter knockout cultures, however, serotonin increased both the intensity of serotonin immunostaining and the number of serotonin positive neurons, and nomifensine decreased the number of serotonin-labeled neurons. Uptake of [3H]serotonin to wild type midbrain-hindbrain cultures was completely blocked by 1 microM fluoxetine, whereas nomifensine had a very small effect. In contrast, [3H]serotonin uptake to serotonin transporter knockout cultures, although very weak, was better inhibited by nomifensine than fluoxetine. The results imply that midbrain-hindbrain neuronal cultures of knockout mice, that do not express serotonin transporters, acquire the capacity to take up serotonin, apparently via dopamine transporters.

tofranil 35 mg 2016-07-18

Our report indicated the S. ebulus and S. nigra. extracts were safe and showed Mestinon Dosage Form remarkable antidepressant activity in FST and TST in mice. These results introduced these plants as easily accessible source of natural antidepressant.

tofranil and alcohol 2015-10-20

Close arterial injection of McN-A-343 into the Serevent Medication Guide superior cervical ganglion of the cat resulted in contractions of the nictitating membrane. The ganglionic effects of McN-A-343 but not those of DMPP were antagonized in a dose-related manner by 2-10 mug of desipramine, imipramine, chlorimpramine, iprindole and viloxazine. No correlation was found between the dose of each drug which blocked the effects of McN-A-343 and that required to potentiate the responses of the nictitating membrane to intra-arterial administration of noradrenaline. It is concluded that clinically effective antidepressant agents can block muscarinic receptors in neural tissue, even if they do not do so in smooth muscle and gland cells.