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Trental (Pentoxifylline)
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Trental

Generic Trental is used for treating intermittent claudication (pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness in the foot, hip, thigh, or buttocks) in certain patients. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Pletal, Pentoxil

 

Also known as:  Pentoxifylline.

Description

Generic Trental is used for treating intermittent claudication (pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness in the foot, hip, thigh, or buttocks) in certain patients. It may also be used for other conditions.

Generic Trental is a xanthine derivative blood flow enhancer. It works by thinning the blood and improving red blood cell flexibility, causing the blood to flow more freely through the veins.

Trental is also known as Pentoxifylline.

Generic name of Generic Trental is Pentoxifylline.

Brand name of Generic Trental is Trental.

Dosage

Take Generic Trental by mouth with food or milk.

Swallow whole. Do not break, crush, or chew before swallowing.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Trental suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Trental and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Trental are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Trental if you are allergic to Generic Trental components, or to methylxanthines (theophylline, caffeine, theobromine).

Be very careful with Generic Trental if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant. Generic Trental is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Generic Trental.

Do not take Generic Trental if you have had recent bleeding in the brain or eye.

Tell your health care provider or dentist that you take Generic Trental before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

It may take 2 to 4 weeks to notice improvement in your condition, and up to 8 weeks for maximum relief.

Use Generic Trental with caution in the elderly. They may be more sensitive to its effects.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid machine driving.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Trental taking suddenly.

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NIH3T3 murine cells transfected with mutant p53 constructs were examined for the influence of pentoxifylline on radiotoxicity to Co(60) gamma-irradiation by colony assay. DNA repair (0-100 Gy) was measured by constant-field gel electrophoresis. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry with the annexin-V-binding assay.

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The ability of pentoxifylline and 2-deoxyadenosine to stimulate sperm motility and motion characteristics was assessed in unprocessed and processed (Percoll-separated) cryopreserved specimens. Specimens from 12 healthy volunteers were obtained, and the motion characteristics were analyzed; half the sample was immediately cryopreserved and the other was washed using the Percoll gradient technique. To study stimulation, samples were thawed and divided into four aliquots: One was used as a control, and the others were incubated with 2.5 mM 2-deoxyadenosine, 2.5 mM pentoxifylline, or 5.0 mM pentoxifylline for 60 min. Sperm characteristics were analyzed on a sperm motion analyzer at 0 and 60 min incubation. In both unprocessed and processed samples, percentage motility improved significantly after stimulation with 2-deoxyadenosine or pentoxifylline (p = .003 or p = .0002, respectively); other characteristics improved to varying extent after 2-deoxyadenosine or pentoxifylline stimulation. Comparison after stimulation revealed that sperm motion characteristics in the unprocessed specimen were similar to sperm motion characteristics in the processed group.

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The effects of pentoxifylline on intermittent claudication were evaluated at a dose of 1200 mg/day in an open-label twelve-week study on geriatric patients with chronic occlusive arterial disease (COAD). Standardized treadmill testing and clinical signs and symptoms of COAD were followed up before and during drug administration. Twenty-four subjects with a mean age of 73.5 years, capable of walking between 20 and 200 meters on the treadmill, were entered into the trial; 22 participated for eight weeks and 19 completed the study in terms of treadmill walking distance measurements at 12 weeks. The mean walking distance for all patients was increased 111% over baseline at week 12. Thirteen subjects were considered drug responders (greater than or equal to 50% increase in treadmill walking distance) and 9 were considered nonresponders (less than 50% increase). Improvements in clinical signs and symptoms of COAD were noted. Decreases in elevated systemic systolic pressures (but not diastolic) were unexpectedly observed in many drug responders. Seven of 19 males reported sexual function improvements while receiving pentoxifylline. Fourteen (58%) of the 24 subjects reported mild side effects of dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, or insomnia; no subjects were withdrawn from the study because of side effects. In summary, pentoxifylline improved function and symptoms in 13 of 22 geriatric patients with intermittent claudication; the drug was safe and well tolerated at the usual dosage in this geriatric patient population.

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In patients with an acute destructive pancreatitis the lowering of sulphhydride (SH) groups in proteinic and nonproteinic fraction of the blood plasma, the reduction of the ascorbic acid level and increase of its oxidized forms concentration was noted. After the operation the disordered indexes have restored, moreover, and after the programmed relaparotomy conduction--as after a single operative intervention. Acceleration of the disordered indexes restoration was promoted by application of pentoxifylline and low-intensity laser irradiation as well.

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This report describes the case of a young woman from Mayotte (Comoros Islands) who presented a combination of three cutaneous diseases, i.e. pityriasis versicolor, scabies, and multibacillary leprosy. Symptoms of leprosy were concealed by those of the other two diseases. After multidrug therapy for leprosy, the patient developed erythema nodosum leprosum that was successfully treated using pentoxifylline. Combination of cutaneous diseases can alter usual presentations and lead to misdiagnosis. It is important to take into account possible disease combination to establish proper diagnosis and prescribe effective treatment.

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In five of eight patients an improvement of central visual acuity was observed. It changed from perception of hand movement only to 12/20 in three patients. In two of these patients visual acuity had continued to improve after 6-9 months, to 16/20 and 20/20. In one patient visual acuity fell to 6/20 because of progression of ischemic ophthalmopathy. In our patients visual acuity could still be improved even 27 h after arterial occlusion.

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The effects of antithrombotic drugs on random and free flap survival have been investigated in the past, but the experimental and clinical results are not in agreement. A perforator-based critical ischaemia model was used to evaluate the effects of different perioperatively administered pharmaceutical agents on tissue ischaemia and to assess the potential additional haemorheological or vasodilative effects of antithrombotics on flap microcirculation. Combined laser Doppler flowmetry and remission spectroscopy revealed an increase in certain microcirculation parameters in most groups in comparison with saline controls, and these changes correlated with flap survival. Clopidogrel and hirudin significantly improved the amount of viable flap tissue in comparison with controls, while unfractioned heparin had a negative effect on flap survival. Low molecular weight heparin, aspirin, pentoxifylline, and hydroxyethyl starch had no impact on the amount of viable flap tissue. A higher complication rate was observed in all experimental groups, but only clopidogrel had a negative impact on the flap viability. Our results add to the body of evidence supporting the conclusion that perioperative antithrombotic treatment improves flap survival. Clopidogrel and hirudin are effective pharmacological agents that significantly increased the viability of perforator-based skin flaps in rats, but at a higher risk of postoperative bleeding.

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Human mononuclear cells were stimulated with LPS (1 microg/mL), in the presence and absence of Pentoxifylline (PTX; 20 mM), a nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Western blotting of phosphorylated cytoplasmic I-kBalpha, nuclear factor-kB p65 (NF-kB), and nuclear cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) was performed. DNA binding of NF-kB and CREB was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. TNF-a levels were determined in the supernatant of stimulated cells in the presence and absence Protein kinase A inhibition by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

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Caco-2 human enterocytes were grown as confluent monolayers and incubated under control conditions, or with PTX (2 mM), Cytomix (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-1), or Cytomix+PTX for 24 h. Occludin and ZO-1 protein levels were analyzed by Western blot. Confocal microscopy was used to assess the cytoplasmic localization of ZO-1 and occludin.

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Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given continuous infusion of LPS, PTX + LPS combined, or saline (sham) by implantable pumps. Neutrophil CD11b expression, lung histopathology, lung intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression assessed by immune staining, serum TNF-alpha, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) IL-8 were evaluated at different time points. Lung injury was graded in a blinded fashion from 0 (normal) to 4 (severe) for interstitial inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, congestion, and edema. Total lung injury score (TLIS) was calculated by adding listed categories. White cell count in the peripheral blood and in the BAL was also performed.

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This suggests that urodilatin and pentoxifylline might be useful to protect renal function if given before a septic renal insult. Additionally, treatment with urodilatin is capable of restoring renal function in early Gram-negative sepsis-induced ARF even if given after the septic insult.

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Twelve patients, 9 males and 3 females between 22 to 65 years in age having air-borne contact dermatitis (ABCD) for 6 months to 12 years were included in this study. The diagnosis in each patient was confirmed by patch tests. Six of these patients (group I) were treated with pentoxifylline 400 mg three times a day orally in addition to topical clobetasol propionate and oral betamethasone 1.0 to 2.0 mg per day for 5 to 10 weeks. The other 6 patients (group II) were given the same treatment for the same duration but without pentoxifylline. The response to the treatment in both the groups was almost the same. The patients treated with pentoxifylline did not have any added benefit. There were no significant side effects of the therapy in either of the groups.

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Pentoxifylline could reduce the aminotransferase activities and improve the histological parameters in NAFLD patients. Large well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm these results.

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Monocytes and macrophages produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) in response to microbial products including endotoxin. TNF alpha is a potent primer of neutrophil (PMN) oxidative activity. Certain xanthine phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors such as pentoxifylline have been shown to inhibit stimulated oxidative activity in PMN. In the present study, the non-xanthine PDE type IV inhibitor rolipram (4-[3'-cyclopentyloxy-4'-methoxyphenyl]-2-pyrrolidone) alone and in combination with adenosine is examined as a potential modulator of TNF alpha-primed PMN oxidative activity. Attainable in vivo concentrations of rolipram and physiological concentrations of adenosine alone and together synergistically decreased rhTNF alpha-primed suspended PMN oxidative activity stimulated by the chemoattractant f-met-leu-phe. The rolipram effect was reversible by washing, and rolipram had a comparable effect if added before or after priming, indicating that its effect was on the primed response rather than on priming per se. In addition, rolipram especially when combined with adenosine, decreased rhTNF alpha-stimulated PMN adherence to a fibrinogen-coated surface, and the oxidative burst of rhTNF alpha-stimulated adherent PMN. The specific adenosine A2a receptor agonists CGS 21680 and WRC-0474 had comparable activity to adenosine in these experiments. Adenosine (or CGS 21680) combined with rolipram synergistically increased f-met-leu-phe-stimulated PMN cAMP content. The effects of both adenosine and rolipram with adenosine could be only partly counteracted by treatment of the PMN with the protein kinase A inhibitor KT 5720, indicating that protein phosphorylation is only partially involved. Rolipram activity was about 1000 x (by molar concentration) greater than pentoxifylline in comparable assays. Thus, rolipram, especially when combined with adenosine, has potent modulating effects on PMN activation and may be useful in decreasing inflammatory tissue damage in patients with sepsis.

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We examined hyperactivation and acrosomal loss in asthenozoospermic patients with a history of failed in-vitro fertilization (IVF). After selection by a Percoll gradient, spermatozoa were incubated with 3.6 mM pentoxifylline (PTX), 3.0 mM 2-deoxyadenosine (2-DXA) or both. Hyperactivation and ionophore A-23187-induced acrosome reaction were assessed immediately after sperm treatment and again after 180 min. In all groups studied, the mean hyperactivation rates were found to be low. No significant differences were noted between assessments immediately after treatment and 180 min later, except after treatment with both PTX and 2-DXA. The mean hyperactivation rates were found not to improve as a result of either PTX or 2-DXA, while the combination of both PTX and 2-DXA revealed a significant enhancement of total hyperactivation. When individual hyperactivation rates between control and treated sperm samples were compared, large differences in response were observed. Some sperm samples showed a marked increase in hyperactivation with one treatment, while another treatment led to a decrease. Acrosome reaction rates assessed immediately after ionophore A-23187 stimulation were found not to be significantly different from those assessed 180 min later. No significant effect could be demonstrated for either treatment, although, here too, marked interindividual variations were noted. It was concluded that an unselective use of PTX, 2-DXA or both compounds together, may restore sperm function in certain of these patients, and perhaps improve fertilization in vitro, but in others it may produce no change or may even be detrimental to sperm function.

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To determine whether pentoxifylline treatment altered hematologic, rheologic, electrolyte, or blood gas test results of Thoroughbreds during submaximal treadmill exercise.

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Seventeen boys with DMD, between 4 and 8 years of age, were enrolled at one of five Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG) centers. Only 9 were able to complete the 12-month PTX treatment phase; the primary reason for discontinuation was adverse events. Intolerable gastrointestinal side effects were experienced by 65% of participants. Two participants had severe leukopenia that resolved with medication withdrawal.

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The question whether progressive sensorineural hearing loss during childhood is the fateful course of a main illness has been discussed controversially over 60 years. No medicamentous therapy with satisfactory results has been described in the literature. The goal of this study was to determine whether an infusion therapy, developed for the treatment of sudden hearing loss in the elderly, can induce recovery after progression in sensorineural hearing loss during childhood.

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Pentoxifylline appeared to reduce the contraceptive effectiveness of the IUDs in this model.

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Data from the preliminary semen analyses and AR to ionophore challenge scores were correlated with the fertilization rates achieved using control and treated sperm preparations. The rates of total fertilization failure and the numbers of clinical pregnancies occurring in each subgroup were also recorded.

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Initially, 21 patients with various surgical, traumatic, or burn wounds and scars were enrolled into this case series. Patients applied a compounded topical anhydrous silicone base containing pracaxi oil with or without additional active ingredients, including pentoxifylline, caffeine, tranilast, and mupirocin. Wound/scar photographs taken before and after application of the compounded pracaxi oil topical formulation (with/without additional ingredients) were reviewed and adjudicated by a blinded dermatology reviewer. Improvements in wound size, coloration, and overall appearance before and after treatment were determined. Patient satisfaction was assessed after application of compounded topical formulation using a self-report questionnaire distributed at the time of dispensing.

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Individuals who suffer from severe joint destruction caused by the various arthritidies often undergo total joint arthroplasty. A major limitation of this treatment is the development of aseptic loosening of the prosthesis in as many as 20% of patients. The current paradigm to explain aseptic loosening proposes that wear debris generated from the prosthesis initiates a macrophage-mediated inflammatory response by resident macrophages, leading to osteoclast activation and bone resorption at the implant interface. No therapeutic interventions have been proved to prevent or inhibit aseptic loosening. The development of therapeutic strategies is limited due to the absence of a quantitative surrogate in which drugs can be screened rapidly in large numbers of animals. We have previously described a model in which titanium particles implanted on mouse calvaria induce an inflammatory response with osteolysis similar to that observed in clinical aseptic loosening. Here, we present new methods by which the osteolysis in this model can be quantified. We determined that 6-8-week-old mice in normal health have a sagittal suture area of 50 (+/-6) microm2, which contains approximately five osteoclasts. As a result of the titanium-induced inflammation and osteolysis, the sagittal suture area increases to 197 (+/-27) microm2, with approximately 30 osteoclasts, after 10 days of treatment. The sagittal suture area and the number of osteoclasts in the calvaria of sham-treated mice remained unchanged during the 10 days. We also determined the effects of pentoxifylline, a drug that blocks the responses of tumor necrosis factor-alpha to wear debris, and the osteoclast inhibitor alendronate. We found that both drugs effectively block wear debris-induced osteolysis but not osteoclastogenesis. In conclusion, we found the measurements made with this model to be reproducible and to permit quantitative analysis of agents that are to be screened for their potential to prevent aseptic loosening.

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Sprague-Dawley rats were bled to a mean arterial pressure of 35 mm Hg for 1 hour. Animals were divided into 3 groups: sham (no shock, no resuscitation, n = 7), RL (32 mL/kg, n = 7), and HSPTX (7.5% NaCl 4 mL/kg + PTX 25 mg/kg; n = 7). Shed blood was infused after fluid resuscitation. Blood pressure was monitored until the end of resuscitation. Animals were sacrificed at 24 hour after resuscitation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was obtained for white cell count (total and differential) and TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels were measured by ELISA. Lung and intestinal injury at 24 hour were evaluated by histopathology. Organ damage was graded by a pathologist and a score was created (0 = no injury; 3 = severe). Lung neutrophil infiltration was evaluated by MPO immune staining.

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Autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats is a classical experimental model of demyelinating inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. EAE is widely accepted for study of immune-inflammatory mechanisms in the CNS related to multiple sclerosis (MS) due to similar clinical evolution.

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In advanced or refractory cases of ORN surgical treatment, including microvascular reconstructive techniques for bone and soft tissue, remains the only option available.

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Motility variables and binding capacity.

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Neither ActoHorm nor pentoxifylline prevented the development of radiation-induced rectal ulcers. The stimulation of mucosal epithelium with ActoHorm might, however, be effective in healing of superficial erosions of the intestinal mucosa.

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Twenty-three consecutive patients who received inhaled NO (10 ppm) and PTX (NO-PTX group) at the time of reperfusion were compared retrospectively with (1) 23 consecutive patients transplanted just before the use of NO-PTX (control group 23); (2) 95 patients representing all the patients of the series who did not receive NO-PTX (control group 95), with respect to I/R injury related complications. In particular, the incidence of pulmonary reimplantation edema and early hemodynamic failure, the PaO2/FIO2 ratio as well as the duration of mechanical ventilation and the 2-month mortality rates were compared.

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Most animal models of sepsis induced high mortality or early recovery and do not mimic the long-lasting catabolic state observed in patients. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of sepsis which reproduces these disorders, especially the long-lasting muscle wasting. This report summarizes our observations in a series of seven experiments using this model with rats to study the route of live Escherichia coli administration, dose of bacteria, reproducibility of the model, bacterial count in tissues, comparison of injection of live or dead bacteria, metabolic perturbations linked to infection, and potential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in muscle wasting. After intravenous infection, animals were anorexic and the catabolic state was long-lasting: body weight loss for 2 to 3 days followed by a chronic wasting state for several days. Liver, spleen, lung protein content, and plasma concentration of alpha2-macroglobulin were increased 2 and 6 days after infection. At 6 days, muscle protein content was substantially (-40%) reduced. The plasma TNF-alpha level measured 1.5 h after infection correlated with body weight loss observed 9 days later. The inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion by administration of pentoxifylline 1 h before infection reduced muscle wasting and activation of proteolysis at day 2 and abolished them at day 6. This septic model mimics in rats the prolonged protein metabolism alterations and muscle atrophy characteristics of infected patients and thus is useful for studying the impact of nutritional support on outcome.

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trental 250 mg 2017-11-28

Five cases of chilblain lupus erythematosus were retrospectively reviewed regarding their clinical, histopathologic, serologic, and immunofluorescence findings. Ages at onset of chilblain lupus erythematosus varied from 26 to 73 years, with a female-to-male ratio of 3:2. Since other entities can be confused with this disorder, we propose the following diagnostic criteria. The two major criteria are skin lesions in acral locations induced by exposure to cold or a drop in temperature, and evidence of lupus erythematosus in the skin buy trental lesions by results of histopathologic examination or direct immunofluorescence study. The three minor criteria are coexistence of systemic lupus erythematosus or other skin lesions of discoid lupus erythematosus, response to anti-lupus erythematosus therapy, and negative results of cryoglobulin and cold agglutinin studies. We conclude that chilblain lupus erythematosus can be diagnosed and treated. Discoid lupus erythematosus lesions respond more quickly to treatment than chilblain lupus erythematosus lesions. Treatment with antimalarial agents, prednisone, pentoxifylline, or dapsone was of benefit to our patients.

trental drug class 2016-07-16

We have developed a model for head trauma in infant rats in an attempt to study mechanisms of neurodegeneration in the developing brain and were able to morphologically characterize two distinct types of brain damage. The first type or primary damage evolved within 4 hrs after trauma and occurred by an excitotoxic mechanism. The second type or secondary damage evolved within 6-24 hrs and occurred by an apoptotic mechanism. Primary damage remained localized to the parietal cortex at the site of impact. Secondary damage affected distant sites such as the cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, subiculum, frontal cortex, thalamus, hippocampal dentate gyrus and striatum. Histological evidence of delayed cell death was preceded by decrease of bcl-2- in conjunction with increase of c-jun-mRNA-levels, already evident at 1 hr after trauma. Increase of CPP32-like activity and elevated concentrations of oligonucleosomes in affected brain regions represented additional findings to indicate that this secondary disseminated degenerative reaction is apoptotic in nature. At the age of 7 days, secondary apoptotic damage was more severe than primary excitotoxic damage, but its severity declined with increasing age. In 7-days-old rats, NMDA antagonists protected against primary excitotoxic damage but increased severity buy trental of secondary apoptotic damage whereas the free radical scavenger SPBN, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor pentoxifylline and the antioxidant N-acetylcystein mitigated apoptotic damage. These findings demonstrate that in the developing rat brain apoptosis and not excitotoxicity determines neuropathologic outcome following head trauma. Whereas radical scavengers and TNF-inhibitors may prove useful in treatment of pediatric head trauma, great caution should be applied in regards to the use of NMDA antagonists because of the inherent risk of apoptosis promotion.

trental medication 2016-05-01

Functional and haemodynamic changes occurring after revascularization of an autotransplanted small intestine segment were studied in acute experiments performed in 10 dogs under pentobarbital anaesthesia. Intestinal motility and mesenteric blood flow of the segment were measured with intraluminal pressurized balloon and electromagnetic flowmeter, respectively. The time-course of observations was divided, according to the findings, into three main periods (phases 1 to 3). In the initial phase (1) the bowel exhibited very slight spontaneous motility which was found to increase moderately but significantly after denervation and isolation of the graft still left in situ before transplantation (phase 2). After declamping of anastomoses of the retransplanted graft (which was protected by cooling to 4 degrees C after being removed from the body) a short period (approximately 2 min) of reactive hyperaemic flow increase was observed in association of vigorous bowel movements lasting for a more prolonged (approximately 15 min) period of time (phase 3a and 3b). Reactivity of the retransplanted vasculature as compared to the denervated control revealed a marked relative shift in adrenergic balance, tested by dopamine, to the vasoconstrictor range, but it showed no change in responses to buy trental general haemodynamic or haemorheologic interventions, tested by veratrine and pentoxifylline, respectively. However, the basic levels of blood supply (controlled also by thermography) and systemic blood pressure remained unaltered after transplantation. Regarding the critical role of functional changes immediately after transplantation in determining the survival of bowel grafts, these observations may contribute to a more effective monitoring of surgical interventions.

trental renal dosing 2015-12-31

Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is characterized by a progressive deterioration of renal function with various degrees ofproteinuria. Currently, there is no effective treatment despite the introduction of new buy trental generations of immunosuppressants. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that possesses antiproteinuric effect and has been proved to be effective in treating several glomerular diseases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of PTX on renal transplant patients with established CAN.

trental dosage dogs 2015-02-18

Conditions after AMI could exacerbate postangioplasty restenosis, not by buy trental increasing mobilization of BM-derived cells, but by stimulating signaling via TNF-alpha, TNFR1 and IL-6.

trental and alcohol 2016-02-12

Electromagnetic and radioisotopic studies have shown that unilateral testicular torsion causes a decrease in contralateral testicular blood flow. Pentoxifylline improves microvascular blood flow in conditions of vascular buy trental insufficiency. An experimental study was designed to evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline (Ptx) on blood flow to both testes during unilateral testicular torsion and detorsion.

trental dose dogs 2015-07-06

Neonatal PMN exhibit an increased degranulation from azurophilic and specific granules compared with cells buy trental from adults. PTX was found to be an effective inhibitor of spontaneous and meconium induced PMN degranulation and may offer new therapeutic options.

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The phthalocyanines are promising second-generation photosensitizers that are being evaluated for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant tumors. In vivo studies with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 have shown that it is highly effective at causing regression of RIF-1 tumors in C3H/HeN mice in PDT protocols. Because cutaneous photosensitivity is the major complication of photosensitizers used for PDT, experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of inhibitors of the inflammatory response (cyproheptadine, dexamethasone, pentoxifylline, and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] antibodies) on Pc 4-induced cutaneous photosensitivity and tumor regression. The C3H/HeN mice were injected with either Pc 4 or Photofrin and were exposed to 86 J/cm2 of filtered radiation emitted from a solar simulator. Animals were irradiated at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14 and 28 days postinjection. Cutaneous photosensitivity was assessed using the murine ear-swelling response. Cyproheptadine, dexamethasone, pentoxifylline and TNF-alpha antibodies were administered prior to illumination to assess their ability to block Pc 4-induced cutaneous photosensitivity and to evaluate whether such treatment adversely influenced Pc 4 PDT-induced tumor regression. Compared to Photofrin, Pc 4 produced cutaneous photosensitivity that was transient, resolving within 24 h, and that could be elicited for only 10 days after administration. In contrast, Photofrin caused photosensitivity that required 4 days to resolve and could be elicited for at least 1 month after it was administered. The Pc 4-induced cutaneous photosensitivity could be blocked by corticosteroids and an inhibitor of vasoactive amines (cyproheptadine). The TNF-alpha gene transcription was found to increase in keratinocytes following treatment with Pc 4 and light. The anti-TNF-alpha antibodies and pentoxifylline, an inhibitor of cytokine transcription, also prevented cutaneous photosensitivity, implicating TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of Pc 4-induced cutaneous photosensitivity. None of these agents had any effect on Pc 4 PDT-induced tumor regression. Cyproheptadine, dexamethasone, pentoxifylline and TNF-alpha antibodies may be valuable pharmacologic agents in the management of cutaneous buy trental photosensitivity associated with PDT without altering the efficacy of this new therapeutic modality. The findings suggest that it should be possible to devise PDT protocols that block cutaneous photosensitivity without impairing the anti-tumor response to the agents.

trental 400 dose 2016-05-03

Pentoxifylline has a significant efficacy for increasing serum levels of sexual hormones. Considering that Pentoxifylline is safe and cheap, with easy application, we suggest for the usage of this drug for improving buy trental semen parameter's quality before performing ART for the treatment of morphine addicts (Fig. 1, Ref. 31).

trental 100 mg 2016-10-25

Experimental investigations (in 26 dogs) and clinical observations (57 patients) have shown the possibility to improve peripheral circulation in cases of occlusion of the arteries of lower extremities with the syndrome of diabetic foot by means of laser osteo-trepanation of the leg and foot bones and of laser buy trental tunneling the leg muscles.

trental pentoxifylline tablets 2016-07-14

Antinecrotic activity of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3 oxipyridin succinate (mexidol) and pentoxifylline (trental) was investigated on 32 mail rats with average body-weight of 170-220 g. Under the influence of mexidol and trental, which were injected 15 min before the insection of skin graft and then once per day during 3 days, necrotized area of skin graft is reduced by 22 and 15%, the amount buy trental of lost keranocytes--by 33 and 30%. In skin graft homogenates under the influence of mexidol rises the reduced under ischemia succinate dehydrogenase activity, while under trental influence it does not change. Under the influence of mexidol and trental on third day content of ATP rises by 29,5 and 19,5 %, ADP increases and decreases by 27%, creatinphosphate--by 33 and 21% correspondingly. Trentale improves elasticity of erythrocytes. It is suggested, that positive effect of mexidol on skin graft is conditioned by its ability to activate succinate-dependent detour in oxygen phosphorilation chain of mitochondries and to raise content of ubiquinone, whereas the effect of trental relates with intensification of microcirculation, delivery of oxygen on periphery. That allows recommending combined use of preparations in ischemia of skin.

trental 800 mg 2016-11-30

Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a methylxanthine derivative which improves systemic microvascular flow and tissue oxygen delivery, presumably through actions on platelet aggregation and erythrocyte deformability. Although PTX also improves pulmonary vascular flow, recent evidence suggests that part of this improvement may be due to pulmonary vasodilation. To evaluate these effects we studied isolated rabbit lobar pulmonary artery (PA) ring segments to determine if PTX had direct effects on PA tissues and whether these effects could be modulated pharmacologically or by endothelial disruption. PTX had no effect on PA at resting tension. However, if the PA tension was actively increased by norepinephrine (5 microM), subsequent PTX application caused concentration-dependent PA relaxation. Relaxation occurred promptly and was maximal within 45-60 s. The threshold PTX concentration necessary for relaxation was 1 microM. PTX-induced relaxation was not affected by pretreatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (1 microM). Endothelial disruption by gentle rubbing of the intimal PA surface abolished relaxation of preconstricted PA by acetylcholine, but had no effect on relaxation by PTX. Although PA at resting tension displayed no response buy trental to PTX, PA constriction by norepinephrine in the presence of PTX concentrations greater than 10 microM was significantly decreased. These data indicate that PTX has direct actions on isolated rabbit PA which are not blocked by indomethacin nor require the presence of intact endothelium. Furthermore, PTX can suppress norepinephrine-induced constriction of isolated PA.

trental online buy 2017-05-19

CAIA was induced in mice by intravenous injection of a collagen antibody cocktail, followed buy trental by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. Disease severity was assessed by visual and histologic examination. Pain-like behavior and the antinociceptive effect of diclofenac, buprenorphine, gabapentin, pentoxifylline, and JNK-interacting protein 1 were examined in mechanical stimulation experiments. Spinal astrocyte and microglia reactivity were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.

trental drug action 2017-01-09

These results suggest that portal pressure can be modified by pentoxifylline in an experimental model of cirrhosis. These haemodynamic changes are associated with a lower blood buy trental viscosity and whole blood filterability. Pentoxifylline may be a new approach in the treatment of portal hypertension.

trental overdose 2015-06-19

Peripheral atherosclerosis was treated in 178 patients: 90 were given pyridinol carbamate for 2--4 months, 40 pentoxyphylline, 30 cetedil, and 18 received butalamine. in intermittent claudication pyridinol carbamate and trental proved most effective, cetedil (straten) was less effective. The favourable effect of pyridinol carbamate is associated with its action both on the state of microcirculation and on the content of lipids. A significant decrease in the level of blood triglycerides was observed during treatment with pyridinol carbamate. Pentoxyphylline reduced blood viscosity and platelet aggregation in patients with peripheral atherosclerosis but had no effect on the blood lipid content. Cetedil did not reduce blood viscosity although it decreased the aggregation of erythrocytes and inhibited the second phase of platelet aggregation. The objective criterion for the improvement of circulation in the affected extremities was increased Imdur User Reviews tolerance to load, particularly in medication with pyridinol carbamate and trental.

trental generic name 2017-12-14

Surgical trauma produces profound immunological dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies directed at restoring immune homeostasis should aim to redress the physiological proinflammatory- Cialis Generic Name anti-inflammatory cell imbalance associated with major surgery.

trental drug interactions 2015-08-06

All patients in the pentoxifylline group experienced a cure with 1 course of Sb(v), whereas 5 (41.6%) of 12 patients in the placebo group required a second course of Sb(v) (P=.037). The healing time +/- standard deviation in the pentoxifylline group was 83+/-36 days, compared with 145+/-99 days Crestor Y Alcohol in the placebo group (P=.049). No relapses were documented in either group at the 2-year follow-up visit.

trental 500 mg 2015-11-13

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule, expressed on cells of multiple lineages at the site of inflammation. Cytofluorometric analysis Zyrtec Drug Information revealed that CD16-positive peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs, neutrophils) expressed ICAM-1 on their surface, and it was upregulated by in vitro stimulation with tumor necrosis factor (TNF), GM-CSF and Staphylococcus aureus. The S. aureus-induced stimulation of ICAM-1 expression was inhibited by pentoxifylline (PTX). As TNF is a potent inducer of ICAM-1 expression, it is concluded that in these experiments the inhibition of TNF production by PTX concomitantly resulted in the inhibition of the upregulation of ICAM-1. However, the inhibition of granulocyte apoptosis by PTX might be of importance in this process. The present study provides evidence that cytokine-stimulated neutrophils are able to express the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 and this may allow ICAM-1-positive neutrophils to physically interact with LFA-1-positive inflammatory cells. The preliminary results demonstrate that the basal expression of ICAM-1 on PMNs of septic patients is higher than that in the case of normal blood donors. Further studies will elucidate the in vivo relevance of cytokine-induced neutrophil ICAM-1 expression and the potential role of its inhibition by PTX in inflammatory response disorders.

trental pill 2015-08-03

Pulmonary inflammation is an important pathological feature of tobacco smoke related lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Kinin type 1 and type 2 receptors (B(1)R, B(2)R) are known to be associated with inflammatory responses of the lungs and other organs. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation could up-regulate B(1)R and B(2)R in correlation with IL-1β and TNF-α. Rat lung slices treated with 5 μg/ml total particulate matter (TPM) of cigarette smoke for 24 h showed an enhanced expression of B(1)R and IL-1β by 5-fold and 30-fold, respectively, in comparison to vehicle treatment (dimethyl sulfoxide). However, higher concentrations of TPM failed to induce B(1)R. No significant increase of B(2)R or TNF-α gene induction was observed. IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, 2 ng/ml) significantly blocked B(1)R gene induction by TPM, while 500 μM pentoxifylline, TNF-α inhibitor, reduced it partially. Western blot analysis showed a 2-fold enhanced expression of B(1)R in rat lung slices treated with 5 μg/ml TPM for 24 h and such protein expression was totally blocked by a co-treatment with IL-1Ra but not with pentoxifylline. In addition to the lower airways, rat trachea subchronically exposed to cigarette whole smoke exhibited 11-fold B(1)R gene induction in comparison with those exposed only to air. Our results demonstrate the involvement of B(1)R in cigarette smoke-induced Biaxin Usual Dosage airway inflammation through a mechanism which is mediated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β.

trental 50 mg 2016-10-10

Goal of our study was Ventolin Inhaler Generic the comparison of the efficacy of various minimal invasive therapeutic regimens for clinically complete central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and the comparison with the literature.

trental 400 dosage 2015-07-01

Given that most deaths among patients with diabetes mellitus are due to cardiovascular disease, we sought to determine the extent to which medications proven to reduce cardiovascular mortality are Paxil Brand Name prescribed for patients with type 2 diabetes who have symptomatic atherosclerosis (i.e., coronary artery disease [CAD], cerebrovascular disease [CBVD] or peripheral arterial disease [PAD]).

trental generic 2015-01-22

Based on direct and network meta-analysis, pentoxifylline and obeticholic acid improve fibrosis, and vitamin E, TZDs, and obeticholic acid improve ballooning degeneration in patients with NASH. Future comparative trials of combination therapies targeting distinct histological features are warranted.

trental y alcohol 2016-10-14

Because of progressive sensorineural hearing loss 26 patients of the age of 2 to 19 years were treated for 10 days with infusions of prednisolone, pentoxifylline and piracetam. After this treatment improved, auditory thresholds were found in 58%. In comparison with a previous investigation (treatment with prednisolone and pentoxifylline except piacetam), no significant difference between these two methods of therapy was seen.

trental er dosage 2015-12-03

In this animal model, LMWH and pentoxifylline have significant thrombroprophylactic effects when used individually but not in combination.