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Vantin

Generic Vantin is a high-class medication which is taken in treatment and termination of serious infections such as pneumonia, gonorrhea, bronchitis, infection of skin, bladder, urinary tract, nose, throat and ear, sinus infections, tonsillitis. Generic Vantin acts as an anti-infection remedy. Generic Vantin operates by killing bacteria which spreads by infection.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Duricef, Ancef, Kefazol, Keflex, Keftabs, Velocef, Intracef, Ceporin

 

Also known as:  Cefpodoxime.

Description

Generic Vantin is created by pharmacy specialists to struggle with dangerous infections (infection of skin, bladder, urinary tract, nose, throat and ear, pneumonia, gonorrhea, bronchitis, sinus infections, tonsillitis). Target of Generic Vantin is to control, ward off and terminate bacteria.

Generic Vantin acts as an anti-infection remedy. Generic Vantin operates by killing bacteria which spreads by infection.

Vantin is also known as Cefpodoxime proxetil, Cefocep.

Generic Vantin and other antibiotics don't treat viral infections (flu, cold and other).

Generic Vantin is cephalosporins.

Generic name of Generic Vantin is Cefpodoxime.

Brand name of Generic Vantin is Vantin.

Dosage

Generic Vantin can be taken in tablets (200 mg), liquid forms. You should take it with water by mouth.

Generic Vantin treats different types of bacterial infections. Thus, for each treatment it has different dosage instructions.

It is better to take Generic Vantin 2 times a day for 7-14 days.

It is better to take Generic Vantin tablets every day at the same time with meals. Its liquid forms are taken with meals or without it.

Do not stop taking Generic Vantin suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Vantin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Vantin overdosage: abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, nausea, retching.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. After mixing the suspension store in a refrigerator between 2 and 8 degrees C (36 and 46 degrees F). Do not freeze. Throw away unused portion after fourteen days. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Vantin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not use Generic Vantin if you are allergic to Generic Vantin components.

Be careful with Generic Vantin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby. Avoid breast-feeding.

Do not use Generic Vantin in case of taking antacids as Tums, Maalox, Rolaids or other stomach acid reducers as Axid, Protonix, Zantac, Aciphex, Tagamet, Prilosec, Nexium, Pepcid, Prevacid.

Be careful with Generic Vantin in case of having allergy to cephalosporins (Ceftin, Duricef, Ceclor, Keflex).

Be careful with Generic Vantin usage in case of having kidney or liver disease, colitis, stomach problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Vantin usage in case of taking antibiotics, loop diuretic (furosemide, bumetanide as Bumex, torsemide as Demadex); probenecid as Benemid; warfarin as Coumadin; ethacrynic acid as Edecrin.

Use Generic Vantin with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Try to avoid machine driving.

Avoid alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Vantin taking suddenly.

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Tissue concentration of protein-unbound cefpodoxime was similar to that of the protein-unbound plasma concentration. Cefpodoxime remained in tissues longer than did cephalexin.

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Three groups of six healthy adult volunteers were randomly assigned to a treatment with 400 mg of oral cefpodoxime proxetil, oral cefixime, or placebo per day for 10 days. Informed consent was obtained from all volunteers. Clostridium difficile was not detected in the feces of any subject before treatment or at any time in the subjects in the placebo group. C. difficile was, however, detected in all subjects treated with cefpodoxime proxetil and in five of six treated with cefixime. Genomic DNA restriction patterns showed that the strains of C. difficile differed from one volunteer to another. Two subjects both shed different strains at different times during the 25-day surveillance period. All isolates were resistant to cefixime and cefpodoxime (MIC for 90% of strains, 256 and 512 mg/liter, respectively). Antibiotic activity was found in the feces of one volunteer treated with cefpodoxime proxetil and of four volunteers treated with cefixime. It was inversely correlated with the presence of fecal beta-lactamase activity. Intestinal side effects were limited to modifications of stool consistency, which occurred in only 3 of the 12 treated volunteers and did not lead to cessation of treatment. These modifications were significantly associated with the presence of fecal antibiotic activity (P less than 0.05) but not with the shedding of toxigenic or nontoxigenic strains of C. difficile or with the presence of toxin A in feces, which was detected only in one perfectly healthy treated volunteer.

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To report a case of renal toxicity associated with administration of indinavir sulfate in a pediatric hemophiliac with HIV infection.

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To determine whether cefpodoxime is noninferior to ciprofloxacin for treatment of acute cystitis.

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Overall clinical cure (defined as not requiring antimicrobial treatment during follow-up) at the 30-day follow-up visit. Secondary outcomes were clinical and microbiological cure at the first follow-up visit and vaginal Escherichia coli colonization at each follow-up visit. The hypothesis that cefpodoxime would be noninferior to ciprofloxacin by a 10% margin (ie, for the difference in the primary outcome for ciprofloxacin minus cefpodoxime, the upper limit of the confidence interval would be <10%) was formulated prior to data collection.

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The overall clinical cure rate at the 30-day visit with the intent-to-treat approach in which patients lost to follow-up were considered as having clinical cure was 93% (139/150) for ciprofloxacin compared with 82% (123/150) for cefpodoxime (difference of 11%; 95% CI, 3%-18%); and for the intent-to-treat approach in which patients lost to follow-up were considered as having not responded to treatment, the clinical cure rate was 83% (124/150) for ciprofloxacin compared with 71% (106/150) for cefpodoxime (difference of 12%; 95% CI, 3%-21%). The microbiological cure rate was 96% (123/128) for ciprofloxacin compared with 81% (104/129) for cefpodoxime (difference of 15%; 95% CI, 8%-23%). At first follow-up, 16% of women in the ciprofloxacin group compared with 40% of women in the cefpodoxime group had vaginal E coli colonization.

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To compare the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics property of cefdinir, cefpodoxime proxetil and cefaclor against common bacteria of community acquired infections and evaluate the recommended regimens.

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A multicenter study was conducted in which the in vitro activity of cefpodoxime (the active metabolite of the prodrug ester cefpodoxime proxetil) was compared with those of cefixime, cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, and clarithromycin against 5556 recent clinical isolates. Cefpodoxime demonstrated potent activity against members of the Enterobacteriaceae, in particular against species generally resistant to the established oral cephalosporins such as Proteus vulgaris [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)50, 0.12 microgram/ml], Providencia rettgeri (MIC50, 0.015 microgram/ml), and Serratia marcescens (MIC50, 2 micrograms/ml). Cefpodoxime was very effective against the fastidious organisms most frequently associated with respiratory infections, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90, 0.12 microgram/ml), Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90, 0.12 microgram/ml), and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90, 1 microgram/ml). In contrast to other orally administrated third-generation cephalosporins (cefixime or ceftibuten), cefpodoxime demonstrated reasonable activity against oxacillin-susceptible staphylococci, with MIC50 ranging from 1 to 2 micrograms/ml. All cephalosporins tested demonstrated poor activity against Pseudomonas spp., Xanthomonas spp., Enterococcus spp., and oxacillin-resistant staphylococci. Cefpodoxime had the widest spectrum of activity of all tested oral cephalosporins.

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Twelve patients with respiratory tract infections were treated with cefpodoxime proxetil (CS-807, CPDX-PR), a new cephem antibiotic. It was given orally at a dose of 200 mg 2 times a day for 4 approximately 15 days. Its clinical effects were evaluated as excellent in 1 case, good in 9 cases and poor in 2 cases. The efficacy rate was 83.3%. Its bacteriological effects were evaluated as eradication in 5 strains and decrement in 1 strain. The eradication rate was 83.3%. No adverse reactions and disorder of laboratory findings due to CPDX-PR were observed.

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In order to objectively evaluate the effectiveness, safety and usefulness of the new oral cephem cefpodoxime proxetil (CS-807, CPDX-PR) for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections, a double-blind comparative study was undertaken using cefaclor (CCL) as the control drug. CPDX-PR and CCL were administered for 7 days at daily doses of 400 mg (divided into 2 portions) and 750 mg (divided into 3 portions), respectively. A total of 243 patients (118 in the CPDX-PR group and 125 in the CCL group) was treated in this study. The effectiveness, safety and usefulness were evaluated in 222 (106 in the CPDX-PR group and 116 in the CCL group), 234 (113 in the CPDX-PR group and 121 in the CCL group) and in 223 patients (107 in the CPDX-PR group and 116 in the CCL group), respectively. There were no differences in patients' backgrounds between the 2 groups, except for the presence or the absence of surgical treatments. The results we obtained are summarized below: 1. In the evaluation of clinical efficacy by the subcommittee, excellent, good, fair and poor efficacy were observed in 36, 43, 17 and 10 patients in the CPDX-PR group, respectively; the efficacy rate was, therefore, calculated to be 74.5%. As for the CCL group, respective results were observed in 50, 39, 17 and 10 patients, indicating an efficacy rate of 76.7%. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups. Improvement rates judged by physicians in charge were 80.2% in the CPDX-PR group and 88.8% in the CCL group. Moreover, no significant difference in diseases or severity were found between the 2 groups. 2. As for the bacteriological efficacy, the 2 groups showed high elimination rates, as 90.1% and 91.6% of the disease causing bacteria were eliminated in the CPDX-PR group and in the CCL group, respectively. Elimination rates in single infections with Staphylococcus aureus were determined to be 85.7% in the CPDX-PR group and 85.0% in the CCL group. 3. Although 6 patients in the CPDX-PR group and 2 patients in the CCL group developed side effects, which were mainly gastrointestinal symptoms, there was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects between the 2 groups. Abnormal laboratory values were found in 5 patients in the CPDX-PR group and 1 patient in the CCL group. 4. There was no significant difference in the usefulness between the 2 groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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The plasma sample was extracted by a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile. A concentration range from 500 to 3500 ng/spot for CEFPO and 1000 to 7000 ng/spot for AMBRO were used for the calibration curve, respectively. This recovery was found to be 74.40 and 94.50 for CEFPO and AMBRO, respectively. The mobile phase used consists of chloroform: methanol (9:1v/v). Densitometric analysis was carried out at a wavelength of 240 nm.

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This report describes the results of a review that was done to compare, from the patients' and their parents' perspective, costs involved in treating acute otitis media in children with amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium or cefpodoxime proxetil. The following costs were included in the analysis: average wholesale price of the initial antibiotic prescribed, cost of initial and follow-up physician visits for additional treatment, antibiotics for treatment failures, and medications and products required to manage side effects. The amount of time that parents were required to take off work or school to deal with treatment failures or side effects in their children and the number of times that parents phoned the physician about side effects were also monitored. The acquisition costs of the initial antibiotics were slightly higher for patients who received cefpodoxime proxetil than for those who were given amoxicillin/clavulanate. However, the total costs were greater with amoxicillin/clavulanate therapy. In addition, the time that parents were required to take to deal with treatment failures or side effects in their children was greater in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group. More parents from the amoxicillin/clavulanate group also phoned their physicians about side effects. The results of this review confirm that there are many factors in addition to acquisition cost that must be considered when determining the total cost of treating a patient with a specific drug.

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Tween 80 and TPGS as surfactants and Capmul MCM as oil phase were found to produce stable nanoemulsions. Five formulations of SNEDDS had globule size of 55-60 nm and zeta potential of -4 to -11 mV. Self-emulsification time was between 221 and 370 s, while viscosity was dependent on composition of SNEDDS. Cloud point was above 70°C which indicated the retention of in vivo self-emulsifying properties. Average flux for cefpodoxime proxetil (CP) and SNEDDS was 0.104 and 0.985 µg/cm(2) min. Permeability was 19.72 and 206 for CP and SNEDDS. Liquid SNEDDS spray coated onto micropellets of microcrystalline cellulose (18-20#) were analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), self-emulsification and in vitro dissolution. A 5.36-fold increase in area under curve AUC(0-∞) was observed for CP-SNEDDS than plain drug. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was lower for SNEDDS. Liquid and SNEDDS micropellets were stable under accelerated conditions.

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U-76,252 is the prodrug of U-76,253. MICs of U-76,253 were 0.015 to 0.06 microgram/ml for greater than or equal to 90% of the strains of Streptococcus spp., Haemophilus influenzae, and Proteus mirabilis; 0.25 to 1 microgram/ml for Branhamella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Citrobacter diversus; 1 to 8 micrograms/ml for Staphylococcus spp.; and 2 to greater than 16 micrograms/ml for other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas hydrophila; for 72% of the latter group, MICs were less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml. MICs for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis were greater than 16 micrograms/ml.

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Global clinical efficacy was assessed by the physicians to be "very good" and "good" in 96.4% of the cases. With regard to tolerance, the physicians' assessment was "very good" and "good" in 96.3%. In 51 patients (1.9%), 70 adverse drug reactions involving the gastrointestinal tract, CNS and skin occurred.

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Absolute bioavailability of cefpodoxime proxetil is both limited by its low solubility in aqueous solution and its intraluminal hydrolysis. The oil-in-water submicron emulsion was proven to be effective in protecting the prodrug from the enzymatic attack in rabbit intestinal washings. The aim of the study was to perform a pharmacokinetic study in conscious rats to confirm o/w submicron superiority in comparison to other oral formulations (hydro-alcoholic solution, suspension and coarse emulsion). The pharmacokinetic study was performed in conscious rats implanted with permanent aortic catheters. A parenteral solution of cefpodoxime was injected via this catheter, and oral formulations were administered orally. The cefpodoxime plasma level was performed by a HPLC validated method. The pharmacokinetic parameters, t1/2, Cmax, tmax, AUC and absolute bioavailability (F) were determined with a non-compartmental analysis. The results show a significant increase of F for submicron emulsion (97.4%) between the other oral formulations. No significant difference of F was found between the other oral formulations, even with the coarse o/w emulsion. The o/w submicron emulsion made the enhancement of the absolute bioavailability of cefpodoxime proxetil possible. This benefit could be explained by the low droplet size of the submicron emulsion which improve the absorption process of the prodrug.

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The pharmacokinetic properties of cefpodoxime, and its prodrug, cefpodoxime proxetil, were evaluated in two separate studies, one following intravenous (i.v.) administration of cefpodoxime sodium and the second after oral (p.o.) administration of cefpodoxime proxetil to healthy dogs. After cefpodoxime administration, serial blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A single i.v. administration of cefpodoxime sodium at a dose of 10 mg cefpodoxime/kg body weight resulted in a cefpodoxime average maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 91 (+/-17.7) microg/mL, measured at 0.5 h after drug administration, an average half-life (t1/2) of 4.67 (+/-0.680) h, an average AUC(0-infinity) of 454 (+/-83.1) h.microg/mL, an average V(d(ss)) of 151 (+/-27) mL/kg, an average Cl(B) of 22.7 (+/-4.2) mL/h/kg and an average MRT(0-infinity) of 5.97 (+/-0.573) h. When dose normalized to 10 mg cefpodoxime/kg body weight, cefpodoxime proxetil administered orally resulted in Cmax of 17.8 +/- 11.4 microg/mL for the tablet formulation and 20.1 +/- 6.20 microg/mL for the suspension formulation and an average AUC(0-LOQ) of 156 (+/-76.1) h.microg/mL for the tablet formulation and 162 (+/-48.6) h.microg/mL for the suspension formulation. Relative bioavailability of the two oral formulations was 1.04 (suspension compared with tablet), whereas the absolute bioavailability of both oral formulations was estimated to be approximately 35-36% in the cross-study comparison with the i.v. pharmacokinetics. Combined with previous studies, these results suggest that a single daily oral dose of 5-10 mg cefpodoxime/kg body weight as cefpodoxime proxetil maintains plasma concentrations effective for treatment of specified skin infections in dogs.

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The efficacy of CS-834, a novel oral carbapenem, was assessed by using a murine model of pneumonia caused by penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and was compared with those of oral cephems, i.e., cefteram pivoxil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefdinir, and cefditoren pivoxil. Intranasal inoculation of 10(6) CFU of penicillin-susceptible or penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae in the exponential growth phase induced pneumonia and bacteremia in ddY mice within 48 h. For the treatment of infections caused by the penicillin-susceptible strain the antibiotics were administered orally at 0.4, 2, and 10 mg/kg of body weight twice daily for 2 days beginning at 24 h after bacterial inoculation, and for the treatment of infections caused by a penicillin-resistant strain the antibiotics were administered at 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg twice daily for 2 days beginning at 24 h after bacterial inoculation. Among the antibiotics tested, CS-834 exhibited the most potent efficacy against both types of strains. Against infections caused by penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, CS-834 at all doses significantly reduced the numbers of viable cells in both the lungs and blood. Cefpodoxime proxetil at all doses and cefteram pivoxil and cefditoren pivoxil at doses of 2 and 10 mg/kg showed comparable efficacies. Against infections caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, CS-834 at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg showed the most potent efficacy among the antibiotics tested, resulting in the maximum decrease in the numbers of viable cells in the lungs. Comparable efficacies were observed with cefteram pivoxil and cefpodoxime proxetil at doses of 50 mg/kg each. The concentration of CS-834 in the lungs and blood was higher than that of cefdinir and was lower than those of the other antibiotics tested, suggesting that the potent therapeutic efficacy of CS-834 reflects its strong activity against S. pneumoniae.

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Cefpodoxime proxetil (CP) is a prodrug with poor oral bioavailability because of its metabolism to Cefpodoxime acid (CA) in luminal contents and intestinal epithelial cells. In the present investigation, regional variability in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract vis-à-vis solubility and metabolism were investigated, and the results indicated potential for a gastro retentive (GR) dosage form. Suitability of a GR dosage from for CP and finally in vivo efficacy were investigated. Thereafter, an effervescent floating GR dosage form was developed for CP and evaluated in rats. The GR dosage form improved the oral bioavailability of CP significantly by about 75%, hence providing a proof-of-concept. The Tmax value increased to 1.43+/-0.24 h from 0.91+/-0.23 h of pure drug, while Cmax values of 4735+/-802 ng/ml and 3094+/-567 ng/ml were obtained for the GR dosage form and pure drug respectively.

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Azithromycin is an azalide antibiotic with important properties which allow it to be used as a single-dose treatment for genital Chlamydia trachomatic infections. A single 1 g dose is as effective as a standard seven-day course of doxycycline. Ofloxacin 400 mg bid for seven days is also effective against Chlamydia trachomatis. Both azithromycin 2 g and ofloxacin are also effective against uncomplicated gonorrhoea. Neisseria gonorrhoeae continues to be sensitive to third generation cephalosporins, e.g. ceftriaxone 125 mg. Oral single dose cephalosporins offer ease of administration and safety, e.g. cefixime (400 mg), cefuroxime axetil (1 g) and cefpodoxime proxetil (200 mg). The fluoroquinolones, e.g. ciprofloxacin (500 mg) and ofloxacin (400 mg), are being increasingly used as first-line medications, however, caution is recommended as the development of resistance is anticipated and already being detected in many areas. Syphilis continues to be sensitive to penicillin. This should be administered parenterally. Coexistent human immunodeficiency virus infection may make standard therapy inadequate, and closer follow-up is recommended. Therapy with non-penicillin antibiotics is still inadequately studied. Chancroid is treated with ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, or erythromycin. In some areas, resistance to tetracyclines and TMP-SMX has made these drugs ineffective as first-line treatments. Bacterial vaginosis is effectively treated with a single dose of metronidazole 1 g or 500 mg bid over seven days. Similar regimens are also effective against trichomoniasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis can be treated with topical imidazole preparations or oral antifungal medications.

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Cefpodoxime proxetil was administered to 36 children undergoing tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy or both. It was very well tolerated. The detectable tissue concentrations of cefpodoxime were moderate but remained constant (approximately 0.05 mg/kg) 3, 6, and 12 h after the last dose of the drug, while the respective plasma concentrations were declining. This suggests the possibility of twice-daily administration. However, 30% of children did not have quantifiable concentrations in the tonsil and more than half the adenoids did not have quantifiable levels. Whether a higher dosage would lead to higher and more satisfactory tissue concentrations is a matter for further investigation.

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In this study, a selective and sensitive LC/MS/MS method for the determination of trace amounts of cefmetazole (CMZ) and cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDXPR) contaminants in manufacturing environments was developed. The necessary sensitivity of this method was estimated based on the detection limit for Penicillin G required by the FDA and the total surface area and volume of the manufacturing facility. The detection limits of this method were estimated to be 10 pg/ml for CMZ and 5 pg/ml for CPDXPR from the signal to noise ratio and as a result satisfactory sensitivity was achieved. The method was linear in a concentration range from 0.20 to 3.20 ng/ml. The accuracy and precision were verified by the determination of the amount of CMZ and CPDXPR added to the sampling materials, a glass plate and a silica fiber filter. The mean recoveries of nine replicated determinations from the glass plate were 99.1% with 5.58%R.S.D. for CMZ and 97.1% with 3.80%R.S.D. for CPDXPR, and those from the silica fiber filter were 100.7% with 4.50%R.S.D. for CMZ and 95.4% with 2.85%R.S.D. for CPDXPR. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of CMZ and CPDXPR contaminants in samples collected from an actual manufacturing environment.

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Eighteen patients of either sex with pleural effusions underwent aspiration 3, 6 or 12 h after receiving a single oral dose of cefpodoxime proxetil equivalent to 200 mg cefpodoxime. The mean concentrations of cefpodoxime in pleural fluid were, respectively, 0.62, 1.84 and 0.78 mg/l for these three time intervals, the corresponding ratios between pleural fluid and plasma concentrations being 0.24, 0.67 and 1.07. The findings indicate that there is good penetration of cefpodoxime into pleural fluid. Concentrations between 3 and 12 h after dosing were equal to or above the MIC90 for most of the organisms commonly found in lower respiratory tract infections.

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Blood glucose, protein, AST and ALT activities were not significantly altered but the hemoglobin level and total and live sperm count decreased significantly in the study group compared to the control group. Residual level of cefpodoxime was highest in liver followed by kidney and other study organs. Therefore, the drug should be used in human beings judiciously and further study on human subjects is warranted.

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Learning about the behavior of a drug in biological environment enables application of better formulation strategies to improve bioavailability of the same. Cefpodoxime proxetil (CP) is a prodrug, which is orally administered cephalosporin with only 50% absolute bioavailability. Despite previous studies, reasons responsible for low bioavailability of CP remain poorly understood. The present study tries to ascertain reasons for the low oral bioavailability of CP. The in vitro, in situ and ex vivo studies showed interesting results, where metabolism of CP into cefpodoxime acid (CA) inside the intestinal epithelial cell and preferential efflux of CA into lumen was identified as primary reason for low oral bioavailability of CP. Presence of specific carriers or transportation mechanism on the apical side membrane of enterocyte, than basal side of the same was observed.

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The clinical efficacy of cefditoren pivoxil (CDTR-PI) was evaluated for 43 pediatric patients with acute otitis media or acute sinusitis. The causative organisms were identified and their susceptibilities to 6 oral beta-lactam antibiotics were measured; ampicillin (ABPC), cefaclor (CCL), cefdinir (CFDN), cefditoren pivoxil (CDTR-PI), cefteram pivoxil (CFTM-PI) and cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR). The ages of 43 patients were distributed from 4 months to 10 years and 7 months, and especially children under 4 years accounted for 72% (31 cases). In 22 cases (51%), Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae were identified as the pathogens, but in 18 cases, no causative organisms were defined. Treatment by CDTR-PI was successful in 12 cases out of 15 evaluable cases in which H. influenzae or S. pneumoniae were identified as the main causative organisms. From the susceptibility testing of them, some strains of H. influenzae were found to be ABPC-resistant and some strains of S. pneumoniae were benzylpenicillin (PCG)-resistant. To support above clinical evaluation of CDTR-PI, susceptibility testings on clinically isolated H. influenzae (81 strains) and S. pneumoniae (79 strains) were performed using above mentioned 6 oral beta-lactam antibiotics. The MIC80s against H. influenzae were; CDTR-PI 0.06 microgram/ml, CCL 2 micrograms/ml, CPDX-PR 0.125 microgram/ml, CFTM-PI 0.03 microgram/ml, CFDN 1 microgram/ml and ABPC 1 microgram/ml. Those against S. pneumoniae were; CDTR-PI 0.5 microgram/ml, CCL > 4 micrograms/ml, CPDX-PR 2 micrograms/ml, CFTM-PI 1 microgram/ml, CFDN 2 micrograms/ml and ABPC 1 microgram/ml. From those results, it was concluded that CDTR-PI or CFTM-PI may be preferable for the treatment of acute otitis media and acute sinusitis in children.

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The purpose of this work was to develop and characterize chitosan-alginate beads for the extended delivery of cefpodoxime proxetil (CFP), to understand the impact of formulation and process parameters on the critical quality attributes (CQAs) using a quality-by-design approach. For this, a study was performed with various formulation and process parameters to determine their impact on CQAs of beads, which were determined to be time for 80% of the drug released (T80%), particle size, and encapsulation efficiency. The beads of CFP were optimized using a three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design. A formulation comprising of 4.38% (w/v) alginate, 1.39% (w/v) chitosan and 6.82% (w/v) calcium chloride was found to fulfill requisites of an optimum formulation. In vitro release studies showed that the drug is released from the optimized formulation over a period of 24h in a sustained release manner, primarily by non-Fickian diffusion. The optimized formulation was characterized by DSC, FTIR, XRD and SEM analysis. Antimicrobial studies revealed that the release of the drug over 24h periods was above the minimum concentration required for inhibition of microbial growth. This research highlights the level of understanding that can be accomplished through a well designed study based on the approach of QbD.

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vantin dosing 2016-05-23

A total of 220 adults and children > 10 years old (mean 29.5 +/- 11.7 years) with pharyngitis/tonsillitis were randomized to receive either cefpodoxime proxetil 100 mg bid for 5 days (n = 113) or phenoxymethyl penicillin, 600 mg tid for 10 days (n = 107). At the end of treatment of the 166 evaluable patients, a satisfactory clinical response was obtained in 85/88 (96.6%) patients treated with cefpodoxime proxetil and in 75/78 (96.1%) treated with phenoxymethyl penicillin. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) eradication was similar in both groups: 79/82 (96.3%) patients in the cefpodoxime proxetil group and 64/68 (94.1%) patients in the phenoxymethyl penicillin group. At follow-up (20-30 days after the end of treatment) the GABHS eradication persisted in 67/72 (93.1%) patients treated with cefpodoxime proxetil and in 56/61 (91.8%) patients treated with phenoxymethyl penicillin. Significantly better compliance (p < 0.01) was noticed with the cefpodoxime proxetil regimen compared with the phenoxymethyl penicillin regimen, with only 2/110 (2%) poorly compliant patients in the cefpodoxime proxetil group vs 17/104 (16%) in the phenoxymethyl penicillin group. Thus, the shorter duration of therapy, in conjunction buy vantin with demonstrated clinical and bacteriological efficacy that is equivalent to standard therapy, makes cefpodoxime proxetil an acceptable alternative for the treatment of GABHS pharyngitis/tonsillitis.

cost of vantin 2015-12-08

Cefpodoxime proxetil is an orally administered prodrug which is absorbed and de-esterified by the intestinal mucosa to release the third generation cephalosporin, cefpodoxime. Cefpodoxime is stable towards the most commonly found plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases and the drug has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity encompassing both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, rendering it a possible option for empirical use in a wide range of community acquired infections in both adult and paediatric patients. The extended plasma half-life of cefpodoxime (1.9 to 3.7 h) permits twice daily administration. In buy vantin comparative trials, twice daily cefpodoxime proxetil (dose equivalent cefpodoxime 100 to 400 mg) was as effective as a 3- to 4-times daily regimen of phenoxymethylpenicillin in pharyngotonsillitis, as well as thrice daily amoxicillin (with or without clavulanic acid) or cefaclor against infections of the ear, the upper and lower respiratory tract, the urinary tract and those of the skin and soft tissues. The latter reflects the enhanced antistaphylococcal activity of cefpodoxime, which distinguishes it from other orally active third generation cephalosporins such as cefixime. Most notably, an oral regimen of cefpodoxime proxetil was as efficacious as parenterally administered ceftriaxone for the treatment of bronchopneumonia in hospitalised patients at risk due to the presence of underlying diseases, addictions or advancing age. A single oral dose of cefpodoxime was also as efficacious as ceftriaxone in uncomplicated anogenital gonococcal infections. Cefpodoxime proxetil is generally well tolerated, with mild to moderate gastrointestinal disturbances occurring in 4 to 15% of patients treated with therapeutic doses. Thus, a convenient twice daily oral regimen of cefpodoxime proxetil can be prescribed as an effective alternative to established beta-lactam therapies in the empirical outpatient treatment of infections of the respiratory and urinary tracts as well as those of the skin and soft tissues.

vantin renal dosing 2016-11-11

Linezolid has good activity against gram-positive buy vantin bacteria, particularly multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus (including GISA), Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis (including VRE). In controlled clinical trials, linezolid was as effective as vancomycin in eradicating infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. and has demonstrated efficacy against infections caused by VRE. As the level of resistance to vancomycin increases among S. aureus and enterococci, linezolid is poised to play an important role in the management of serious gram-positive infections.

vantin 200mg generic 2015-08-10

To compare the use of buy vantin once-a-day cefpodoxime proxetil to once-a-day cefixime in the treatment of acute suppurative otitis media.

vantin cost 2015-09-24

Children with acute infections were treated with cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR, CS-807), a new oral cephalosporin. 1. A girl of 4 years old, weighing 17 kg, and another girl of 12 years old, weighing 33 kg, were administered orally each 3 mg/kg of CPDX-PR. Blood levels of CPDX reached peaks of 1.39 and 2.26 micrograms/ml at 4 hours-post-dose, and T1/2's were 2.09 and 2.63 hours, respectively. Cumulative urinary recovery rates for 8 hours were 57.3 and 80.9%, respectively. 2. A total of 30 patients was treated with CPDX-PR. These patients included 10 with acute tonsillitis, 6 buy vantin with acute bronchitis, 5 with bronchopneumonia, 2 with scarlet fever and 2 with urinary tract infections, and one each with acute pneumonia, acute otitis media, acute otitis media plus sweat gland abscess, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome and acute lymphadenitis. The treatment was effective in 27 cases out of 29 (except one with an unknown response) with a clinical efficacy rate of 93.1%. 3. Bacteriological responses to CPDX-PR were as follows; eradication of pathogen in 7, and unknown in 2 out of 9 cases from whom pathogens had been isolated prior to the treatment. 4. As a side effect, diarrhea was observed in 1 patient, but it was possible to continue the treatment. With regard to laboratory tests, a slight elevation of GOT and slight elevations of GOT and GPT were found in 1 case each.

vantin drug class 2017-05-19

Cross-contamination is a critical issue for pharmaceutical manufacturing, especially for beta-lactam antibiotics. Thus, an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of beta-lactam antibiotics cefmetazole (CMZ) and cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDXPR) contaminants in non-beta-lactam pharmaceuticals was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was found to be sensitive at the detection limit of 0.002 ppm for both compounds. Mean recoveries of CMZ and CPDXPR from olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) tablets were 96.7 to 102.2% and 88.9 to 94.2%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the verification of CMZ and CPDXPR contamination to actually manufactured OLM tablets buy vantin .

vantin syrup 2016-10-03

Oral cephalosporins are key antimicrobials in the family physician's therapeutic armamentarium. The list of available agents within this class has been recently expanded to include cefixime, cefprozil, cefpodoxime proxetil, and loracarbef. Each of these antibiotics has differing antimicrobial coverage patterns and approved therapeutic uses. Compared with older, more established antimicrobials such as penicillin, amoxicillin, cefaclor, a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium, and erythromycin, the newer cephalosporins offer little, if any, therapeutic advantage. Clinical efficacy has been shown to be equal in virtually all studies comparing the newer cephalosporins with traditional agents for various community-acquired infections. While the four newer agents may be given less often buy vantin , they are relatively expensive. In light of the available clinical data, the newer oral cephalosporins should be reserved as second- or third-line choices.

generic vantin 100mg 2016-08-19

A multicenter study was conducted in which the in vitro activity of cefpodoxime (the active metabolite of the prodrug ester cefpodoxime proxetil) was compared with those of cefixime, cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefadroxil, and clarithromycin against 5556 recent clinical isolates. Cefpodoxime demonstrated potent activity against members of the Enterobacteriaceae, in particular against species generally resistant to the established oral cephalosporins such as Proteus vulgaris [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)50, 0.12 microgram/ml], Providencia rettgeri (MIC50, 0.015 microgram/ml), and Serratia marcescens (MIC50, 2 micrograms/ml). Cefpodoxime was very effective against the fastidious organisms most frequently buy vantin associated with respiratory infections, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90, 0.12 microgram/ml), Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90, 0.12 microgram/ml), and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90, 1 microgram/ml). In contrast to other orally administrated third-generation cephalosporins (cefixime or ceftibuten), cefpodoxime demonstrated reasonable activity against oxacillin-susceptible staphylococci, with MIC50 ranging from 1 to 2 micrograms/ml. All cephalosporins tested demonstrated poor activity against Pseudomonas spp., Xanthomonas spp., Enterococcus spp., and oxacillin-resistant staphylococci. Cefpodoxime had the widest spectrum of activity of all tested oral cephalosporins.

vantin dosing uti 2016-03-14

A stability-indicating spectrofluorometric method was investigated for the determination of three cephalosporin drugs, namely, cefpodoxime proxetil (CPD), cefixime trihydrate (CFX), and cefepime hydrochloride (CPM), via their acid and alkali degradation products. The three drugs were determined via their acid degradation at 432, 422, and 435 nm using an excitation wavelength of 310, 330, and 307 nm for CPD, CFX, and CPM determination, respectively, and via their alkali degradation at 407, 411, and 405 nm using an excitation wavelength of 310, 305, and 297 nm for CPD, CFX, and CPM determination, respectively. Linearity was achieved in the ranges of 0.35-3.50, 0.4-4.0, and 0.3-3.0 μg/mL for the acid degradation products of CPD, CFX, and CPM, respectively, and in ranges of 0.05-0.5, 0.1-1.0, and 0.08-0.80 μg/mL for the alkali degradation products of CPD, CFX, and CPM, respectively. The method was validated for various parameters according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these cephalosporin drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. The results obtained by buy vantin the proposed spectrofluorometric method were compared with good agreement to the official HPLC method.

vantin drug 2017-05-07

Cefpodoxime proxetil (RU 51807) is an enterally absorbed ester prodrug which is rapidly cleaved in vivo after oral administration, with release of the active free acid metabolite cefpodoxime. The in vitro antibacterial activity of buy vantin the sodium salt of cefpodoxime (RU 51746) against approximately 800 clinical isolates was evaluated comparatively with other orally active beta-lactams. RU 51746 was found to be active against enterobacteria normally susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, with MIC50 values ranging from 0.02 mg/l (Providencia sp) to 5 mg/l (C. freundii). RU 51746 was also active against H. influenzae, including beta-lactamase producing strains (MIC50 0.04 mg/l), oxa-S S. aureus (2,5), beta-hemolytic streptococci (0.05) and S. pneumoniae (0.002). Oxa-R staphylococci and P. aeruginosa were resistant to RU 51746 (MIC50 greater than 40 mg/l for both organisms). The antibacterial activity of RU 51746 was bactericidal in nature and independent from test conditions. The molecule was stable to all the beta-lactamases studied, with the exception of cefuroximase (type Ic). RU 51746 exhibited no strong inhibitory effects on these enzymes, except with Enterobacter P99 (type Ia). A good correlation was found between in vivo activity of RU 51807 and in vitro activity of RU 51746. Cefpodoxime proxetil was found to be more effective than cefaclor in mice with experimental septicemia caused by various streptococci, with a DP50 ratio in the 10-100 range. This advantage was again evidenced for septicemias due to various enterobacteria. In contrast, cefaclor proved more effective in experimental staphylococcus infections. In mice with experimental pneumonia, cefpodoxime proxetil caused sharp falls in K. pneumoniae lung counts. Six days after induction of the infection, 60% of animals under cefpodoxime proxetil had sterile lungs, versus 25% of animals under amoxicillin.

vantin 200 mg 2015-03-17

In a crossover study design, 25 mg of cephalexin/kg or 9.6 mg of cefpodoxime/kg was administered orally. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.33, 0.66, 1, 2, buy vantin 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 24 hours after treatment. An ultrafiltration device was used in vivo to collect ISF at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 24 hours. Plasma and ISF concentrations were analyzed with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Plasma protein binding was measured by use of a microcentrifugation technique.

vantin tabs 200mg 2015-04-28

Cefpodoxime proxetil is a new orally administered cephalosporin which has a favorable spectrum of activity against respiratory pathogens. Concentrations of cefpodoxime in serum and bronchial mucosal biopsy were measured in 13 patients without active respiratory tract infection undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Samples were taken between 1 and 6 h after a single oral dose of cefpodoxime proxetil equivalent to buy vantin 200 mg of cefpodoxime base. In twelve patients who completed the study, mean serum concentrations were 1.7 mg/L (S.E.M. 0.4) and in ten patients mean bronchial biopsy concentrations were 0.9 mg/L (S.E.M. 0.2). The mean penetration was 54% (S.E.M. 6.1). Cefpodoxime was undetectable in biopsies from two patients. The majority of serum and biopsy concentrations were in excess of the MIC90S for Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Cefpodoxime proxetil may be worthy of further study in clinical trials in patients with respiratory infections.

vantin generic 2016-02-03

Cefpodoxime proxetil was administered to 36 children undergoing tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy or both. It was very well tolerated. The detectable tissue concentrations of buy vantin cefpodoxime were moderate but remained constant (approximately 0.05 mg/kg) 3, 6, and 12 h after the last dose of the drug, while the respective plasma concentrations were declining. This suggests the possibility of twice-daily administration. However, 30% of children did not have quantifiable concentrations in the tonsil and more than half the adenoids did not have quantifiable levels. Whether a higher dosage would lead to higher and more satisfactory tissue concentrations is a matter for further investigation.

vantin renal dose 2015-01-03

We Deltasone Generic report a case of acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) and immune hemolytic anemia (IHA) associated with cefpodoxime therapy.

vantin 400 mg 2017-07-06

A multicentre open-label, randomised trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of cefpodoxime proxetil bd and cefaclor tds in the treatment of acute otitis media in children. A total of 167 children aged from 1 month to 11 years were enrolled in five centres: 78 treated with cefpodoxime and 83 treated with cefaclor, were evaluated in the ITT analysis. After tympanocentesis and culture of middle ear fluid, a pathogen was isolated from 85 (53%) of the 161 evaluable patients for the ITT analysis. The Ceftin Renal Dosing organisms isolated were as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae: (n = 33, 37.5%); Haemophilus influenzae: (n = 22, 25%); Staphylococcus aureus: (n = 15, 17.1%); Streptococcus pyogenes: (n = 8, 9.1%); Moraxella catarrhalis: (n = 2, 2.3%); others (n = 6, 6.8%). Success (defined as a satisfactory clinical outcome, either cure or improvement) was achieved at the end of treatment, in 93.6% of ther patients in the cefpodoxime group and 91.6% of the patients in the cefaclor group (P> 0.05). Clinical recurrence was identified at the follow-up visit (30 days after inclusion), in 6.4% of the cefpodoxime-treated patients and 7.2% of the cefaclor-treated patients (P> 0.05). The drugs were well tolerated by 78/79 (99%) of patients in the cefpodoxime-treated group and 80/85 (94%) in the cefaclor-treated group. The incidence of adverse effects was higher in the cefaclor group than in the cefpodoxime group, but this was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). IN conclusion, cefpodaxime proxetil administered bd is as effective as cefaclor administered tds in the treatment of acute otitis media in children. The less frequent dosing schedule of cefpodoxime (bd) compared with cefaclor (tds) appears to be more convenient for the treatment of the infections in children.

vantin dose information 2017-02-19

Cefprozil, cefpodoxime, cefixime, loracarbef, and ceftibuten demonstrate in vitro activity against the major organisms that cause community-acquired infections. Clinical trials confirm that these agents are as effective as traditional therapies for the management of acute otitis media, pharyngitis/tonsillitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin and skin-structure infections. In addition, cefixime and cefpodoxime are effective therapies for uncomplicated gonococcal infections. Selection of a specific agent will be influenced by susceptibility Cymbalta 180mg Dosage data and safety, as well as issues of compliance and cost.

vantin reviews 2017-01-18

The antibacterial activity of cefpodoxime against Branhamella catarrhalis was studied. All of the 65 clinical isolates tested were inhibited at and below 1.56 micrograms/ml, both at 10(7) and at 10(5) CFUs. The following was further studied on B. catarrhalis N-5 which showed average susceptibility to each drug examined. Bactericidal activity was observed at and above the MIC. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed morphological changes, such as cellular swelling, bleb formation, inhibition of septum formation, and lysis, Cefixime Drug Action of the cells exposed to cefpodoxime at concentrations around the MIC. Cefpodoxime was poorly hydrolyzed by the beta-lactamase and it showed affinity for two penicillin-binding proteins that had approximate molecular weights of 83 and 74 kilodaltons, with I50 values of 3.7 and 2.1 micrograms/ml, respectively.

vantin oral suspension 2015-07-02

These data illustrate that antibiotic Risperdal 5 Mg therapy did not increase the rate at which children carried penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, but there was an increase in the rate of resistance among the children carrying pneumococci at the end of the treatment, mainly as a result of reduction of susceptible strains.

vantin dose 2016-06-03

The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship, with r(2) = 0.998 ± 0.0015 with respect to peak area in the concentration range of 100-600 ng per spot. The mean value±SD of slope and intercept were 3.38 ± 1.47 and 986.9 ± 108.78 with respect to peak area. The method was validated for precision, recovery, and robustness. The limits of detection and quantification were 3.99 and 12.39 ng per spot, respectively. Cefpodoxime proxetil was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, and thermal degradation. The drug undergoes Prilosec 150 Mg degradation under acidic and basic conditions, indicating that the drug is susceptible to both acid and base. The degraded product was well resolved from the pure drug, with significantly different R(f) value. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable, selective, and accurate for the estimation of the investigated drug.

vantin 200mg tab 2016-05-24

Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was used to characterize impurities in cefpodoxime proxetil, an ester-modified prodrug. Based on the mechanisms by which cephalosporins are degraded, stress tests were designed and performed. The bulk material and capsule were eluted through a C18 column with formic acid-methanol-water as the mobile phase. In total, 15 impurities were characterized in Lipitor Mg commercial samples, including 7 known impurities and 8 new impurities. The structures of these unknown compounds were deduced via comparison with the fragmentation patterns of cefpodoxime proxetil. Data from this systematic study will help improve the safety and quality of cefpodoxime proxetil.

vantin medication 2017-10-20

The purpose of this research was to assessment of antimicrobial activity and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of cefpodoxime proxetil extended-release (ER) tablet for once daily administration. The tablets were prepared using combination of biodegradable polysaccharides including hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and sodium alginate as matrix material to achieve pH-independent ER release. The tablets were found within the permissible limits for various physicochemical parameters. The in vitro drug release showed that the drug was released over a period of 24h in a sustained release manner. The drug release followed Higuchi kinetics as these plots showed the highest linearity (R(2)=0.9833), but a close relationship was also observed with zero-order kinetics (R(2)=0.9088) and the drug release mechanism was found to be of anomalous or non-Fickian type. Further, in vitro drug release was assessed by antimicrobial assay and it revealed that drug Atarax Overdose Symptoms release through 24h periods was above the MIC. In vivo investigation in rabbits showed ER pharmacokinetic profile of cefpodoxime from the matrix tablets. A good correlation of drug absorption in vivo and drug release in vitro (R(2)=0.9785) was observed. These results suggested that the investigated CFP matrix tablets have a potential for extended-release dosage forms.

vantin 100 mg 2015-06-05

To discuss the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, spectrum of activity, clinical Cordarone Tablets trials, adverse effects, drug interactions, and dosage guidelines of cefpodoxime proxetil.

vantin drug interactions 2016-06-03

This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind study conducted in the United States and South Africa. Ambulatory patients with a diagnosis of CAP were randomized to 14 days of treatment with cefditoren 200 or Hytrin 2mg Tab 400 mg BID or cefpodoxime 200 mg BID. Assessments of clinical cure and pathogen eradication were conducted at 2 visits during treatment, 1 posttreatment visit (s48 hours after completion of treatment), and 1 follow-up visit (7-14 days after completion of treatment). The development of resistant pathogens was assessed at the follow-up visit but not thereafter. The relative cost of treatment was not assessed.

vantin suspension 2015-02-15

The single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime were assessed in plasma and skin blister fluid (SBF) after oral dosing of 200 mg (n = 8) and 400 mg (n = 8) of cefpodoxime proxetil (doses are expressed as cefpodoxime equivalents) in healthy subjects in an open-label, parallel-design study. Skin blisters were formed by air suction on the midvolar forearm by a previously validated method. After single-dose administration, serial plasma and SBF samples were collected over 24 h for measurement of cefpodoxime by microbiological assays. After a 1-week washout, subjects received the same doses of antibiotic every 12 h for 5 days, with plasma and SBF sampling on day 5. After 200 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil, average peak concentrations (Cmax) in plasma and SBF were 2.18 +/- 0.52 and 1.55 +/- 0.59 micrograms/ml, respectively, after a single dose and 2.33 +/- 0.74 and 1.56 +/- 0.55 micrograms/ml, respectively, at steady state. After 400 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil, Cmax in plasma and SBF averaged 4.16 +/- 1.04 and 2.94 +/- 0.71 micrograms/ml, respectively, following a single dose and 4.10 +/- 0.95 and 2.84 +/- 0.88 micrograms/ml, respectively, at steady state. Cmax occurred 1.1 to 1.6 h later in SBF than in plasma. There was no accumulation of cefpodoxime in plasma or SBF when dosing was done every 12 h. Cefpodoxime blister fluid penetration was estimated to be 67 to 101%, consistent with the relatively low serum protein binding of the drug. Cefpodoxime levels exceeding the MIC for 90% of many skin pathogens, such as Streptococcus species (<1 microgram/ml) or Staphylococcus species (2 to 4 micrograms/ml), were achieved in plasma and SBF following the 200- and/or 400-mg dosing regimens.

vantin and alcohol 2015-03-08

Cefprozil, cefpodoxime proxetil, loracarbef, cefixime, and cefributen are active in vitro against organisms frequently involved in community-acquired infections such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, beta-lactamase-positive or -negative Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Except for cefixime and ceflibuten, they all are active against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Even though there were problems in study design (discussed within the text), clinical data demonstrate that these new oral beta-lactam compounds are as efficacious as conventional therapies for a variety of community-acquired infections.

vantin max dose 2016-10-08

The pharmacokinetics, bacteriological and clinical efficacy, and safety of the suspension formulation of cefpodoxime proxetil, an oral cephalosporin antibacterial, were evaluated in paediatric patients with various infections. With single doses of 3 and 6 mg/kg (cefpodoxime equivalent) a dose response was evident in the serum concentration values. Absorption, as evidenced by serum concentrations and areas under the concentration-time curve, was enhanced when the suspension was administered before a meal. The overall clinical efficacy (defined as an excellent or good response) in evaluable patients (those from whom a pathogen was isolated) was 94.7% (451 of 476). Bacteriological eradication rates were as follows: Gram-positive bacteria 91.3%; Gram-negative bacteria 88.6%, and 90.0% overall. Side effects occurred in 17 (2.29%) patients, and transient and reversible abnormal laboratory values were found in a few patients.

vantin dosage 2016-05-25

Inferences drawn from in vitro studies suggest that microballoons may be potential delivery system for cefpodoxime proxetil with improvement in bioavailability in comparison to conventional dosage forms.

vantin drug classification 2016-04-20

Carboxylesterases (CE) are ubiquitous enzymes responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics. Many therapeutically useful drugs are metabolized by these proteins which impacts upon the efficiency of drug treatment. In some instances, CEs convert inactive prodrugs to active metabolites, a process that is essential for biological activity. Such compounds include the anticancer agents CPT-11 (3) and capecitabine (4), the antibiotics Ceftin (9) and Vantin, as well as the illicit street drug heroin (6). However, more commonly, CEs hydrolyze many esterified drugs to inactive products that are then excreted. Agents such as flestolol (11), meperidine (5), lidocaine (8) and cocaine (7), are all hydrolyzed and inactivated by these enzymes. Therefore the efficacy of esterified drugs will be dependent upon the distribution and catalytic activity of different CEs. In this review, we examine the structural aspects of CEs and their roles in drug detoxification and propose that modulation of CE activity may allow for improvements in, and potentiation of, drug efficacy.

vantin tab 2015-05-27

In bacteriological, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies of cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR, CS-807), the following results were obtained: 1. Antibacteriological activity Antibacteriological activity of R-3746 (Na-salt of cefpodoxime), cefaclor (CCL), cephalexin, cefroxadine (CXD), cefazolin (CEZ), cephalothin (CET) and amoxicillin (AMPC) were studied against clinical isolated bacteria following as: Staphylococcus aureus (resistant or sensitive of methicillin), Escherichia coli (resistant or sensitive to CEZ), Klebsiella pneumoniae (resistant or sensitive to CEZ), Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae. Antibacterial activities of CXD and CET, however, were not tested against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or CEZ resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae. R-3746 showed stronger activities than any of the other oral antibiotics against these strains except S. aureus against which it showed slightly less activity than AMPC. Most frequent MIC values of R-3746 to S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis were 1.56, 0.39, less than or equal to 0.10 and less than or equal to 0.10 microgram/ml, respectively. Against isolated strains of MRSA, MICs of R-3746 were higher than 25 micrograms/ml with 23 strains (77%), which were similar to MIC values of CCL and AMPC against these organisms. MIC values of R-3746 against CEZ resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae were superior to MICs of other antibiotics, and the MIC50 value was 0.20 micrograms/ml. Against many isolated strains of E. cloacae MIC values of R-3746 were relatively high ranging 0.78 to greater than 100 micrograms/ml. MIC50 of R-3746 against E. cloacae was 12.5 micrograms/ml. 2. Absorption and excretion Serum concentration and urinary excretion of CPDX (the active form of CPDX-PR) were studied upon single oral administration of CPDX-PR at 3 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg (dry syrup) or 100 mg (tablet). The peak of serum concentration of CPDX was attained in 1-6 hours 1-4 hours and 2-6 hours after administration of CPDX-PR at the 3 different dosage levels, and they were 0.99-2.99 micrograms/ml, 4.30-7.05 micrograms/ml and 1.65-2.93 micrograms/ml, respectively. At 8 hours after administration, mean concentrations of CPDX for the 3 groups were 0.31, 0.83 and 0.66 micrograms/ml, respectively. As the average AUC's for the 3 groups were 8.16, 25.97 and 10.79 micrograms.hr/ml, respectively. Urinary recovery rates of CPDX for the 3 groups were 20.9-56.2, 28.3-49.7 and 35.1-50.4%, respectively in the first 8 hours after administration.

buy vantin online 2015-11-25

The aim of this study is to develop a simple and applicable HPLC method for the detection of cefpodoxime acid (CFA) in rabbit plasma after oral administration of cefpodoxime proxetil (CFP) loaded chitosan-alginate (CH-ALG) beads formulation. CFP is a prodrug that is deesterified in vivo to its active metabolite CFA to exhibit antibiotic activity. Chromatographic separation of CFA and internal standard (IS) was achieved by a RP18(C18), Phenomenax®100, (250×4.6mm) with the mobile phase consisting of (0.02mol/l (20mM) ammonium acetate solution and acetonitrile (92:8, v/v, pH=4.6) at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min. The method was validated according to the requirements of US-FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method validation. The linear regression analysis for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship (R(2)=0.9905) in the working concentration range of 0.5-50μg/ml. The limits of detection and quantification (S/N=3) were 0.069 and 0.136μg/ml. Plasma CFA levels were successfully determined in rabbit with satisfactory precision and accuracy. The analyte was found to be stable after a number of stability studies. The proposed HPLC method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study in rabbits for CFP loaded CH-ALG beads and marketed immediate release (IR) tablets. All pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed.