This Decree authorizes separations in civil marriages in Colombia to be effected before a notary in cases of mutual consent. In such cases, the public instrument is to make provision for children and spousal support. An agreement of the spouses regarding their reciprocal obligations and their common children can be modified by common agreement before a notary or revised through judicial proceedings in accordance with the law.
This model of ischemia caused early striatal infarction but delayed necrosis in the cortex. The striatum showed marked MRI changes from 4 hours of reperfusion. By 12 hours, the striatal ADC signal intensity ratio to the homologous contralateral region was 30% reduced, and the TTC staining evidenced infarction. Contrarily, the cortical ADC ratio was only 15% reduced, and TTC staining was normal at 12 hours. After this time, the cortex showed sudden and pronounced (>30%) ADC signal intensity changes coincidentally with the manifestation of infarction, accompanied with severe vacuolation and unambiguous signs of neuronal and astroglial death.
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Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, A. nilotica, L. speciosa, A. indica, and J. adhatoda at 5 mg extract/ml NaCl solution concentration showed 15.1%, 15.49%, 21.26%, and 19.63% clot lysis activity respectively. The reference streptokinase showed 47.21%, and 24.73% clot lysis for 30,000 IU and 15,000 IU concentrations, respectively whereas 0.9% normal saline showed 5.35% clot lysis.
Therapeutic success of treatment of cerebral diseases must be assessed in terms of functional outcome. In experimental stroke studies, this has been limited to behavioral studies combined with morphological evaluations and single time point functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements but lacking the access to understanding underlying mechanisms for alterations in brain activation. Using a recently developed blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI protocol to study longitudinal and intraindividual profiles of functional brain activation in the somatosensory system, we have demonstrated activation reemergence in the original representation field as the basic principle of functional recovery from experimental stroke. No plastic reorganization has been observed at any time point during 7 weeks after stroke induction. Applying combined recording of fMRI and somatosensory evoked potentials, we observed a tight coupling of electrical brain activity and hemodynamic response at all times, indicating persistent preservation of neurovascular coupling. Identification of functional brain recovery mechanisms has important implications for the understanding of brain plasticity after cerebral lesions, whereas preservation of neurovascular coupling is important for the clinical translation of fMRI.
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The second edition of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare 2003) describes facets that allow a more accurate measure of interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial aspects.
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The effects of ethanolic extracts of J. spicigera (JSE) on the glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine 3T3-F442A and human subcutaneous adipocytes was evaluated. The antioxidant activities of the extract of JSE was determined by ABTS and DPPH methods. Additionally, it was evaluated the antidiabetic properties of JSE on T2DM model.
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The H-atom transfer (HAT) from water to ketyl radicals, mediated by titanocene(iii) aqua-complexes, can explain the Ti(III)-promoted reduction of ketones in aqueous medium better than the conventional House mechanism. Moreover, we also report novel evidences supporting the existence of these titanocene(iii) aqua-complexes.
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Titanocene carboxylate 1 is an excellent chemoselective reagent for unprecedented α-regioselective Barbier-type reactions. It constitutes the first titanocene(III) able to tolerate epoxides and readily reduced carbonyl compounds, such as aromatic and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes.
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Interestingly, differential results have been obtained which indicate the variability of the mode of actions for the selected plants. Additionally, the reversible interaction of A. vasica against AChE and the potent activity of F. assafoetida against COX-1 make them effective, new and promising agents for treatment of AD in the future, either as total extracts or their single bioactive constituents.
The siblings of schizophrenia probands had a significantly increased two-hour mean glucose concentration compared to the control subjects (respective means [SD] were 100.5 mg/dL [27.7] vs. 78.0 [12.3]; p<0.03). Baseline glucose concentrations did not differ.
To generate normative data on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) across 10 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate.
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Sickle cell disease or drepanocytosis is caused by the polymerisation of abnormal haemoglobin S when oxygen tension decreases. This lead to the changes in the shape of red blood cells and anaemia. It has also been postulated that the red cells of patients with sickle cell disease contain a higher than normal concentration of calcium ions. These ions are bound to membrane proteins resulting in dehydration and loss of red blood cell deformability and cell-to-cell adherence. Anthocyanins extracted from some Congolese plants used in traditional medicine against sickle cell disease have recently been shown to have anti-sickling activity in vitro. Justicia secunda is a plant used in Congo by Jehovah's Witnesses, well known for their refusal of blood transfusions, against anaemia.
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The present study was undertaken to test the efficacy of 11 commonly available medicinal plants and compare its efficacy in relation to larvicidal and mosquitocidal activities against larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi (Liston). All the medicinal plants and the mixture were effective against larvae of A. stephensi as evidenced by low lethal concentration and lethal time. The lethality varied in adults and plant extracts of mixture; Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogan citratus, Artemisia annua, Justicia gendarussa, Myristica fragrans, Annona squamosa, and Centella asiatica were found to be most effective. Larval mortality between 80% and 100% was observed in mixture treatment, C. asiatica and E. globulus. The adults that emerged from all the treatments were malformed. Further, the treated larvae showed significant decrement in the levels of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids and affect negatively the presence of certain amino acids. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae and adults in the aquatic ecosystem as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. These plant extracts are easy to prepare, inexpensive, and safe for mosquito control which might be used directly as larvicidal and mosquitocidal agents in small volume aquatic habitats or breeding sites of around human dwellings.
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Plants have been used by humans since the ancient times, for eating, for clothing and for curing illnesses. The noxious effects of many medicinal plants are still ignored, mainly during pregnancy.
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The ESPIA questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction with respect to AIT treatment presented satisfactory psychometric properties for its use in clinical practice.
These findings suggest that anthocyanin extracts play a role in both stabilising the red blood cell membrane and inhibiting polymerisation of haemoglobin S. This provides a possible molecular basis for earlier reports on the anti-sickling properties of anthocyanins from some Congolese plants and their use in the management of sickle cell disease by Congolese traditional healers.
Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer.
The formation of large scale biofilms on dialysis membrane for 72 h was proved to be the best surface. In microscopic studies, very few exopolysaccaride fibrils, indicating a rather loose matrix was observed at 48 h. Further, thick exopolysaccaride, indicated higher adhesive properties at 72 h which is evident from ruthenium red staining. Among the plant extract used, Justicia wynaadensis leaf and Aristolochia indica (Eswari) root extract showed significant reduction of anti-biofilm activity of 0.178 OD and 0.192 OD in inhibiting mature biofilms at 0.225 OD respectively, suggesting the possible use of these extracts as efficient anti-adhesive and biofilm-disrupting agents with potential applications in controlling biofilms on surfaces.
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Two new lignan glycosides, 4-O-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1' "-->2' ')-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1' " '-->5' ')-beta-D-apiofuranosyl]diphyllin (1), named ciliatoside A (1), and 4-O-¿[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1' " "-->3' ")-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1' "-->2' ')][beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1' " '-->5' ')]-beta-D-apiofuranosyl¿diphyllin (2), named ciliatoside B (2), were isolated from the whole plant of Justicia ciliata. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by spectral and chemical methods. Compounds 1 and 2 strongly inhibited the accumulation of NO(2)(-) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 27.1 +/- 1.6 and 29.4 +/- 1.4 microM, respectively.
According to the results, there is a discrepancy between INE and IML about the number of suicides in Spain. Neither of the two sources can be considered more reliable than the other.
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Lower testosterone level is consistent with accelerated aging in nonaffective psychosis, but further testing of this hypothesis is needed.
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The prevalence of allergic rhinitis due to house-dust mites (HDMs) is high and increasing. Treatment guidelines and consensus statements are available, but few data exist on how these are followed in clinical practice in Spain. This study was designed to collect data on diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis due to HDMs and adherence to guidelines in Spanish specialized clinical practice.
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This study examines the effects of age, gender, a cold water medium versus warm water medium, and salinity on strontium levels determined in left ventricular blood in drownings. Significant differences in the amount of strontium absorbed into the bloodstream (p<0.001) were detected between individuals who drowned in fresh water versus those drowning in seawater, and between those drowning in cold water versus warm water (p=0.030). However, no significant differences were noted in the strontium concentrations of left ventricular blood according to gender or age.
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According with our results, ectopic expression of the bcl-2 gene prevented apoptosis without changes in morphology or phenotype in the absence of GM-CSF and serum or the presence of the extract from Justicia spicigera. Consisting with the Bcl-2 function, we found that Bcl-2 did not change response to GM-CSF. Serum deprivation or GM-CSF withdrawal induces cell death at 36 hours in TF-1 and TF-1neo cells, whereas TB-1 cells undergo apoptotic membrane blebbing after 96 hours under the same conditions.