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Vasotec (Enalapril)

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Vasotec is an effective strong preparation which is taken in treatment of diabetes symptoms as hypertension diseases, kidney problems, and congestive heart failure. Vasotec can be also helpful for patients after heart attack. Vasotec operates by reducing blood pressure and regulating blood provision to the heart.

Other names for this medication:

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Lotensin, Capoten, Monopril, Prinivil, Zestril, Univasc, Aceon, Accupril, Altace, Mavik


Also known as:  Enalapril.


Vasotec is created by pharmacy specialists to combat not also diabetes symptoms as hypertension diseases, kidney problems, and congestive heart failure but it can be helpful for patients after heart attack.

Target of Vasotec is to control and decrease level of blood pressure.

Vasotec is also known as Enalapril, Renitec, BQL, Benalipril, Amprace, Alphapril, Converten, Enalagamma, Enatec, Envas, Invoril, Xanef.

Vasotec operates by reducing blood pressure and regulating blood provision to the heart.

Vasotec can be used in combination with medicines for heart failure treatment.

Vasotec is ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor.

Generic name of Vasotec is Enalapril.

Brand name of Vasotec is Vasotec.


You should take it by mouth with water.

It is better to take Vasotec once or twice a day at the same time with meals or without it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Vasotec suddenly.


If you overdose Vasotec and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Vasotec overdosage: fainting, dizziness.


Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Vasotec if you are allergic to Vasotec components.

Be very careful with Vasotec if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Vasotec usage in case of having angioedema, throat, heart disease, diabetes, hands, kidney disease, lower legs, lupus, scleroderma.

Be careful with Vasotec usage in case of taking diuretics; aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) as indomethacin (Indocin); potassium supplements; lithium (such as Eskalith, Lithobid).

Nimotop can be not safety for elderly people.

Avoid dehydration.

Be careful with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Vasotec suddenly.

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Although early studies suggested little role for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in older hypertensive patients, more careful evaluation has confirmed their efficacy and good tolerability. Although the elderly tend to have low plasma renin levels, the fall in blood pressure after ACE inhibitors is at least as great (and in several studies greater) than in younger age groups. Because several ACE inhibitors, including captopril and enalaprilat, are eliminated by the kidneys, there are predictable age-related effects on pharmacokinetics. Reduced renal clearance will contribute, at least in part, to the enhanced intensity and duration of action seen in elderly patients. However, not all the effects of age on the kinetics and dynamics of ACE inhibitors are predictable. Studies with perindopril and benazepril in the elderly confirm the efficacy of this group of drugs but highlight other pharmacokinetic differences. ACE inhibitors are effective in reducing blood pressure and can be considered for wider use in elderly hypertensives.

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The antihypertensive effect of enalaprilat (MK-422), an intravenous (IV), nonsulfhydryl converting-enzyme inhibitor, was evaluated in a double-blind study of 14 patients with mild to moderate hypertension. The seven patients in the treatment group initially received IV enalaprilat 1.25 mg q6h for 24 hours. Thereafter, responding patients (diastolic blood pressure [BP] less than or equal to 95 mm Hg) continued receiving this dose q6h for an additional 24 hours, whereas nonresponding patients were increased to IV enalaprilat 5 mg q6h for another 24 hours. Baseline BP for enalaprilat was 161 +/- 5/107 +/- 2 mm Hg (+/- SEM), and for placebo it was 150 +/- 5/103 +/- 2 mm Hg. Within the first 60 minutes, a significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic BP was noted in the enalaprilat group (P less than .05), without significant changes occurring in the placebo group. Although there was a gradual decline in both systolic and diastolic BP throughout the 48-hour study period in the placebo group, systolic and diastolic BP reduction was greater in the enalaprilat group, reaching a maximal decrease of 133 +/- 3/87 +/- 3 mm Hg. Adverse side effects did not occur in any patient.

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Early administration of enalaprilat is effective and well tolerated in acute pulmonary edema.

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The aim of this study was to examine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition improves coronary endothelial dysfunction in patients with atherosclerosis and its risk factors and whether this was related to the ACE insertion-deletion (I/D) polymorphism.

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The interaction of angiotensin converting enzyme with six metal-coordinating [(D-3-mercapto-2-methylpropanoyl)-L-Pro (captopril), N-[1(S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-L-Ala-L-Pro (MK-422), N-(phenylphosphoryl)-L-Phe-L-Phe, N alpha-(3-mercaptopropanoyl)-L-Arg, N alpha-[1(S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-L-Lys, and N-[1(S)-carboxy-5-aminopentyl]-L-Phe-Gly] and three dipeptide inhibitors (Gly-L-Trp, L-Phe-L-Arg, and L-Ala-L-Pro) was examined at pH 7.5 in the presence of 300 mM NaCl. Inhibition modes, apparent Ki [Ki(app)] values, and shapes of 1/v vs. [I] plots were found to vary with the substrate employed. All inhibitors except Phe-Arg were competitive with the substrate furanacryloyl (Fa)-Phe-Gly-Gly, while five of seven tested with Fa-Phe-Phe-Arg as substrate produced mixed patterns. Ki-(app) values for N-[1(S)-carboxy-5-aminopentyl]-L-Phe-Gly, N-(phenylphosphoryl)-L-Phe-L-Phe, Gly-Trp, and MK-422 were 8.3-, 5.5-, 4.7-, and 2.6-fold lower, respectively, when Fa-Phe-Gly-Gly was substrate, compared with values measured with Fa-Phe-Phe-Arg. In contrast, Ki(app) values for Phe-Arg and (3-mercaptopropanoyl)-Arg were lower (2.8- and 2.2-fold, respectively) when Fa-Phe-Phe-Arg was the substrate. Plots of 1/v vs. [I] for most of the inhibitors were nonlinear, to an extent which was also substrate dependent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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A model of congestive heart failure (CHF) was produced in rats approximately 76 days following surgical occlusion of the left coronary artery. In rats with healed myocardial infarction (MI size = 45% LV), hemodynamic variables were predictably elevated (LVEDP greater than 20 mm Hg) or depressed LV dP/dtmax (5200 mm Hg/sec). The hemodynamic response (MAP, HR, LVEDP, and dP/dtmax) to intravenous infusion of Mil (54 to 347 micrograms/kg) was measured on two occasions, separated by a 7-12 day period of oral treatment (2 mg/kg/day). Enalaprilat was tested in a similar design with the infusion phase (70 micrograms/kg, total dose) separated by oral enalapril (Enal), 1 mg/kg/day. The hemodynamic response to Mil was also examined in rats treated with the ACE inhibitor. At low doses, Mil modestly elevated HR (+17 beats/min) and dose-dependently increased (P less than 0.05) LV contractility by approximately 25%. Higher doses of Mil reduced preload (LVEDP) and afterload (MAP). Oral Mil produced little hemodynamic improvement except modest elevation (+9%) in LV contractility. There was no evidence of tachyphylaxis to i.v. Mil. In contrast, enalaprilat reduced MAP and preload without altering HR or contractility, effects observed after oral treatment. In the presence of the ACE inhibitor, Mil's hemodynamic actions were not enhanced. These experiments demonstrate that ACE inhibition improves ventricular performance by reducing preload and afterload. In this model, Mil improves performance by a direct inotropic mechanism as well as a reduction in afterload.

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Left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and coronary flow are impaired in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). This study was designed to evaluate the impact of cardiac and circulatory ACE inhibition on such derangements.

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1. We have estimated potencies of tachykinin receptor agonist and antagonist analogues in order to determine the recognition characteristics of tachykinin receptors mediating phasic contractile responses of the rat isolated urinary bladder in vitro. 2. The NK1-selective synthetic agonists, substance P methyl ester and GR73632, the synthetic NK2-selective agonists [beta-Ala8]-NKA(4-10) and GR64349, and the mammalian tachykinins, neurokinin A and neurokinin B, were assayed relative to substance P and were found to be approximately equipotent. The NK3-selective agonist, senktide, was inactive (10 microM). 3. Potencies of all these agonists were not significantly different (P > 0.05) when experiments were carried out in the presence of the neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, phosphoramidon, and the kininase II inhibitor, enalaprilat (both 1 microM). 4. The NK1-selective antagonist, GR82334, inhibited responses to substance P methyl ester in a competitive manner in the rat urinary bladder and the rat ileum, and also in the guinea-pig ileum. Markedly different pKB estimates were obtained in the rat bladder (6.38) and rat ileum (6.56) compared to the guinea-pig ileum (7.42). GR82334 (3 microM) was inactive against responses of the rat bladder to [beta-Ala8]-NKA(4-10). 5. The NK1-selective antagonist (+/-)-CP-96,345 also inhibited responses of the rat bladder and guinea-pig ileum to substance P methyl ester; however, in the rat bladder at 1 microM, this antagonist reversibly inhibited responses both to the NK2-selective agonist [beta-Ala8]-NKA(4-10) and to the muscarinic agonist carbachol (P < or = 0.01), thus showing evidence of some non-selective depressant actions. 6. The NK2-selective antagonists, MEN10207 and L-659,874, competitively inhibited responses of the rat bladder to the NK2-selective agonist [P-Ala5]-NKA(4-10) giving pKB estimates of 5.75 and 6.68,respectively. Both antagonists (1O microM) were inactive against responses to the NKI-selective agonist substance P methyl ester.7. These results support the proposal of a mixed population of NKI and NK2 receptors mediating contraction of the rat isolated urinary bladder. The NK2 receptor is characterized by a relatively low affinity for the NK2-selective antagonist MEN10207 but a high affinity for L-659,874. The NKImediated responses are inhibited by (+/-)-CP-96,345: this compound however, has non-specific depressant effects in the rat bladder at high concentration (1 microM). In contrast, the NK,-receptor peptide antagonist GR82334, did not have non-specific depressant effects and competitively inhibited NK, responses in the rat bladder and rat ileum with an affinity significantly lower than at the NK,-receptors in the guinea-pigileum.

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The effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors captopril, enalaprilat and enalapril, and the bioactive peptides angiotensin II (Ang II), [Sar1,Ile8]angiotensin II ([Sar1,Ile8]Ang II), bradykinin and D-Arg[Hyp3,D-Phe7]bradykinin) on mitogen-induced proliferation of T-lymphocytes were evaluated in C57 mouse spleen cells. Captopril (CP) dose-dependently enhanced concanavalin A (Con A)-induced proliferation of T-lymphocytes, with the effective stimulatory concentration range between 0.02-10 mM. The mitogen-induced proliferative response was inhibited at high concentrations (> 10 mM) of CP which affected the number of viable cells. Enalapril dose-dependently inhibited Con A-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation at 0.44-20 mM. This was comparable to the ACE inhibitory peptide, which had a similar range. Enalaprilat, the active parent diacid of enalapril, also showed a weaker inhibitory effect on the Con A-induced proliferative response (4-20 mM). The bioactive peptides had little effect, except at a relatively high concentration. Angiotensin II (Ang II) at 0.05 mM inhibited the Con A-induced proliferative response while [Sar1,Ile8]Ang II, a specific antagonist of Ang II, had no effect. Both bradykinin and its specific antagonist, D-Arg[Hyp3,D-Phe7]bradykinin, had no effect on Con A-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. The ACE inhibitors and bioactive peptides had little or no cytotoxic effects, except when present at or more than 5 mM. In conclusion, the effects of ACE inhibitors such as captopril and enalapril on Con A-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation were confirmed after a pilot study recently reported. These effects, especially with the stimulatory effect of CP, are unrelated to their ability to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme and perturbation of the bioactive peptides such as angiotensin II and bradykinin.

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Administration of enalaprilat and candesartan did not affect the Ppa-Ppao gradient at baseline or during hypoxia. Plasma renin activity and angiotensin II immunoreactivity increased during hypoxia, and subsequent measurements were consistent with effective angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition after administration of enalaprilat, and with angiotensin receptor blockade after administration of candesartan.

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Angiotensin II maintains extracellular volume homeostasis, in part, by regulating proximal tubule transport. Physiological doses of angiotensin II stimulate volume and solute transport in the proximal tubule independent of changes in the glomerular filtration rate. Stimulation of bicarbonate transport primarily occurs via increasing activity of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger and the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter. The effects of circulating angiotensin II are mediated by angiotensin II receptors on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule. Recently, the proximal tubule was found to synthesize and secrete angiotensin II into the lumen. The luminal membrane contains angiotensin II receptors and luminal angiotensin II levels are 100 to 200-fold higher than that found in plasma. Luminal angiotensin II receptor blockade or luminal inhibition of angiotensin II synthesis both significantly diminish proximal tubule transport, consistent with stimulation of proximal tubule transport by endogenously produced and luminally secreted angiotensin II. These data provide evidence for an autocrine/paracrine role for angiotensin II that functions independent of circulating angiotensin II.

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The acute blood pressure response to an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (enalaprilat) was compared in patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension with that obtained under similar conditions with a calcium entry blocker (nifedipine). The patients were studied after a 3 week washout period. At a 48 h interval, each patient received in randomized order either enalaprilat (5 mg i.v.) or nifedipine (10 mg p.o.). Enalaprilat and nifedipine were equally effective in acutely lowering blood pressure. However, good responders to one agent were not necessarily good responders to the other.

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The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a pathway for conversion of angiotensin I (ANG I) to angiotensin II (ANG II) other than that via angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is present in the smooth muscle of the human detrusor. Isolated detrusor strips from 11 patients were contracted by ANG I (1 microM) in the absence or presence of enalaprilat (10 microM), soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI, 200 micrograms/ml), or both. The metabolic activity in detrusor membranes from four patients was studied separately using Hip-Gly-Gly or ANG I as a substrate, with or without various protease inhibitors. The contractile response to ANG I (1 microM) was depressed by enalaprilat from 66 +/- 22 (mean +/- SD) to 39 +/- 13% of the K+ (124 mM)-induced response (P < 0.01, n = 11), and the combination of enalaprilat and STI resulted in a further reduction in contractile amplitude to 25 +/- 14% (P < 0.01 vs. K+, and P < 0.05 vs. enalaprilat alone) and a significantly slower developing contraction with a time to peak of 3.7 +/- 1.7 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.3 min for ANG I alone (P < 0.01). In detrusor membranes, a low ACE activity, inhibitable by captopril, was demonstrated by the formation of hippuric acid (0.70 protein-1) from the synthetic ACE substrate, Hip-Gly-Gly. However, the conversion of ANG I (166 protein-1) to ANG II was not affected by ACE inhibition, while serine protease inhibitors, e.g., STI and chymostatin, completely prevented ANG II formation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Sodium metabisulfite (MBS) is a food preservative that can trigger bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. Previous studies designed to identify the mechanisms involved in this response have yielded conflicting results. We noted certain similarities between the pharmacology of MBS-induced airway responses and those elicited by bradykinin (BK), another provocating agent in asthmatic subjects. Therefore we used allergic sheep to determine whether MBS-induced bronchoconstriction 1) had a pharmacology similar to that previously seen with BK in this model, including protection by a BK B2-receptor antagonist, NPC-567, and 2) was associated with increased concentrations of immunoreactive kinins in bronchoalveolar lavage. We measured specific lung resistance before and immediately after inhaled buffer and increasing concentrations of MBS (30 breaths of 25, 50, and 100 mg/ml) and calculated the concentration producing 100% increase in specific lung resistance over baseline (PC100). In seven sheep, geometric mean control PC100 was 33.1 mg/ml. Pretreatment with either the anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide (180 micrograms; PC100 87.1 mg/ml) or the antiasthma drug nedocromil sodium (1 mg/kg aerosol; PC100 97.7 mg/ml) blocked the MBS-induced bronchoconstriction (P less than 0.05), whereas the histamine H1-receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine (2 mg/kg iv) was ineffective. Furthermore the MBS-induced bronchoconstriction was not affected by the neutral endopeptidase inhibitor thiorphan (40 breaths of a 1 mg/ml solution) or the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat (2.5 mg aerosol). In six sheep the MBS-induced bronchoconstriction was completely blocked by NPC-567 (20 breaths, 5 mg/ml aerosol): after treatment with NPC-567 mean PC100 was 100 mg/ml compared with 57.5 mg/ml in the control trial (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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This was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study performed in 20 congestive heart failure patients (New York Heart Association class III or IV). Systemic and regional hemodynamic parameters, biological parameters, and blood gases were measured before and repeatedly after the onset of infusion. Compared with placebo, enalaprilat decreased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (-37% versus -10%, P = .001), diastolic and mean systemic blood pressures (-21% versus 0%, P = .009, and -18% versus -1%, P = .026, respectively), diastolic and mean pulmonary blood pressures (-21% versus -8%, P = .040; -18% versus -9%, P = .046), and brachial and renal resistances (-44% versus -14%, P = .017, and -22% versus -2%, P = .014, respectively); increased brachial and renal blood flows (+77% versus +8%, P = .036, and +12% versus 0%, P = .043, respectively), arterial oxygen tension (+2% versus -16%, P = .041), and arterial oxygen saturation (+1% versus -2%, P = .045); and tended to decrease rate-pressure product (-19% versus -7%, P = .076), increase brachial artery diameter (+13% versus 0%, P = .081), and improve intrapulmonary shunt (-18% versus +16%, P = .080). Enalaprilat did not affect cardiac output or carotid or hepatosplanchnic hemodynamics.

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This study examined the role of endogenous kinins in the alteration of renal hemodynamics induced by low-dose converting enzyme inhibition in hydropenic normotensive rats and in the nonclipped kidney of hydropenic two-kidney, one clip hypertensive rats. Infusion of a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist (D-Arg0,[Hyp3,Thi5,8,D-Phe7]-bradykinin, 1 or 10 did not alter renal function of normotensive rats. In a second series of experiments, infusion of enalaprilat at 0.1 increased renal blood flow (P < .01) and decreased renal vascular resistance (P < .01). The superimposition of the kinin antagonist at 1 during the enalaprilat infusion decreased renal blood flow to a value similar to the preenalaprilat baseline and significantly different from the mean of the two enalaprilat periods before and after the addition of the kinin antagonist--the "mean effect of enalaprilat." The decrease in renal blood flow induced by the kinin antagonist was associated with an increase in renal vascular resistance above the mean effect of enalaprilat (P < .025). In two-kidney, one clip hypertensive rats, systemic infusion of enalaprilat augmented the hemodynamics of the nonclipped kidney by a degree similar to that in normotensive rats. In contrast to normotensive rats, superimposition of the kinin antagonist did not alter the enalaprilat-induced change in blood flow or vascular resistance of the nonclipped kidney. The results of this study suggest that endogenous kinins contribute to the increased renal function induced by low-dose converting enzyme inhibition in hydropenic normotensive rats but appear to contribute less to the enalaprilat-induced alterations of renal function in the nonclipped kidney of two-kidney, one clip hypertensive rats.

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Somatic ACE (EC, a Zn(II) metalloproteinase, is composed of functionally active N and C domains resulting from tandem gene duplication. Despite the high degree of sequence similarity between the two domains, they differ in substrate and inhibitor specificity and in their activation by chloride ions. Because of the critical role of ACE in cardiovascular and renal diseases, both domains are attractive targets for drug design. Putative structural models have been generated for the interactions of ACE inhibitors (lisinopril, captoril, enalaprilat, keto-ACE, ramiprilat, quinaprilat, peridoprilat, fosinoprilat, and RXP 407) with both the ACE_C and the ACE_N domains. Inhibitor-domain selectivity was interpreted in terms of residue alterations observed in the four subsites of the binding grooves of the ACE_C/ACE_N domains (S1: V516/N494, V518/T496, S2: F391/Y369, E403/R381, S1': D377/Q355, E162/D140, V379/S357, V380/T358, and S2': D463/E431, T282/S260). The interactions governing the ligand-receptor recognition process in the ACE_C domain are: a salt bridge between D377, E162, and the NH(2) group (P1' position), a hydrogen bond of the inhibitor with Q281, the presence of bulky hydrophobic groups in the P1 and P2' sites, and a stacking interaction of F391 with a benzyl group in the P2 position. In ACE_N these interactions are: hydrogen bonds of the inhibitor with E431, Y369, and R381, and a salt bridge between the carboxy group in the P2 position of the inhibitor and R500. The calculated complexes were evaluated for their consistency with structure-activity relationships and site-directed mutagenesis data. A comparison between the calculated interaction free energies and the experimentally observed biological activities was also made. Pharmacophore refinement was achieved at an atomic level, and might provide an improved basis for structure-based rational design of second-generation, domain-selective inhibitors.

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Earlier studies in rabbits revealed that in this species, in contrast to most other species studied, water intake was not influenced by injection or infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II). In order to establish whether ANG II has any role in the regulation of water intake of rabbits, a comprehensive study of the effect of converting enzyme inhibition was undertaken. Enalaprilat was given systemically in various doses to sodium- and water-replete, sodium-deplete, and water-deprived rabbits, and the intake and excretion of water and sodium was measured. In replete rabbits systemic injection of enalaprilat, 8 mg/kg and 8 micrograms/kg, but not 0.8 mg/kg, was followed by increased daily water intake. In sodium-deplete rabbits injection of enalaprilat, 80 mg/kg, was followed by water drinking within 1 h, and daily sodium intake was reduced. Systemic administration of ANG II increased, but did not restore to control level the sodium appetite of sodium-deplete rabbits attenuated by 80 mg/kg enalaprilat. Rabbits deprived of water for 24 h, however, drank the same amount of water after injection of vehicle or enalaprilat, 80 and 8 mg/kg. The efficacy of converting enzyme inhibition was also tested by measuring the blood pressure response to ANG I. Blood pressure responses revealed that in replete animals converting enzyme activity was depressed below control levels for 30 h after injection of 80 mg/kg enalaprilat. In sodium-deplete rabbits blood pressure fell following injection of 80 mg/kg enalaprilat and did not return to control level until 48 h after the injection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that tyrosine kinase activity contributes to renal arteriolar contractile responses to angiotensin (Ang) II. Rats were subjected to short-term enalaprilat treatment to decrease endogenous Ang II formation before tissue was harvested for experiments with the in vitro blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron technique. Acute surgical papillectomy was used to avoid the indirect afferent arteriolar effect of Ang II that arises through increased tubuloglomerular feedback sensitivity. Arteriolar lumen diameter responses to 1 and 10 nmol/L Ang II were monitored by videomicroscopic methods before and during treatment with various tyrphostin compounds: 100 micromol/L AG18 (broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor), 100 nmol/L AG1478 (selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor), or 100 micromol/L AG9 (inactive analog). Baseline afferent arteriolar lumen diameter averaged 23.5+/-1.2 micrometer and was not influenced by any tyrphostin. Ang II (10 nmol/L) decreased afferent diameter by 11.1+/-1.0 micrometer under untreated conditions, a response that was not altered by AG9 but significantly blunted by AG18 (34+/-9% inhibition) or AG1478 (52+/-8% inhibition). AG18 did not suppress afferent arteriolar contractile responses to membrane depolarization (20 to 55 mmol/L K(+ )bath). Efferent arteriolar baseline diameter averaged 24.1+/-0.8 micrometer and was unaltered by AG18 or AG1478; however, efferent diameter responses to 10 nmol/L Ang II were diminished 52+/-10% by AG18 and 51+/-13% by AG1478. These observations indicate that Ang II signaling in renal afferent and efferent arteriolar vascular smooth muscle is either mediated or modulated by tyrosine kinase activity, including that of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.

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A sensitive and rapid method based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) combined with rapid solid-phase extraction (SPE) has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of enalapril and its active metabolite enalaprilat in human plasma. After addition of internal standard to human plasma, samples were extracted by 96-well SPE cartridge. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC with the detection of the analyte in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. This method for the simultaneous determination of enalapril and enalaprilat was accurate and reproducible, with respective limits of quantitation of 0.2 and 1.0 ng/mL in plasma. The standard calibration curves for both enalapril and enalaprilat were linear (r(2) = 0.9978 and 0.9998) over the concentration ranges 0.2-200 and 1.0-100 ng/mL in human plasma, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision over the concentration range for enalapril and enalaprilat were lower than 13.3 and 15.4% (relative standard deviation, %RSD), and accuracy was between 89.2-105.0 and 91.9-104.7%, respectively.

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vasotec 200 mg 2015-11-04

The proximal tubule synthesizes and secretes angiotensin II into the lumen, where it regulates transport. Renal denervation abolishes the effect of angiotensin II on proximal tubule transport. Using in vivo microperfusion, we examined whether renal nerve stimulation modulates the effect of angiotensin II on transport. The effect of angiotensin II was assessed by measuring the decrease in volume reabsorption with the addition of 10(-4) M luminal enalaprilat. Luminal enalaprilat did not alter volume reabsorption (2.80 +/- 0.18 vs. 2.34 +/- 0.14 nl x mm(-1) x min(-1)). However, with renal nerve stimulation, enalaprilat decreased volume reabsorption (3.45 +/- 0.22 vs. 1.67 +/- 0.20 nl x mm(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.0005). The absolute and percent decrements in volume reabsorption with luminal enalaprilat were higher with renal nerve stimulation than with native innervation (1.78 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.46 +/- 0.23 nl x mm(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.02, and 51.8 +/- 5.0 vs. 14.6 +/- 7.4%, P < 0.05, respectively). Renal nerve stimulation did not alter the glomerular buy vasotec filtration rate or renal blood flow. Renal nerve stimulation augments the stimulatory effect of intraluminal angiotensin II. The sympathetic renal nerves modulate the proximal tubule renin-angiotensin system and thereby regulate proximal tubule transport.

vasotec 4 mg 2016-12-24

This study was designed to analyze the pathophysiological role of the endogenous endothelin (ET) system and the therapeutic approach to congestive heart failure (CHF) with ET(A)/ET(B) receptor antagonists in a canine CHF model. After 3 weeks of rapid right ventricular pacing (240 beats/min), concentrations of immunoreactive ET-1 in dogs increased approximately 2-fold in plasma and in the left and right ventricles but not in the lung. There were no meaningful changes in the density and affinity of total ET receptors, or in the ratio of ET(A) to ET(B) receptors. To clarify the functional role of endogenous ET, we examined the effects of acute injection of J-104132 (1 and 3 mg/kg i.v.), an ET(A)/ET(B) receptor antagonist, on cardiovascular and renal function in dogs with CHF. Compared with vehicle, J-104132 at both doses significantly decreased pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), and increased cardiac output (CO) and renal blood flow. J-104132 had no effects on heart rate and cardiac contractility. In addition, we examined whether J-104132 has an additive effect in the presence of enalaprilat. J-104132 (1 mg/kg i.v.) administered after enalaprilat (0.05 mg/kg i.v.) induced further decreases in MAP, PCWP and PAP, and further increases in CO, resulting in further decreases in total peripheral resistance. These results indicate that the endogenous ET system is exaggerated buy vasotec in CHF and has a detrimental effect on cardiac function. Therefore, J-104132 given alone or as combination therapy may play a beneficial role in the treatment of CHF in humans.

vasotec review 2016-06-24

To reduce cardiac output from 37.5 (1.3) to 20.4 (1.1) ml min(-1) [mean (SEM)] in the shock groups, withdrawal of 4.0 (0.25) ml [mean (SEM)] blood was necessary. Simultaneously mean arterial pressure decreased from 77.5 (3.2) to 36.1 (2) mm Hg. Serum lactate increased significantly from 1.3 (0.1) to 3.5 (0.24) mmol litre(-1). Treatment with candesartan increased EB extravasation in the kidney in normovolaemic controls. Specific AT(1) and ACE-blockade before acute non-resuscitated HS significantly increased EB extravasation in the rat ileum by buy vasotec 53 and 66%, respectively.

vasotec maximum dose 2017-09-12

Fourteen consecutive pediatric patients between the ages of 1 and 18 yrs scheduled to undergo surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta. buy vasotec

vasotec drug label 2016-11-21

When incubated with human plasma, in the presence of an angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor buy vasotec , rtPA generates BK, which is further metabolized to des-Arg9-BK. The quantity of kinins generated by rtPA is similar to that observed during the activation of the contact system of plasma with a negatively charged surface, suggesting that it is physiologically relevant. The total amount of des-Arg9-BK liberated during the incubation period depends on the aminopeptidase P activity, its main degrading peptidase. Additionally, incubations using purified proteins of the fibrinolytic and the contact system pathways show that the rtPA kinin-forming capacity is mediated by plasmin.

vasotec dosage iv 2016-03-21

Neutral endopeptidase inhibitors (NEPI) potentiate the hypotensive effect of converting enzyme inhibitors (CEI) in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) but the mechanism of this potentiation remains unknown. The present study assesses the hemodynamic effects of a CEI (enalaprilat 1 mg/kg; n = 9), a NEPI (retrothiorphan 25 mg/kg + 25 mg/kg/h; n = 9) and the combination (CEI+NEPI; n = 9) versus a control buy vasotec group (n = 9) in anesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats. CEI alone induced a significant hypotensive effect due to a decrease (-35.1%) in total peripheral resistance (TPR), with no significant increase in cardiac output (CO). NEPI alone had a slight hypotensive effect due to a small decrease in CO. CEI+NEPI decreased the mean arterial pressure to the same extent (-26.7%) as the CEI-induced hypotensive effect, decreased TPR (-44.4%) and induced an increase in CO (+38.2%) with an increase in heart rate. In summary, NEPI combined with CEI induces large decreases in blood pressure and in TPR which do not significantly differ from the CEI-induced effects. It also induces increases in heart rate and in cardiac output in anesthetized SHR.

vasotec 10mg tablet 2016-08-06

Dose-response curves for the hypotensive effect of intra-arterially and intravenously injected bradykinin were obtained in unanaesthetized rats. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyse the products of bradykinin breakdown after incubation with rat serum and buy vasotec perfusion through in situ lung preparations.

vasotec brand name 2017-10-16

Conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II likely occurs in human veins, supporting the existence of endothelial angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in these vessels. Using the dorsal hand vein technique, we investigated the effects of 2 ACE inhibitors, captopril (single oral dose of 6.25 mg) and enalaprilat (local infusion of 1 microgram/min), on venous responsiveness in healthy subjects. Orally administered captopril induced a marked decrease in angiotensin I- but not angiotensin II-induced venoconstriction. This blunted response persisted for at least 4 hours. Enalaprilat and captopril increased the sensitivity to bradykinin, decreasing the dose producing half-maximal response (ED50) of bradykinin 18-fold and 5-fold, respectively, without changing the maximal venodilatory response. These results confirm that there is substantial rapid metabolism of angiotensin I in human veins and suggest that a single dose of locally infused angiotensin I can be used with the dorsal hand vein technique to assess the time-course effect of vascular ACE inhibition after oral administration. Our findings also extend previous in vitro observations in human veins by showing that these buy vasotec agents potentiate the venodilatory effects of bradykinin in vivo.

vasotec overdose death 2015-07-21

Thus, unlike nifedipine and diltiazem, amlodipine buy vasotec releases NO from blood vessels.

vasotec mg 2015-09-28

Left ventricle (LV) cineventriculograms silhouettes in the right anterior oblique projection with simultaneous pressure micromanometry were assessed before and 10 min after administration of 1.25 mg enalaprilat intravenously to 10 patients with angina pectoris undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Cineventriculograms were divided into 20 areas using a modified Leighton's method for segmentalization of the LV and computed by the Janz's method for regional wall stress. Enalaprilat buy vasotec reduced preload and afterload in all cases. There was significant reduction in regional wall stress in 15 of the 20 segments after enalaprilat administration compared with baseline analysis. Segments without significant reduction in wall stress wee apical. There was significant reduction in global wall stress after enalaprilat. Thus, enalaprilat, in addition to improve hemodynamics decreasing both preload and afterload, reduces LV wall stress both regional and global. Clinical implications of these findings are in agreement with the wall stress reduction for prevention of ventricular remodeling with this agent in postinfarction patients.

vasotec 10 mg 2016-05-17

A series of inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, EC is described which addresses certain conformational aspects of the enzyme-inhibitor interaction. In this study the alanylproline portion of the potent ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (2) is replaced by a series of monocyclic lactams containing the required recognition and binding elements. In order to more fully assess the lactam ring conformations and the key backbone angle psi as defined in 3 with respect to possible enzyme-bound conformations, a series of model lactams was investigated with use of molecular mechanics. The results point to a correlation between inhibitor potency (IC50) and the computed psi angle for the lowest energy conformation of the model compounds. Thus the psi angle as defined in 3 is an important determinant in the binding of inhibitors to ACE. The inhibition buy vasotec data in conjunction with the computational data have served to define a window of psi angles from 130 degrees to 170 degrees which seems to be acceptable to the ACE active site.

vasotec 15 mg 2015-04-18

Thoracic aortic rings from male Wistar rats were prepared with or without PVAT (PVAT+ and PVAT-) and with an intact endothelium (E+) or with the endothelium buy vasotec removed (E-) for functional studies. The contraction and relaxation responses of these vessels to thiopental in the presence of agonists and various receptor antagonists and channel blockers were studied.

vasotec generic names 2017-12-20

Left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and coronary flow are impaired in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy buy vasotec (HOCM). This study was designed to evaluate the impact of cardiac and circulatory ACE inhibition on such derangements.

vasotec drug form 2017-06-23

The production of prostaglandin (PG) E2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) under basal conditions and after exposure to angiotensin II (ANG II) or arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in vitro in isolated glomeruli. The glomeruli were obtained from control rats and rats with bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO) of 24-h duration that were pretreated or not with an inhibitor of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE). Basal prostanoid production was greater in isolated glomeruli from BUO rats than in controls. Administration of an ACE inhibitor, enalaprilat, given in vivo returned basal prostanoid production by isolated glomeruli of BUO rats to levels seen in glomeruli of control rats. The prostanoid production in response to addition of ANG II or AVP in vitro was blunted in glomeruli from BUO rats, but the response was restored to "normal" after blockade of ANG II synthesis in vivo in BUO rats. Blockade of ANG II synthesis in vivo did not affect prostanoid synthesis by isolated glomeruli of control rats. The prostanoid generation in response to addition of both ANG II and arachidonic acid in vitro compared with ANG II addition alone was not significantly stimulated in glomeruli from BUO rats. In contrast, it was significantly stimulated in glomeruli of control rats. The results indicate that endogenous ANG II has an important role in the increased synthesis of prostanoids found in isolated glomeruli of rats with BUO and that the in vitro prostanoid production buy vasotec in response to ANG II and AVP can be restored to normal when the synthesis of ANG II is inhibited in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

vasotec generic name 2016-06-17

An isolated recirculating or single pass red cell-perfused rat kidney preparation (IPK) was used to examine the differential handling of renal metabolites. In single pass experiments, enalapril was primarily metabolized to its polar, dicarboxylic acid metabolite, enalaprilat, and its fractional excretion (FE) was less than unity, suggesting net reabsorption. Its steady-state extraction ratio decreased from 0.3 to 0.2 at concentrations of 1.06 to 12.7 microM, due to a saturation of enzymes for esterolysis. Enalaprilat administered to the IPK was excreted into urine in a concentration-independent (0.41-35.3 microM) fashion, with FE values approximating unity, suggesting net filtration. Differences in handling were observed for enalaprilat, as a metabolite formed from enalapril and as an administered (preformed) species in the single pass IPK, when tracer concentrations of [14C]enalapril and [3H]enalaprilat were given simultaneously. A comparison made between steady-state extraction ratio Ess[mi] [generated metabolite]/glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and Ess[pmi] [preformed metabolite]/GFR, respectively, revealed a 2-fold difference. The finding suggests the presence of a barrier for entry of enalaprilat into the kidney. Or else, in absence of the barrier, the opposite would be observed, that is, Ess [pmi]/GFR greater than Ess [mi]/GFR because preformed enalaprilat, in contrast to generated enalaprilat, undergoes filtration and utilizes facilitative transport carriers at the basolateral membrane. In recirculating IPKs which received simultaneously a tracer bolus dose of [14C]enalapril and [3H]enalaprilat, the FE values for generated [14C]enalaprilat were high and variable, decreasing with perfusion time and exceeding those for preformed [3H]enalaprilat, which approached unity with perfusion time. The variable FE values for [14C]enalaprilat are due to Lamictal 5 Mg time-dependent contributions of circulating enalaprilat (which behaves identically to preformed enalaprilat) and the intrarenally generated enalaprilat. Hence, with renal drug metabolism, the conventional method of estimating urinary clearance (or Fe[mi]) for the metabolite [(total) excretion rate/midpoint plasma FE[mi] metabolite concentration] results in a greater metabolite clearance than that predicted from the administration of preformed metabolite.

vasotec overdose symptoms 2017-10-15

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a clinical state characterized by massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and eventual edema formation. Although the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not yet fully clarified, it is well accepted that nephrin and podocin are involved in the development of proteinuria. The effects of early treatment with various antiproteinuric therapies on proteinuria and glomerular staining of nephrin and podocin in rats with experimental NS have not been previously studied. Proteinuria and glomerular nephrin and podocin immunofluorescence were examined in rat kidneys with adriamycin-induced NS and the effects of antiproteinuric drug therapies during 5 wk with enalapril, losartan, alone or in combination, omapatrilat, and mycophenolate mofetil on these parameters were assessed. Injection of adriamycin caused a significant increase in daily (from 21.8 +/- 1.4 to 983.1 +/- 45.8 mg/day, P < 0.01) and cumulative protein excretion (from negligible values to 22,490 +/- 931 mg, P < 0.001) during 5 wk. Early treatment with enalapril significantly decreased the daily (641.7 +/- 82.4 mg/day, P < 0.0023) and cumulative proteinuria (15,727 +/- 2,204 mg, P < 0.001). A similar effect, although to a lesser extent, was obtained after omapatrilat treatment: cumulative proteinuria was reduced to 18,706 +/- 1,042 mg, P < 0.001. In contrast, losartan treatment did not significantly influence the cumulative proteinuria that remained comparable (20,351 +/- 1,360 mg, P > 0 Norvasc Dosage Elderly .05) to that observed in untreated NS rats. Unexpectedly, when losartan was given in combination with enalapril, it abolished the beneficial effects of the latter. Pretreatment with mycophenolate mofetil exerted a moderate antiproteinuric effect, which appeared only during the last week of the experimental treatment. Nephrotic rats exhibited severe disruption of slit diaphragm structure as seen by rapid and profound loss of nephrin and podocin. Beneficial effects of enalapril, omapatrilat, and mycophenolate mofetil paralleled the preservation of nephrin, as determined immunohistochemically, and enabled prediction of significant antiproteinuric responses. Enalapril alone or in combination with losartan resulted in significant preservation of podocin. Pretreatment with enalapril, and to a lesser extent omapatrilat, is superior to losartan in reducing proteinuria in NS rats. A combination of ACE inhibitors with ANG II receptor blockers does not provide any advantageous antiproteinuric therapy in these animals. Nephrin loss is an indication of proteinuria in NS and the antiproteinuric effects of ACE inhibitors, vasopeptidase inhibitors, and mycophenolate mofetil attenuate this reduction. Not all the drugs which restore podocin reduce urinary protein in NS.

vasotec 5mg tab 2015-12-06

Compounds 1a- Suprax 400 Mg g consisting of enalaprilat covalently bonded to aryl sulfonamides, including several known thiazide diuretics, were synthesized and tested for ACE inhibitory and diuretic and overall antihypertensive effects. All compounds were potent ACE inhibitors in vitro, with IC50 = 6.5-85 nM. At 10 mg/kg iv or ip in the rat, 1a-g inhibited the AI pressor response by 76-100%; inhibition declined significantly upon oral dosing. Compounds 1a and 1f at 100 mg/kg ip in the sodium-depleted, spontaneously hypertensive rats reduced blood pressure 28-35% and 41-42%, respectively. Compounds 1a and 1f elicited natriuresis and kaliuresis without accompanying volume increases in the rat; 1c at 25 mg/kg iv induced delayed diuresis. Compound 1f has been chosen for further development.

vasotec overdose 2016-06-30

Myocardium can be obviously damaged at early stage after severe scald,cardiac function is impaired. Enalaprilat injection (especially at low dose) can significantly ameliorate the myocardial kinetics indices, and it seems to exert a protective effect Viagra Dosage Information on cardiac function.

vasotec drug card 2016-11-28

We have examined the effects of local intra-arterial infusion of enalaprilat (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) on responses initiated by concomitantly infused acetylcholine (an endothelium-dependent vasodilator) and sodium nitroprusside (a direct dilator of smooth muscle) in the forearm arterial beds of healthy volunteers. Although the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor alone did not affect basal forearm blood flow or vascular resistance, it significantly augmented the increase in blood flow and reduction in vascular resistance induced by acetylcholine (both p < 0.05). Coinfusion of enalaprilat did not enhance sodium nitroprusside-induced vasodilation. Pretreatment with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine blocked the augmentation of blood flow induced by the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. The effect of enalaprilat was still observed after the administration of acetylsalicylic acid (p < 0.05). These results suggest that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors potentiate nonprostanoid endothelium-derived Augmentin 500mg Tab relaxing factor in normal human forearm vasculature.

vasotec 5mg tablet 2017-06-25

A series of trifluoromethyl-containing analogs of captopril as well as analogs and homologs of enalaprilat were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). It was found that direct substitution of trifluoromethyl for methyl produced a very potent captopril Cozaar Overdose Treatment analog with an IC50 of 3 x 10(-10) M in vitro. Hydrophobicity and conformational effects of trifluoromethyl group are among the reasons accounting for this activity. Structure-activity relationship is studied based on molecular mechanics calculations using a II-SCF-molecular mechanics program (PIMM) as well as SYBYL molecular mechanics program. It was found that simultaneous incorporation of trifluoromethyl and an indoline residue unexpectedly yielded a less potent captopril analog (IC50 = 8 x 10(-8) M). Enalaprilat analogs derived from replacement of the alanine residue with trifluoronorvaline and trifluoronorleucine residues gave moderately potent compounds (IC50 = 2-6 x 10(-8) M). The structure-activity relationship for these fluoroenalaprilat analogs is discussed in comparison with known analogs.

vasotec iv dosage 2017-05-16

In moderate to severe chronic renal insufficiency Norvasc 4 Mg the same degree of blood pressure control was achieved on low as well as moderate daily doses of enalapril. This was irrespective of concomitant antihypertensive treatment.

vasotec buy online 2017-07-25

The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) profile in urine of hypertensive patients and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; 90- and 65-kDa N-domain ACEs) is different Nexium Purple Pill from that of healthy subjects and Wistar rats (190 and 65 kDa). In addition, four ACE isoforms were purified from mesangial cells (MC) of Wistar rats in the intracellular compartment (130 and 68 kDa) and as secreted forms (130 and 60 kDa). We decided to characterize ACE forms from SHR MC in culture. Analysis of the ACE gene showed that SHR MC are able to express ACE mRNA. The concentrated medium and cell homogenate were separately purified by gel filtration and then subjected to lisinopril-Sepharose chromatography. The molecular masses of purified enzymes, 90 kDa for ACEm1A and 65 kDa for ACEm2A (secreted enzymes) and 90 kDa for ACEInth1A and 65 kDa for ACEInth2A (intracellular), were different from those of Wistar MC. The purified enzymes are Cl- dependent, inhibited by enalaprilat and captopril, and able to hydrolyze AcSDKP. Immunofluorescence and cell fractionation followed by Western blotting showed predominant immunoreaction of the 9B9 antiserum for N-domain ACE in the nuclei. The N-domain ACE was localized in the glomerulus from Wistar rats and SHR. ANG II and ANG-(1-7) were localized in the cell cytoplasm and nuclei. The 90-kDa N-domain ACE, described recently as a possible genetic marker of hypertension, was found inside the cell nuclei of SHR MC colocalized with ANG II and ANG-(1-7). The presence of ANG II in the cell nuclei could suggest an important role for this peptide in the transcription of new genes.