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Between 1986 and 1997, 21 children (ten boys and 11 girls) had surgery for hydatid disease of the liver. Their mean age was 6.5 years (range 3-12). Abdominal distention with a mass was the commonest presenting symptom (71.4%), followed by abdominal pain (38%). Hepatomegaly with a palpable mass was present in 12 (57%). Three children had concomitant pulmonary and brain hydatid disease. The diagnosis was established clinically and by skin testing, serology and imaging techniques. All patients received a pre-operative course of mebendazole (50 mg/kg/day) for between 1 and 8 weeks. At surgery, 11 children had a single cyst, eight of which were in the right lobe of the liver. Ten children had multiple cysts occupying both liver lobes. Three forms of surgical treatment were used: capitonnage + partial excision of fibrous capsule; total excision of the cyst; and external drainage of the cyst cavity. Three children required re-operation. Mean follow-up time was 24 months. There were no deaths, but five children developed post-operative complications. Surgical treatment in the form of primary closure of the cyst cavity without drainage seems to offer the best therapeutic option for patients with large hydatid cysts.
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The effect of levamisole hydrochloride and mebendazole on Angiostrongylus malaysiensis infection in albino rats was studied. Animals at different stages of infection were treated with various oral doses of levamisole and mebendazole with the aim of finding an effective treatment regime. Levamisole was most effective for treating rats seven days after infection but its efficacy dropped as infection progressed. Mebendazole given at a dose of 1 mg/kg for five days was more effective against early larval stages (97.39% efficacy). At 5 mg/kg for five days mebendazole was more effective than levamisole against all stages of the infection.
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A large trichinellosis outbreak in the Slovak Republic caused by the species Trichinella britovi and affecting 336 people also affected a pregnant woman. The mother was infected in the 10th week of pregnancy and was treated with mebendazole. On her own request abortion was performed in the 22nd week of pregnancy. Medium IgM and high IgG anti-Trichinella antibody titres were found. The placenta, body cavities liquid, tissues and organs of the foetus contained 0.02-30 larvae per gram of tissue, measuring 0.68 +/- 0.05-1.17 +/- 0.07 mm, with blurred inner structure. Immunocytochemical examination identified Trichinella larvae that infected the foetus in the early stage of development.
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The incubation in vitro of excised ovaries of Dirofilaria immits in medium containing mebendazole between 10(-5) and 10(-8) M for four or six hours results in the accumulation of up to 20% of oogonial cells in arrested mitotic metaphase. In aceto-orcein-stained squashes of the tissue, cells possess condensed chromosomes but no detectable spindle microtubules. Similar results were obtained with colchicine, but the lowest effective concentration of this drug was 10(-7) M. This procedure affords a simple and rapid method for detecting compounds capable of inhibiting tubulin polymerization in filarial worms.
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A multiclass method has been optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of 20 veterinary drug residues belonging to several classes, as quinolones, sulfonamides, macrolides, anthelmintics, avermectins and diamino derivatives, and benzathine, used as a marker of the presence of penicillin, in muscle chicken. It has been based on QuEChERS methodology (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Several chromatographic conditions were optimized, obtaining a running time <8.5 min. The developed method was validated on the basis of international guidelines. Mean recoveries ranged from 70 to 120%, except for benzathine (65.6% at 20 μg kg(-1)) and sulfadimidine (69.0% at 100 μg kg(-1)). Repeatability was lower than 20.0% except for sulfachlorpyridazine (22.1% at 20 μg kg(-1)) and tylosin (20.5% and 20.6% at 30 and 50 μg kg(-1), respectively), whereas reproducibility was lower than 25% except for flumequine (27.4% at 20 μg kg(-1)) and benzathine (37.8% and 27% at 20 and 50 μg kg(-1), respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 3.0 to 6.0 μg kg(-1) and 10.0 to 20.0 μg kg(-1), respectively, except for tylosin that showed a LOD and LOQ of 9.0 and 30.0 μg kg(-1). Decision limit (CC(α)) and detection capability (CC(β)) were calculated and CC(β) ranged from 24.1 μg kg(-1) (mebendazole) to 423.6 μg kg(-1) (flumequine). Finally, the method was applied to real samples and traces of some compounds were found in eight samples of chicken and benzathine was detected in one sample at 29.9 μg kg(-1).
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Previous results of our group revealed that mebendazole, a broad spectrum anthelmintic drug with antimicrotubular properties, used for the treatment of liver cirrhosis, decreased total collagen content and biosynthesis in liver upon treatment. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of mebendazole (5-50 micrograms/mL) on protein synthesis, secretion, and deposition in human-derived fibroblast cultures. The results showed a decrease in cell viability (18.5 +/- 0.9%) at 50 micrograms/mL. [3H]Thymidine incorporation diminished gradually with increasing mebendazole concentrations, reaching a plateau (53.67%) between 30 and 50 micrograms/mL. In late logarithmic phase cultures, the drug caused a decrease of [3H]proline incorporation (43.10%) and collagen biosynthesis (58.61%) in the extracellular matrix. This correlated with an increase in radioactivity in total proteins (51.28%) of the intracellular fraction. Similar results were obtained when mebendazole was assayed in post-confluent fibroblast cultures. The electrophoretic patterns of the extracellular matrix showed a decrease of radioactive collagenous components (alpha chains and beta dimers). By contrast, in the intracellular fraction an increase of radioactive collagen precursors (pro alpha chains) was observed. Immunofluorescence studies and immunotransfer analysis, using polyclonal anti-type I collagen antibodies, revealed an accumulation of intracellular collagen which included: collagen pro alpha chains, alpha chains, and low molecular weight peptides. The results obtained suggest that mebendazole interferes with the transcellular mobilization of proteins, resulting in a decrease of secretion and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, and an accumulation of intracellular collagenous components. The intracellular accumulation of newly synthesized proteins could cause a feedback regulation in fibroblast cultures.
A 13-yr-old boy was admitted because of persistent fever, abdominal pain and diarrhea for 3 mo. Abdomen CT revealed hepatomegaly and multiple nodular low-density pathological changes. At laparotomy considerable yellow and turbid ascites were seen in the abdominal cavity and miliary nodules were noted on the surface of the omentum majus, liver, and small intestine wall. Histological examination revealed parenchymal tubercles containing several worms. Pathological diagnosis was parasitic granuloma. These parasites were identified as Porocephalus taiwana sp.nov. The patient made an uneventful recovery after therapy and was discharged. Moreover, another 17 cases of human pentastomiasis reported from China were reviewed. Human pentastomiasis is an extremely rare disease and this is only the second case of human Porocephalus taiwana sp.nov infection. Pentastomiasis should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with a history of abdominal symptoms and eating of poorly-cooked snakes.
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Mebendazole (MBZ), first used as an antiparasitic drug, shows preclinical efficacy in models of glioblastoma and medulloblastoma. Three different mebendazole polymorphs (A, B, and C) exist, and a detailed assessment of the brain penetration, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor properties of each individual mebendazole polymorph is necessary to improve mebendazole-based brain cancer therapy.
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The successful treatment of Taenia saginata taeniasis with mebendazole is herein reported. 41 subjects ascertained to have taeniasis based on the history of passage of gravid segments and positivity for Taenia egg were treated with 300 mg mebendazole b.i.d. for 3 days without need for fasting. No side-effects were observed. The drug acts as a taeniacide. The worms were expelled either as degenerated boluses or fragmented segments on the 2nd to the 4th day (Mean: 2.4 days) after the initial dose. 33 (84.6%) of the 41 subjects expelled the worm. A follow-up of all the subjects 2--3 months after treatment revealed that all those who expelled the worm following treatment and 6 of those who did not were negative for both Taenia egg and gravid segment, or a cure rate of 95%.
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A human case of intestinal capillariasis was first recognized in the Philippines in the mid-1960s. The parasitosis is a life threatening disease and has been reported from Thailand, Japan, Taiwan. Korea, Iran, and Egypt. Clinical symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, borborygmi, marked weight loss, protein and electrolyte loss, and cachexia. Capillariasis may be fatal if treatment is not given early. We observed 7 cases living in the more rural areas of Taiwan. Two cases had histories of travelling to Thailand. These two cases might have been infected in Thailand while stayed there. The other 5 cases didn't have histories of going abroad. According to the route of transmission, freshwater and brackish-water fish may act as the intermediate host of the parasite. People who like to eat raw fish, and have had long term diarrhea with abdominal pain and borborygmi, capillariasis philippinensis should be highly suspected. The most simple and convenient method of diagnosing capillariasis is stool examination. Treatment with mebendazole or albendazole for 20-30 days is known to be effective. All 7 cases we observed were cured through adequate treatment with anthelmintics and general management. A case, found in Kaohsiung Medical College Hospital in 1983, may be the first case in Taiwan.
In this trial suramin, diethylcarbamazine, trichlorphon, levamisole, mebendazole, melarsonyl potassiu, Hoechst 33258 and tinidazole were administered to cattle infected with O. gibsoni and O. gutturosa to determine the usefulness of this screen in predicting the effect of drugs in man against. O. volvulus except for melarsonyl potassium which was macrofilarticidal against O. gutturosa but not O. gibsoni when cattle were slaughtered 6 weeks after treatment. It was concluded that cattle infected with O. gibsoni are a satisfactory substitute for chimpanzees infected with O. volvulus, as a tertiary screen for drugs against O. volvulus, but that their use would be restricted to centres in O. gibsoni endemic areas where the necessary facilities and specialised knowledge required to use cattle as experimental animals exist.
Due to the recent increased use of the McMaster (MM) fecal egg counting method for assessing benzimidazole drug efficacy for treating soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, the aim of the current study was to determine the operational value of including the MM method alongside the Kato-Katz (KK) fecal thick smear to increase the diagnostic sensitivity when STHs are co-endemic with trematode helminths (e.g., Schistosoma mansoni).
Food safety authorities discovered that wild boar meat products contaminated with Trichinella spiralis had entered the food chain in Germany in March 2013. Public health authorities issued guidelines for health professionals including post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) using mebendazole and advised the public to seek medical advice if exposed. Our objective was to identify factors associated with the development of trichinellosis and to evaluate post exposure prophylaxis.
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A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out in 914 children enrolled from the first and fifth grades of primary schools. Stool samples collected at baseline and 21 days after treatment were examined by the Kato-Katz technique to assess the prevalence and intensity of helminth infection.
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Parasitism by the larval phase of Toxocara canis is a chronic process in which the larvae survive in the tissues, resulting in the constant stimulation of the immune system. As a result, the detection of specific antibodies may not reflect the active state of the parasite. We have studied the dynamics of the production of specific immune complexes by ELISA with the monoclonal antibody TC-1 in rabbits inoculated with single and multiple doses of T. canis eggs. We also compared this with the production of specific antibodies and their possible modification after treatment with mebendazole. The specific antibodies against excretory-secretory antigen were detected with peaks at 10 and 12 weeks depending on the dose and remained positive during the entire experiment (62 weeks). Treatment caused an increase in the level of detectable antibodies dropping to similar levels to the controls. Specific immune complexes were detected only in multiple doses, and were then positive during the entire experiment. From the beginning of treatment the values of immune complexes fell quickly, remaining at undetectable levels during the rest of the experiment. For this reason the detection of specific immune complexes is a valid technique for monitoring the efficiency of treatment.
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Ostriches are susceptible to a wide variety of diseases that can affect their commercial breeding. The aim of this study was to identify morphologically Codiostomum struthionis and examine its seasonal occurrence among animals of three age categories in two commercial farms in Areal and Itaboraí, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fresh fecal samples were collected monthly, from June 2004 to May 2006. Eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were counted after centrifugal flotation in saturated sugar solutions and infective larvae were evaluated after coproculture. A total of 432 fecal samples were collected from three groups according to ostrich age: up to 90 days, 91-365 days and over 365 days (adults). The dry and rainy seasons were defined according to official meteorological data. Typical eggs of the Strongylida order were identified in 242 samples (235 from adult ostriches). Once obtained, infective larvae were identified as C. struthionis. Adult ostriches exhibited significantly greater numbers of eggs in their feces during the rainy season compared to the dry season (p<0.05). In the Areal farm, significant (p<0.05) values were found when adults ostriches EPG were compared to ostriches up to 90 days and also for ostriches from 91 to 365 days. When comparing adult EPGs between the two commercial breeding farms, Areal exhibited greater EPGs during both the dry (p=0.0215) and rainy (p=0.0011) seasons.
A PVC membrane sensor for the selective determination of mebendazole (MBZ) was fabricated. The sensor is based on an ion association of MBZ with silicotungstic acid (STA) as ion pair and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEP) as the plasticizing agent in a PVC matrix. The sensor showed a linear response for MBZ for a concentration range 1.0x10(-6)-5.0x10(-2) M with a Nernstian slope of 55.8 mV/decade (limit of detection 6.3x10(-7) M) in the pH range 4-7. It has a fast response time of <30 s. The sensor showed a very good selectivity for MBZ with respect to a large number of ions. The direct determination of MBZ in pharmaceutical formulations gave results that compare well with the data obtained from the standard method.
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Giardiasis infection may be asymptomatic, or can cause diarrhoea (sometimes severe), weight loss, malabsorption, and, in children, failure to thrive. It is usually treated with metronidazole given three times daily for five to 10 days.
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This is a case of presumed ocular toxocariasis in a 28-year old woman complaining of a sudden onset of nasal side field defect of the right eye. The patient had been suffering from uveitis for ten months. Fundoscopic examination of the right eye showed a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Furthermore, a retinochoroidal granulomatous lesion was observed nearby the tear site. Scleral buckling, cryotherapy, and gas injection(SF6, pure gas, 0.7 cc) were conducted. Mebendazole was prescribed for one month at 25 mg/kg per body weight daily. Even though the interventions resulted in the recovery of the field defect, anti-Toxocara IgG and IgE titer levels did not decrease when checked three months after the treatment ended. This is the first confirmed serological ocular toxocariasis case in Korea. Uveitis may be a clinical presentation prior to retinal detachment of a person with toxocariasis.
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The efficacy of reduced single doses of mebendazole against Ascaris lumbricoides infection was evaluated by cellophane thick smear and egg counting techinques, in two rural populations from December 1977 to March 1978. Total 191 infected cases were divided into five dose groups; 100 mg single dose, 200 mg single dose, 300 mg single dose, 400 mg and 600 mg in repeated doses. The cure rate of mebendazole in the treatment of Ascaris infection was remarkably high and satisfactory in every dose groups. The egg reduction rates were all over 98 percent in every dose groups. Side effects were observed during the treatment, mainly mild and transient gastrointestinal troubles, and not exacerbated by the increase of doses upto 300 mg in single dose. Above results confirmed that in case of mass chemotherapy of Ascaris infection, 100 mg or 200 mg of single dose treatment is sufficient to achieve the economic and acceptable method of treatment.
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The overall prevalence (and intensity) in these sentinel sites pre-MDA of S. mansoni was 69.0% (170.8 epg), hookworm: 41.7% (71.7 epg), Ascaris lumbricoides: 1.8% and Trichuris trichiura: 3.8%. Six months post MDA, the findings were S. mansoni: 38.2% (47.3 epg) and hookworm: 14.5% (8.7 epg), representing a reduction from pre-MDA levels of 44.6% (65.2%) and 72.3% (87.9%) respectively. The proportion of children who were moderately or heavily infected with S. mansoni fell from 35.6% pre MDA to 9.9% post MDA.