Zebrafish larvae fed with HF and HFC diets developed steatosis for 7 and 10 days. The incidence and degree of steatosis were more severe in HFC diet-fed larvae compared with the control and HF diet-fed larvae, suggesting that adding cholesterol to the HF diet promotes the hepatic lipid accumulation. These data were confirmed by the pathological observation. Biological indexes, free cholesterol (FC), total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerol (TG) were elevated in the liver of HFC diet-fed larvae compared with the control and HF diet-fed larvae. Additionally, the expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipolytic molecules (atf6, hspa5, hsp90b1, pparab, cpt1a and acox3) were significantly up-regulated in the liver of HF and HFC diets-fed larvae compared to the control, whereas the expression of lipogenic molecules (acaca, fasn, srebf2, hmgcs1 and hmgcra) were decreased in the liver of HF and HFC diets-fed larvae compared to the control. To validate the reliability of the HFC model and utility value for screening potential anti-steaotsis drugs, HFC-fed larvae were treated with two accepted lipid-lowing drugs (ezetimibe and simvastatin). The results showed that these drugs significantly ameliorated HFC-induced steatosis.
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The management of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) includes lifestyle interventions (e.g. diet and exercise for weight reduction), as well as drug treatment to normalize blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose values. Treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemia should comprise a primary therapeutic target since it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
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The reduction of circulating atherogenic lipoproteins through lifestyle modification and pharmacologic intervention is an important therapeutic goal in patients at risk for acute cardiovascular events. A large number of clinical trials have demonstrated that the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is associated with significant decreases in the incidence of all cause mortality, stroke, fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, and the need for revascularization with coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Therapy with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins) are the agents of choice for treating a variety of dyslipidemias, particularly when LDL-C levels are elevated. The statins are highly efficacious; however, not all patients are able to tolerate the higher doses of these medications due to adverse side-effects such as hepatoxicity and myotoxicity. Moreover, many patients cannot achieve their various lipoprotein targets at even the highest doses of these medications. Ezetimibe is a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor that blocks the translocation of dietary and biliary cholesterol from the gastrointestinal lumen into the intracellular space of jejunal enterocytes. Ezetimibe undergoes enterohepatic recirculation with minimal systemic exposure and not does not adversely impact the pharmacokinetic profile of statins. Ezetimibe significantly reduces serum LDL-C. It is safe when used as monotherapy or when used in combination with statins. Ezetimibe is indicated in the management of hyperlipidemia, familial hypercholesterolemia, and sitosterolemia and significantly increases the percentage of patients able to reach their lipid-lowering goals.
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The relation between baseline ELI and rate of aortic valve events and combined total mortality and hospitalization for heart failure resulting from the progression of AS was assessed by multivariate Cox regression and reclassification analysis in 1563 patients with initial asymptomatic AS in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. During 4.3 years follow-up, a total of 498 aortic valve events and 181 combined total mortalities and hospitalizations for heart failure caused by the progression of AS occurred. In Cox regression analyses, 1-cm(2)/m(2) lower baseline ELI predicted a 2-fold higher risk both for aortic valve events and for combined total mortality and hospitalization for heart failure independently of baseline peak aortic jet velocity or mean aortic gradient and independently of aortic root size (all P<0.05). In reclassification analysis, ELI improved the prediction of aortic valve events by 13% (95% confidence interval, 5-19), whereas the prediction of combined total mortality and hospitalization for heart failure resulting from the progression of AS did not improve significantly.
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The influence of simvastatin (10 mg/day), ezetimibe (10 mg/day), and their combination (10 mg each/day) on mRNA expression of adhesion molecules was analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from hypercholesterolemics. The effects of atorvastatin, simvastatin, and ezetimibe on mRNA and protein expression of adhesion molecules were also evaluated in THP-1 cells.
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One hundred and twenty two individuals were included. Atorvastatin alone or combined with ezetimibe reduced both LDL-cholesterol and CRP (P<0.002 vs. baseline; Wilcoxon); ezetimibe did not modify CRP. Ezetimibe-based therapies reduced absorption markers and their ratios to cholesterol (P<0.0001 vs. baseline, for all; Wilcoxon), whereas atorvastatin alone increased campesterol/cholesterol and β-sitosterol/cholesterol ratios (P<0.05 vs. baseline; Wilcoxon). In addition, ezetimibe also increased desmosterol and desmosterol/cholesterol ratio (P<0.0001 vs. baseline; Wilcoxon).
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The use of intensive therapy with statins in primary prevention was not very high in absolute terms, but is increasing considerably. The association between intensive therapy and previous hypothyroidism or its combination with fibrates may raise additional safety and tolerability concerns.
Since 1988, the National Cholesterol Education Program has identified low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as the target of therapy; the new Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines continue the tradition of matching the aggressiveness of LDL-lowering therapy according to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). A significant change in the new guidelines is the definition of.CHD risk equivalents. and the inclusion of a modified Framingham global risk score. These revisions significantly raise the number of patients who qualify for lipid-lowering therapy. ATP III recognizes statins as the drug of first choice for LDL-C lowering. Statins are proven to be safe and effective for LDL-C reduction and are proven to reduce CHD event rates and mortality. Some patients are not candidates for statin therapy, however, and must rely on nonstatin agents that are less effective in reducing LDL-C, less safe, or poorly tolerated. Consequently, new cholesterol-lowering therapies are needed. Ezetimibe, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October 2002, is the first in a new class of selective cholesterol absorption inhibitors and offers a novel approach to the treatment of dyslipidemia. Phase 2 data demonstrated that ezetimibe lowers LDL-C by 18% and has a tolerability and short-term safety profile similar to placebo. This paper reviews the cholesterol metabolic pathways and the mechanism of action of the currently available lipid-modifying agents and introduces ezetimibe, the first selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor.
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For similar body weight reduction, the combination of ezetimibe with orlistat may be more efficient in LDL-C lowering, whereas the combination of ezetimibe with rimonabant may be more potent in terms of improving HDL-C and triglycerides.
Niacin is an antidyslipidemic agent that may cause blood sugar elevation in patients with diabetes, but its effects on glucose and insulin values in nondiabetic statin-treated subjects with cardiovascular disease and at high risk for diabetes are less well known.
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Greater (p < or = 0.001) reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (the primary end-point) were achieved by switching to EZE/SIMVA 10/20 mg (26.2%) or 10/40 mg (30.1%) than by doubling the dose of ATV to 20 mg (8.5%). EZE/SIMVA 10/20 mg and 10/40 mg produced greater (p < or = 0.001) reductions in total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein B relative to ATV 20 mg. A reduction (p < or = 0.050) in C-reactive protein was observed with EZE/SIMVA 10/40 mg vs. ATV 20 mg. Similar reductions in triglycerides were observed across the three groups, and none of the treatments produced a significant change in HDL-C. A greater (p < or = 0.001) proportion of patients achieved LDL-C <2.5 mmol/l with EZE/SIMVA 10/20 mg (90.5%) and 10/40 mg (87.0%) than with ATV 20 mg (70.4%). Both EZE/SIMVA doses were generally well tolerated, with an overall safety profile similar to ATV 20 mg.
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Controversies have arisen from recent mouse studies about the essential role of biliary sterol secretion in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The objective of this study was to examine the role of biliary cholesterol secretion in modulating macrophage RCT in Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) liver only (L1(LivOnly)) mice, an animal model that is defective in both biliary sterol secretion and intestinal sterol absorption, and determine whether NPC1L1 inhibitor ezetimibe facilitates macrophage RCT by inhibiting hepatic NPC1L1.
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The memory-restorative effect of ezetimibe can be attributed to its cholesterol-dependent as well as cholesterol-independent effects. The study highlights the potential of ezetimibe in memory dysfunctions associated with dementia of AD.
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Several options exist with regards to pharmacological management of hypercholesterolemia. There is a substantial body of evidence to support the effect of a population shift towards a favorable risk profile, which has huge potential in reducing the burden of CHD globally.
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The primary target in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia is often to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, rather than improve clinical outcomes. Despite the wide use of lipid-modifying drugs, considerable cardiovascular mortality and morbidity remains with this disease. Hypercholesterolemia plays a key role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and can lead to cardiac heart disease.
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A total of 971 patients met eligibility criteria. Forty-nine percent of patients had ≥ 12 months of persistent treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that female sex (OR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.90; P = .004) was associated with lesser odds of persistence, whereas baseline LDL-C at goal (1.39; 1.06, 1.82; P = .015) and concomitant use of the intestinal cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe (1.64; 1.18, 2.28; P = .003) were associated with greater odds of persistence.
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The search identified 398 articles published from January 1, 1998 to May 30, 2007. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Five case series, 2 case series nested within comparative studies, and one retrospective review, were included in the analysis. A health technology assessment conducted by the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research, and a review by the United States Food and Drug Administration were also included. Large heterogeneity among the studies was observed. Studies varied in inclusion criteria, baseline patient characteristics and methodology. Overall, the mean acute relative decrease in LDL-C with HELP LDL apheresis ranged from 53 to 77%. The mean acute relative reductions ranged as follows: total cholesterol (TC) 47 to 64%, HDL-C +0. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
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In this small, open-label, uncontrolled, pilot study, ezetimibe was associated with a significant decrease in lipid parameters and improvement in glucose metabolism in these patients with T2DM.
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All acquired articles that discussed the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, chemistry, and clinical efficacy of ezetimibe were reviewed.
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Despite widespread statin therapy, 91% of cardiac transplant patients have hyperlipidemia within 5 years from cardiac transplantation. The implications of this are profound, particularly given that coronary allograft vasculopathy is a leading cause of death. Unfortunately the solution is not easy, with problems of toleration at higher statin doses and a lack of good quality evidence for second line agents. We review the literature and discuss some of the key issues transplant physicians are faced with when considering alternatives to statin therapy.
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Ezetimibe monotherapy resulted in 7% and 11% reductions in LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B respectively. Ezetimibe-statin combination therapy reduced LDL-cholesterol by an additional 11 +/- 27% and apolipoprotein B by 11 (+79 to -18)%. There was a similar response between various sub-groups but a wide variation within groups with the greatest effect seen in patients groups with the greatest effect seen in patients under-responding to statins. The number of patients achieving the LDL-C target of 3 mmol/L rose from 5.5% to 18%. Non-significant effects included a 5 (+78 to -470)% reduction in triglycerides, 8 +/- 36% increment in HDL-cholesterol, 21 (+35 to -82)% reduction in C-reactive protein and a 1 (+20 to -50)% increase in alanine transaminase. No effects were seen on creatinine, creatine kinase, or insulin resistance. Fourteen patients (7%) discontinued ezetimibe: seven due to gastrointestinal side-effects, one patient developed an ezetimibe-induced hypercholesterolaemia (x 1.5), one developed ezetimibe-induced hypertriglyceridaemia (x 7) and five discontinued for other reasons.
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This randomized, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy of switching from atorvastatin (ATV) 10 mg to ezetimibe/simvastatin (EZE/SIMVA) 10/20 mg, EZE/SIMVA 10/40 mg or doubling the dose of ATV from 10 to 20 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
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All patients prescribed extended-release niacin, ezetimibe, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, or prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters were identified. Extended-release niacin, ezetimibe, fenofibrate, and gemfibrozil were deemed necessary if the patient was intolerant to statin therapy or could not attain the cholesterol goal with the maximum tolerated dose of a statin. Fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters were considered necessary if the patient had a history of triglycerides above 500 mg/dL. If a pharmacist deemed the medication unnecessary, a note was placed in the medical record and discussed face-to-face with the provider.
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An increased LDL cholesterol was 100 mg/dL or higher in very high-risk persons with coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease, diabetes mellitus, or 2+ risk factors and a 10-year risk for CAD greater than 20%; 130 mg/dL or higher in moderately high-risk persons with 2+ risk factors and a 10-year risk for CAD of 10% to 20%; and 160 mg/dL or higher in low risk persons with 0 to 1 risk factor.
Ezetimibe, an intestinal cholesterol absorption inhibitor, lowers circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels both when administered as monotherapy and in combination with other hypolipidaemic drugs, mostly statins. This review focuses on the effects of ezetimibe on non-LDL-C-associated variables. In most studies, ezetimibe effectively reduced triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The authors also consider the effect of ezetimibe on other variables such as C-reactive protein levels, insulin sensitivity and endothelial function. Ezetimibe is useful in patients with sitosterolaemia (a rare inherited disorder) as it significantly reduces plasma phytosterol concentrations. Ezetimibe fulfils two of the three essential characteristics of any drug (efficacy and safety). However, clinical studies are required to provide evidence of its ability to reduce vascular events.
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Several studies on the efficacy of ezetimibe, a potent inhibitor of cholesterol absorption, in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have been conducted; however, the results are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of ezetimibe in treating NAFLD and NASH.