Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Ondansetron.
Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.
Generic Zofran is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor blocker. It works by blocking a chemical thought to be a cause of nausea and vomiting in certain situations (e.g., chemotherapy).
Zofran is also known as Ondansetron, Vomiof, Danzetron, Ondaz.
Generic name of Generic Zofran is Ondansetron.
Brand name of Generic Zofran is Zofran.
Take each dose with a full glass of water.
Take Generic Zofran with food or an antacid to lessen stomach discomfort.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Zofran and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at temperature between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Zofran are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Zofran if you are allergic to Generic Zofran components.
Be careful with Generic Zofran if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Generic Zofran should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 4 months old. Safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
Do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.
Previous experiments have suggested that 5-HT3 antagonists such as ondansetron may alter reward-related behaviour that is dependent in part upon raised mesolimbic dopamine activity. However, the evidence for this is far from conclusive. One major behavioural role of dopamine is in the control of behaviour elicited by conditioned rewarding stimuli. To date, the effects of 5-HT3 antagonists on this function of mesolimbic dopamine have not been examined. Two experimental procedures were employed to examine the effects of ondansetron (10 and 100 micrograms/kg) on the acquisition of responding for conditioned reward, and on the response potentiating effect of intra-accumbens d-amphetamine (10 micrograms). These effects were compared to those elicited by the dopamine antagonist alpha-flupenthixol (0.1 mg/kg). In the first procedure, rats were trained to associate food pellet delivery with a conditioned stimulus (CS). Rats subsequently allowed to respond on a lever delivering this CS, and on an inactive lever, showed a greater preference for the lever delivering the CS, indicating that this CS functioned as a conditioned reward (CR). Ondansetron administered during the conditioning phase did not alter subsequent responding for the CR, but alpha-flupenthixol induced a small but significant reduction in responding on the CR lever. These results suggest that blockade of dopamine receptors, but not 5-HT3 receptors interfere with the learning of stimulus reward relationships. In the second procedure, d-amphetamine injected into the nucleus accumbens markedly potentiated responding for CR. Ondansetron at 10 micrograms/kg induced a small attenuation of this effect, without altering responding in its own right. However, at a higher dose (100 micrograms/kg) ondansetron plus amphetamine treatment significantly enhanced responding on the inactive lever. At both doses, the net effect of ondansetron was to produce a subtle impairment in the allocation of responses such that the differential responding on the CR versus NCR lever was diminished. In contrast to these effects alpha-flupenthixol significantly attenuated d-amphetamine's selective enhancement of responding for conditioned reward, as well as impairing the ability of the conditioned reward to elicit and maintain behaviour. These results confirm the role of dopamine in responding for conditioned reward, and suggest a possible modulators role for 5-HT3 receptors in this process. However, the effects of ondansetron on the acquisition of, and responding for, conditioned reward are clearly different from those induced by blockade of dopamine receptors.
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We evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral ondansetron, a selective antagonist of 5-HT3 receptors, for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy (> 500 mg/m2). In this trial 324 chemotherapy-naive cancer patients, mostly females with breast cancer, were randomized to receive either placebo or ondansetron 1 mg, 4 mg, or 8 mg three times per day for 3 days. There were no differences in the doses of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and methotrexate between the study groups. All ondansetron dose groups were superior to the placebo control group (p < .001) for all measured efficacy parameters (complete response, number of emetic episodes, therapeutic failures, need of rescue antiemetics). No emetic episodes were reported by 9 (12%), 29 (37%), 48 (64%), and 47 (66%) of the placebo patients and the 1-mg, 4-mg, and 8-mg dose of ondansetron patients, respectively. Nausea was reduced and food intake was improved for all the ondansetron groups. A more severe emetic response was observed in patients receiving cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin combination chemotherapy. In this subgroup of patients, 66%, 38%, 25%, and 16% of the placebo group and 1-mg, 4-mg, and 8-mg ondansetron patients, respectively, required rescue antiemetics. No significant toxic effects were observed in this study. A higher incidence of headaches and gastrointestinal complaints (constipation, abdominal pain) were observed in the three ondansetron groups. In conclusion, oral ondansetron is an effective and well-tolerated antiemetic treatment in the management of cancer patients receiving ambulatory cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy. These results support the view that serotonin and 5-HT3 receptors play an important role in cyclophosphamide-induced nausea and vomiting.
Laser acupuncture is a modality of low-level light therapy used as an alternative to needling for the past three decades. Although it has proved effective for the treatment of various conditions, the mechanisms underlying its effects are not fully understood. To contribute to this understanding, this study was designed to (1) evaluate the antinociceptive effect of ST36 laser acupuncture (830 nm, 3 J/cm(2)) in rat models of acute nociception and (2) to investigate the opioidergic and serotonergic systems involvement in this effect. Our results demonstrate that ST36 laser acupuncture inhibited (36 ± 2 %) acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions and both neurogenic (48 ± 7 %) and inflammatory (phase IIA 42 ± 8 % and phase IIB 83 ± 6 %) phases of formalin-induced nociceptive behavior. Moreover, the antinociceptive activity of laser irradiation in the acetic acid test was significantly reversed by preadministration of naloxone (1 mg/kg, nonselective opioid receptor antagonist), pindolol (1 mg/kg, subcutaneous; nonselective 5-HT 1A/B receptor antagonist), and ketanserin (1 mg/kg; selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) but not by ondansetron (1 mg/kg, selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist). Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that (1) ST36 laser acupuncture elicited significant antinociceptive effect against acetic acid- and formalin-induced behavior in rats and that (2) this effect is mediated by activation of the opioidergic and serotonergic (5-HT1 and 5-HT2A receptors) systems.
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Test samples were prepared by adding 1,000 mg tramadol hydrochloride, 8 mg ondansetron hydrochloride, and 6 mg granisetron hydrochloride or 5 mg tropisetron hydrochloride to 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyolefin bags. The samples were prepared in triplicates, stored at either 25°C or 4°C for 14 days, and assessed using the following compatibility parameters: precipitation, cloudiness, discoloration, and pH. Chemical stability was also determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method.
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A multimodal, opiate-sparing regimen to prevent pain and PONV seems to be more effective than one- or two-component regimens on PONV and pain after breast cancer surgery, a result which calls for large-scale multi-center or randomized studies.
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The cardiovascular responses to a series of selective histamine H3 receptor agonists, (R) alpha-methylhistamine, imetit and immepip and selective antagonists, thioperamide, clobenpropit and clophenpropit, were studied in anaesthetized rats. At 0.003-1 mumol/kg i.v. doses, H3 agonists failed to produce any significant change in the basal blood pressure and heart rate. Larger doses of (R) alpha-methylhistamine increased the blood pressure and heart rate and higher doses of imetit caused vasodepressor responses and reduced heart rate, whereas immepip proved virtually inactive. While (R) alpha-methylhistamine-induced effects were not blocked by histamine H1-, H2- and H3-receptor antagonists, they were however reduced by idazoxan and propranolol, which indicates that the mechanisms involved are adrenergic. The effects induced by imetit are not related to histamine H3 receptors but are mediated by indirect (via 5HT3 receptors) cholinergic mechanisms, since these effects were prevented by 1 mg/kg i.v. atropine and by 0.1 mg/kg i.v. ondansetron. Similarly, the H3 antagonists per se failed to change basal cardiovascular function up to 10 mumol/kg i.v. and only at 30 mumol/kg i.v. were marked decreases observed in the blood pressure and heart rate with a significant reduction in the effects of noradrenaline. These data indicate that in anaesthetized rats, histamine H3 receptor activation or blockade has no effect on basal cardiovascular function. The effects recorded after the administration of large doses of (R) alpha-methylhistamine and imetit are clearly unrelated to histamine H3 receptors and should be taken into account when using these compounds as H3 ligands for "in vivo" experiments.
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The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron has previously been reported to improve cognition in the mouse, rat and marmoset in a variety of behavioural paradigms. The present study used the Stone maze to test the effect of ondansetron on the deficit caused by scopolamine in the performance of a highly complex spatial memory task in the rat. Ondansetron administered over a large dose range (1.0 ng kg-1-1.0 micrograms kg-1, i.p., b.d.) for a period of 10-15 days failed to attenuate the scopolamine deficit. Indeed at one dose level ondansetron (100 ng kg-1, i.p., b.d.) administered in combination with scopolamine (0.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) significantly potentiated the deficit, compared with the performance of rats receiving scopolamine alone.
The study concerned 40,045 patients, exhaustivity or completeness was 70% in 2005 but reached 90% in 2010. PONV scores significantly improved during the years after the instauration of the new protocol (31% in 2005 vs. 13% in 2010). Concomitantly, morphine consumption and intra-operative nitrous oxide showed a steady decrease. No significant difference was noticed in the use of inhalational anesthetics.
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Although the database is not a probability-based sample, it bears sufficient similarity to a probability-based sample of pediatric hospitalizations (HCUP KID) to serve as a starting point in developing national estimates of inpatient pediatric medication use. Over 500 drug entities were administered to hospitalized children, but most are used by small percentages of hospitalized patients. The small numbers of children using any one drug has implications for efforts to study efficacy and safety, describe off-label use, monitor adverse events, describe practice, and conduct comparative effectiveness research.
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Two young women with chronic nausea and vertigo caused by multiple sclerosis responded to the introduction and maintenance of the 5HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. Palliative care is a neglected aspect of management of degenerative neurological diseases and these cases highlight the approaches that may be used to manage difficult symptoms in the population with multiple sclerosis.
Modalities that successfully address PONV after Le Fort I osteotomy might fail to affect PDNV, which is prevalent in this population. Future investigation will focus on methods to minimize PDNV.
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To provide evidence of the efficacy and safety of antiemetic medications in the management of nausea and vomiting in the adult ED setting.
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When dosed near the end of anesthesia, a 12.5 mg IV dose of dolasetron was comparable to higher doses administered at or before induction of anesthesia.
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This study was carried out to assess the efficacy of oral ondansetron, a new 5HT3 receptor antagonist, in patients undergoing thyroid surgery. It included 60 patients, randomly assigned to two groups, and receiving orally, 1 h before induction of anaesthesia, either 8 mg of ondansetron (n = 29) or a placebo (n = 30). One patient was excluded. The same anaesthetic protocol, consisting of 3 to 5 micrograms.kg-1 of fentanyl, 4 to 6 mg.kg-1 of thiopentone, and 0.5 mg.kg-1 of atracurium, was used in all. Anaesthesia was maintained with 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen with 0.8 to 1% endtidal concentration of isoflurane and additional boluses of 0.1 mg of fentanyl as required. The incidence and intensity of nausea, graded mild, moderate or severe, and the incidence of vomiting were recorded postoperatively. During the first twelve hours after surgery, 40% of patients in the placebo group had nausea (16.7% mild, 20% moderate and 6.7% severe), and 50% vomited. In the ondansetron group, nausea and vomiting occurred in 13.8% and 20.4% of patients respectively. The 4 patients in the latter group complained of major nausea. The differences between the groups were statistically significant: p = 0.025 for nausea and p = 0.042 for vomiting. It is concluded that oral ondansetron, 8 mg taken orally 1 h before surgery, significantly reduces the incidence of nausea and vomiting during the first twelve postoperative hours. As it is easy to use and has no side-effects, it might be of interest in day-case surgery patients, despite its high cost.
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Multivariable regression models were used to investigate the association between low-dose haloperidol and the occurrence of PONV using a patient registry containing 2,617 surgical procedures carried out at an university hospital.
HTR3B and HTR3A gene variants may contribute to variability in response to antiemetic therapy for NVP.
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Five hundred thirty-eight chemotherapy-naive patients who received cisplatin chemotherapy (> or = 70 mg/m2), and who were not rescued for acute emesis, were eligible to be randomized to receive one of the three oral regimens to control delayed emesis. Group I received placebo on days 2 to 6; group II received ondansetron 8 mg twice daily on days 2 and 3 and placebo on days 4 to 6; group III received ondansetron 8 mg twice daily on days 2 to 6. All patients received intravenous ondansetron (0.15 mg/kg every 4 hours for three doses) for the control of acute emesis on day 1. The number of emetic episodes on days 2 and 3 combined (days 2/3, when incidence and severity of delayed emesis were expected to be greatest) was considered the primary measure of efficacy.
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In addition to existing drug treatments for alcohol dependence, many other medications are under investigation, particularly for specific types of alcoholism. Pharmacogenomics is expected to play an important role in this research effort.
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This study investigated the cardiovascular responses to the essential oil of Aniba canelilla (EOAC) and its main constituent 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (NP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). In anesthetized SHRs, intravenous (i.v.) bolus injections of EOAC (1-20 mg/kg) or NP (1-10 mg/kg) elicited dose-dependent hypotensive and bradycardiac effects, which were characterized in two periods (phases 1 and 2). The first rapid component (phase 1) evoked by EOAC and NP both at 10 mg/kg was absent after left ventricle injection, fully abolished by bilateral vagotomy and perineural treatment of both cervical vagus nerves with capsaicin (250 μg/mL) while remained unaltered by i.v. pretreatment with capsazepine (1 mg/kg) or ondansetron (30 μg/kg). In conscious SHRs, NP (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.v.) evoked rapid hypotensive and bradycardiac effects (phase 1) that were fully abolished by methylatropine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) pretreatment. In rat endothelium-containing mesenteric preparations, increasing concentrations (0.1-1000 μg/mL) of EOAC and NP relaxed the phenylephrine-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. It is concluded that NP induces a vago-vagal bradycardiac and depressor reflex (phase 1) that apparently results from the stimulation of vagal pulmonary rather than cardiac C-fiber afferents. This effect does not appear to involve activation of either vanilloid TPRV(1) or 5-HT(3) receptors located on vagal sensory nerves. The phase 2 hypotensive response to i.v. NP seems to result, at least in part, from its direct vasodilatory effect on the peripheral smooth muscle. All in vivo and in vitro effects of EOAC are mostly attributed to the actions of its main constituent NP.
The effects of the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist and antagonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (m-CPBG) and ondansetron, respectively, were studied in adult male Wistar rats implanted for chronic sleep recordings. Microinjection of m-CPBG (2.0 and 4.0 mM) into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) decreased rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and the number of REM periods during the first, second, and third 2-h recording period. On the other hand, direct infusion of ondansetron (0.5-1.0 mM) into the DRN induced no significant changes in sleep variables over the 6 h of recording. Pretreatment with ondansetron (0.5 mM) antagonized the m-CPBG (2.0 mM)-induced reduction of REMS and of the number of REM periods. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the 5-HT(3) receptor is involved in the effect of DRN serotonergic neurons on brainstem structures that act to promote and induce REMS. It is suggested that the suppression of REMS after the microinjection of m-CPBG into the DRN is related, at least in part, to the stimulation of glutamatergic interneurons that express 5-HT(3) receptors. Activation of these receptors facilitates the release of glutamate, which, in turn, acts on postsynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate and non-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors expressed by serotonergic neurons of the DRN and increases the release of 5-HT at postsynaptic sites.
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An evaluation of ondansetron use in oncology patients in three hospitals is described. Criteria for the use of ondansetron were developed and approved by each hospital's pharmacy and therapeutics committee or medical staff executive committee. Ondansetron use was concurrently monitored in adult inpatients for four months. Nursing and physician notes were reviewed, and the patients were interviewed. Data were collected on patient demographics, medical history, dosage of ondansetron, outcome, adverse effects, and concurrent medications. The approved criteria were used to evaluate the appropriateness, effectiveness, and safety of ondansetron therapy. A total of 262 oncology patients were evaluated. Of these, 223 (85%) received ondansetron appropriately based on the emetic potential of their antineoplastic drug regimen. Ondansetron was correctly prescribed for acute-phase prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting in 252 patients (96%). Only 117 (45%) of the patients met the criterion for appropriate dosage. The mean +/- S.D. dose of ondansetron was 11.7 +/- 3.22 mg, and the mean +/- S.D. number of doses received per patient was 4.4 +/- 3.23. Of the 135 patients who received an inappropriate dosage, 106 (79%) were given a dose larger than currently recommended by the manufacturer. Positive outcomes, defined as no more than two episodes of vomiting, no more than two episodes of retching, and no more than two p.r.n. doses of antiemetics, were observed in 97%, 99.6%, and 94% of the 248 patients included in the outcome analysis, respectively. Chemotherapy was completed on schedule in all the patients, and there were no complications due to excessive vomiting or retching. Adverse reactions were reported by 21 patients (8%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Ondansetron 8mg and granisetron 3 mg, both combined with dexamethasone, showed similar efficacy and tolerability in the prevention of cisplatin-induced emesis. The choice between the two regimens can be dictated by their respective purchase prices.
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Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a series of condensed quinoline derivatives bearing a basic nitrogen on piperazine or [(dimethylamino)ethyl]thio moieties attached at the 2-position of the quinoline nucleus are described. 5-HT receptor binding studies revealed, for most of the compounds studied, nanomolar affinity for the 5-HT3 receptor subtype. The most active compound, benzopyrano[3,4-c]quinoline derivative 5f, displayed a Ki value very similar to that reported for quipazine along with an improved selectivity. Functional and in vivo testing carried out on three selected compounds showed that 5f,j,n are potent 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with potencies in the same range as the best known 5-HT3 receptor antagonists ondansetron, tropisetron, and zacopride. The crystal and molecular structures of compounds 5f,j,n were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and used as starting structures for molecular modeling studies. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was applied to binding constants of compounds 5a-p and 6a-h. The cross-validated r2, derived from partial least-squares calculations, indicated a good predictive capacity for affinity values in the series of compounds investigated. Evidence for the prediction capacity is provided in the form of plots of actual vs predicted pKi values. The steric and electrostatic features of the CoMFA-derived model are presented as standard coefficient contour maps of steric and electrostatic fields.
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The study aims to evaluate the efficacy of two doses of dexmedetomidine for sedation during awake fiberoptic intubation (AFOI). The study was designed in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded manner and carried out in an academic medical university. Forty young co-operative patients aged 15-45 years of either sex belonging to ASA class I-II, planned for elective maxillo-facial surgery formed the study group. All patients received midazolam 0.05 mg/kg, glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg, ondansetron 4 mg, and ranitidine 50 mg IV 15 min before as premedication, oxygen by nasal cannula, and topical local anesthetics to the airway. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the groups; dexmedetomedine 1 μg/kg IV (Group L), or dexmedetomidine 1.5 μg/kg IV (Group H). Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) was assessed. Primary outcome measurements were: HR, MAP, SpO2 and EtCO2 and secondary outcome measurements were: intubation scores by vocal cord movement, coughing and limb movement, fiberoptic intubation comfort score, nasotracheal intubation score and airway obstruction score. On the first post-operative day, recall, level of discomfort during fiberoptic intubation, adverse events and satisfaction score were also assessed. There were no significant hemodynamic differences between the two groups. OAA/S was significantly better with dexmedetomidine 1.5 μg/kg (p < 0.05) and patients were significantly calmer, more cooperative and satisfied during awake fiberoptic intubation with dexmedetomidine 1.5 μg/kg with fewer transient adverse effects. Dexmedetomidine 1.5 μg/kg proved to be more effective for sedation for awake fiberoptic intubation.
To compare the efficacy of tramadol and ondansetron in minimizing the pain due to injection of propofol in 100 patients.
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