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Zofran (Ondansetron)

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Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Dexamethasone, Scopolamine, Anzemet


Also known as:  Ondansetron.


Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.

Generic Zofran is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor blocker. It works by blocking a chemical thought to be a cause of nausea and vomiting in certain situations (e.g., chemotherapy).

Zofran is also known as Ondansetron, Vomiof, Danzetron, Ondaz.

Generic name of Generic Zofran is Ondansetron.

Brand name of Generic Zofran is Zofran.


Take each dose with a full glass of water.

Take Generic Zofran with food or an antacid to lessen stomach discomfort.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Zofran and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at temperature between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Zofran if you are allergic to Generic Zofran components.

Be careful with Generic Zofran if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Generic Zofran should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 4 months old. Safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.

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Previous experiments have suggested that 5-HT3 antagonists such as ondansetron may alter reward-related behaviour that is dependent in part upon raised mesolimbic dopamine activity. However, the evidence for this is far from conclusive. One major behavioural role of dopamine is in the control of behaviour elicited by conditioned rewarding stimuli. To date, the effects of 5-HT3 antagonists on this function of mesolimbic dopamine have not been examined. Two experimental procedures were employed to examine the effects of ondansetron (10 and 100 micrograms/kg) on the acquisition of responding for conditioned reward, and on the response potentiating effect of intra-accumbens d-amphetamine (10 micrograms). These effects were compared to those elicited by the dopamine antagonist alpha-flupenthixol (0.1 mg/kg). In the first procedure, rats were trained to associate food pellet delivery with a conditioned stimulus (CS). Rats subsequently allowed to respond on a lever delivering this CS, and on an inactive lever, showed a greater preference for the lever delivering the CS, indicating that this CS functioned as a conditioned reward (CR). Ondansetron administered during the conditioning phase did not alter subsequent responding for the CR, but alpha-flupenthixol induced a small but significant reduction in responding on the CR lever. These results suggest that blockade of dopamine receptors, but not 5-HT3 receptors interfere with the learning of stimulus reward relationships. In the second procedure, d-amphetamine injected into the nucleus accumbens markedly potentiated responding for CR. Ondansetron at 10 micrograms/kg induced a small attenuation of this effect, without altering responding in its own right. However, at a higher dose (100 micrograms/kg) ondansetron plus amphetamine treatment significantly enhanced responding on the inactive lever. At both doses, the net effect of ondansetron was to produce a subtle impairment in the allocation of responses such that the differential responding on the CR versus NCR lever was diminished. In contrast to these effects alpha-flupenthixol significantly attenuated d-amphetamine's selective enhancement of responding for conditioned reward, as well as impairing the ability of the conditioned reward to elicit and maintain behaviour. These results confirm the role of dopamine in responding for conditioned reward, and suggest a possible modulators role for 5-HT3 receptors in this process. However, the effects of ondansetron on the acquisition of, and responding for, conditioned reward are clearly different from those induced by blockade of dopamine receptors.

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We evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral ondansetron, a selective antagonist of 5-HT3 receptors, for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy (> 500 mg/m2). In this trial 324 chemotherapy-naive cancer patients, mostly females with breast cancer, were randomized to receive either placebo or ondansetron 1 mg, 4 mg, or 8 mg three times per day for 3 days. There were no differences in the doses of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and methotrexate between the study groups. All ondansetron dose groups were superior to the placebo control group (p < .001) for all measured efficacy parameters (complete response, number of emetic episodes, therapeutic failures, need of rescue antiemetics). No emetic episodes were reported by 9 (12%), 29 (37%), 48 (64%), and 47 (66%) of the placebo patients and the 1-mg, 4-mg, and 8-mg dose of ondansetron patients, respectively. Nausea was reduced and food intake was improved for all the ondansetron groups. A more severe emetic response was observed in patients receiving cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin combination chemotherapy. In this subgroup of patients, 66%, 38%, 25%, and 16% of the placebo group and 1-mg, 4-mg, and 8-mg ondansetron patients, respectively, required rescue antiemetics. No significant toxic effects were observed in this study. A higher incidence of headaches and gastrointestinal complaints (constipation, abdominal pain) were observed in the three ondansetron groups. In conclusion, oral ondansetron is an effective and well-tolerated antiemetic treatment in the management of cancer patients receiving ambulatory cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy. These results support the view that serotonin and 5-HT3 receptors play an important role in cyclophosphamide-induced nausea and vomiting.

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Laser acupuncture is a modality of low-level light therapy used as an alternative to needling for the past three decades. Although it has proved effective for the treatment of various conditions, the mechanisms underlying its effects are not fully understood. To contribute to this understanding, this study was designed to (1) evaluate the antinociceptive effect of ST36 laser acupuncture (830 nm, 3 J/cm(2)) in rat models of acute nociception and (2) to investigate the opioidergic and serotonergic systems involvement in this effect. Our results demonstrate that ST36 laser acupuncture inhibited (36 ± 2 %) acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions and both neurogenic (48 ± 7 %) and inflammatory (phase IIA 42 ± 8 % and phase IIB 83 ± 6 %) phases of formalin-induced nociceptive behavior. Moreover, the antinociceptive activity of laser irradiation in the acetic acid test was significantly reversed by preadministration of naloxone (1 mg/kg, nonselective opioid receptor antagonist), pindolol (1 mg/kg, subcutaneous; nonselective 5-HT 1A/B receptor antagonist), and ketanserin (1 mg/kg; selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) but not by ondansetron (1 mg/kg, selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist). Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that (1) ST36 laser acupuncture elicited significant antinociceptive effect against acetic acid- and formalin-induced behavior in rats and that (2) this effect is mediated by activation of the opioidergic and serotonergic (5-HT1 and 5-HT2A receptors) systems.

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Test samples were prepared by adding 1,000 mg tramadol hydrochloride, 8 mg ondansetron hydrochloride, and 6 mg granisetron hydrochloride or 5 mg tropisetron hydrochloride to 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyolefin bags. The samples were prepared in triplicates, stored at either 25°C or 4°C for 14 days, and assessed using the following compatibility parameters: precipitation, cloudiness, discoloration, and pH. Chemical stability was also determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method.

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A multimodal, opiate-sparing regimen to prevent pain and PONV seems to be more effective than one- or two-component regimens on PONV and pain after breast cancer surgery, a result which calls for large-scale multi-center or randomized studies.

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The cardiovascular responses to a series of selective histamine H3 receptor agonists, (R) alpha-methylhistamine, imetit and immepip and selective antagonists, thioperamide, clobenpropit and clophenpropit, were studied in anaesthetized rats. At 0.003-1 mumol/kg i.v. doses, H3 agonists failed to produce any significant change in the basal blood pressure and heart rate. Larger doses of (R) alpha-methylhistamine increased the blood pressure and heart rate and higher doses of imetit caused vasodepressor responses and reduced heart rate, whereas immepip proved virtually inactive. While (R) alpha-methylhistamine-induced effects were not blocked by histamine H1-, H2- and H3-receptor antagonists, they were however reduced by idazoxan and propranolol, which indicates that the mechanisms involved are adrenergic. The effects induced by imetit are not related to histamine H3 receptors but are mediated by indirect (via 5HT3 receptors) cholinergic mechanisms, since these effects were prevented by 1 mg/kg i.v. atropine and by 0.1 mg/kg i.v. ondansetron. Similarly, the H3 antagonists per se failed to change basal cardiovascular function up to 10 mumol/kg i.v. and only at 30 mumol/kg i.v. were marked decreases observed in the blood pressure and heart rate with a significant reduction in the effects of noradrenaline. These data indicate that in anaesthetized rats, histamine H3 receptor activation or blockade has no effect on basal cardiovascular function. The effects recorded after the administration of large doses of (R) alpha-methylhistamine and imetit are clearly unrelated to histamine H3 receptors and should be taken into account when using these compounds as H3 ligands for "in vivo" experiments.

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The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron has previously been reported to improve cognition in the mouse, rat and marmoset in a variety of behavioural paradigms. The present study used the Stone maze to test the effect of ondansetron on the deficit caused by scopolamine in the performance of a highly complex spatial memory task in the rat. Ondansetron administered over a large dose range (1.0 ng kg-1-1.0 micrograms kg-1, i.p., b.d.) for a period of 10-15 days failed to attenuate the scopolamine deficit. Indeed at one dose level ondansetron (100 ng kg-1, i.p., b.d.) administered in combination with scopolamine (0.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) significantly potentiated the deficit, compared with the performance of rats receiving scopolamine alone.

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The study concerned 40,045 patients, exhaustivity or completeness was 70% in 2005 but reached 90% in 2010. PONV scores significantly improved during the years after the instauration of the new protocol (31% in 2005 vs. 13% in 2010). Concomitantly, morphine consumption and intra-operative nitrous oxide showed a steady decrease. No significant difference was noticed in the use of inhalational anesthetics.

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Although the database is not a probability-based sample, it bears sufficient similarity to a probability-based sample of pediatric hospitalizations (HCUP KID) to serve as a starting point in developing national estimates of inpatient pediatric medication use. Over 500 drug entities were administered to hospitalized children, but most are used by small percentages of hospitalized patients. The small numbers of children using any one drug has implications for efforts to study efficacy and safety, describe off-label use, monitor adverse events, describe practice, and conduct comparative effectiveness research.

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Two young women with chronic nausea and vertigo caused by multiple sclerosis responded to the introduction and maintenance of the 5HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. Palliative care is a neglected aspect of management of degenerative neurological diseases and these cases highlight the approaches that may be used to manage difficult symptoms in the population with multiple sclerosis.

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Modalities that successfully address PONV after Le Fort I osteotomy might fail to affect PDNV, which is prevalent in this population. Future investigation will focus on methods to minimize PDNV.

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To provide evidence of the efficacy and safety of antiemetic medications in the management of nausea and vomiting in the adult ED setting.

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When dosed near the end of anesthesia, a 12.5 mg IV dose of dolasetron was comparable to higher doses administered at or before induction of anesthesia.

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This study was carried out to assess the efficacy of oral ondansetron, a new 5HT3 receptor antagonist, in patients undergoing thyroid surgery. It included 60 patients, randomly assigned to two groups, and receiving orally, 1 h before induction of anaesthesia, either 8 mg of ondansetron (n = 29) or a placebo (n = 30). One patient was excluded. The same anaesthetic protocol, consisting of 3 to 5 of fentanyl, 4 to 6 of thiopentone, and 0.5 of atracurium, was used in all. Anaesthesia was maintained with 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen with 0.8 to 1% endtidal concentration of isoflurane and additional boluses of 0.1 mg of fentanyl as required. The incidence and intensity of nausea, graded mild, moderate or severe, and the incidence of vomiting were recorded postoperatively. During the first twelve hours after surgery, 40% of patients in the placebo group had nausea (16.7% mild, 20% moderate and 6.7% severe), and 50% vomited. In the ondansetron group, nausea and vomiting occurred in 13.8% and 20.4% of patients respectively. The 4 patients in the latter group complained of major nausea. The differences between the groups were statistically significant: p = 0.025 for nausea and p = 0.042 for vomiting. It is concluded that oral ondansetron, 8 mg taken orally 1 h before surgery, significantly reduces the incidence of nausea and vomiting during the first twelve postoperative hours. As it is easy to use and has no side-effects, it might be of interest in day-case surgery patients, despite its high cost.

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Multivariable regression models were used to investigate the association between low-dose haloperidol and the occurrence of PONV using a patient registry containing 2,617 surgical procedures carried out at an university hospital.

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HTR3B and HTR3A gene variants may contribute to variability in response to antiemetic therapy for NVP.

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Five hundred thirty-eight chemotherapy-naive patients who received cisplatin chemotherapy (> or = 70 mg/m2), and who were not rescued for acute emesis, were eligible to be randomized to receive one of the three oral regimens to control delayed emesis. Group I received placebo on days 2 to 6; group II received ondansetron 8 mg twice daily on days 2 and 3 and placebo on days 4 to 6; group III received ondansetron 8 mg twice daily on days 2 to 6. All patients received intravenous ondansetron (0.15 mg/kg every 4 hours for three doses) for the control of acute emesis on day 1. The number of emetic episodes on days 2 and 3 combined (days 2/3, when incidence and severity of delayed emesis were expected to be greatest) was considered the primary measure of efficacy.

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In addition to existing drug treatments for alcohol dependence, many other medications are under investigation, particularly for specific types of alcoholism. Pharmacogenomics is expected to play an important role in this research effort.

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This study investigated the cardiovascular responses to the essential oil of Aniba canelilla (EOAC) and its main constituent 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (NP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). In anesthetized SHRs, intravenous (i.v.) bolus injections of EOAC (1-20 mg/kg) or NP (1-10 mg/kg) elicited dose-dependent hypotensive and bradycardiac effects, which were characterized in two periods (phases 1 and 2). The first rapid component (phase 1) evoked by EOAC and NP both at 10 mg/kg was absent after left ventricle injection, fully abolished by bilateral vagotomy and perineural treatment of both cervical vagus nerves with capsaicin (250 μg/mL) while remained unaltered by i.v. pretreatment with capsazepine (1 mg/kg) or ondansetron (30 μg/kg). In conscious SHRs, NP (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.v.) evoked rapid hypotensive and bradycardiac effects (phase 1) that were fully abolished by methylatropine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) pretreatment. In rat endothelium-containing mesenteric preparations, increasing concentrations (0.1-1000 μg/mL) of EOAC and NP relaxed the phenylephrine-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. It is concluded that NP induces a vago-vagal bradycardiac and depressor reflex (phase 1) that apparently results from the stimulation of vagal pulmonary rather than cardiac C-fiber afferents. This effect does not appear to involve activation of either vanilloid TPRV(1) or 5-HT(3) receptors located on vagal sensory nerves. The phase 2 hypotensive response to i.v. NP seems to result, at least in part, from its direct vasodilatory effect on the peripheral smooth muscle. All in vivo and in vitro effects of EOAC are mostly attributed to the actions of its main constituent NP.

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The effects of the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist and antagonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (m-CPBG) and ondansetron, respectively, were studied in adult male Wistar rats implanted for chronic sleep recordings. Microinjection of m-CPBG (2.0 and 4.0 mM) into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) decreased rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and the number of REM periods during the first, second, and third 2-h recording period. On the other hand, direct infusion of ondansetron (0.5-1.0 mM) into the DRN induced no significant changes in sleep variables over the 6 h of recording. Pretreatment with ondansetron (0.5 mM) antagonized the m-CPBG (2.0 mM)-induced reduction of REMS and of the number of REM periods. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the 5-HT(3) receptor is involved in the effect of DRN serotonergic neurons on brainstem structures that act to promote and induce REMS. It is suggested that the suppression of REMS after the microinjection of m-CPBG into the DRN is related, at least in part, to the stimulation of glutamatergic interneurons that express 5-HT(3) receptors. Activation of these receptors facilitates the release of glutamate, which, in turn, acts on postsynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate and non-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors expressed by serotonergic neurons of the DRN and increases the release of 5-HT at postsynaptic sites.

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An evaluation of ondansetron use in oncology patients in three hospitals is described. Criteria for the use of ondansetron were developed and approved by each hospital's pharmacy and therapeutics committee or medical staff executive committee. Ondansetron use was concurrently monitored in adult inpatients for four months. Nursing and physician notes were reviewed, and the patients were interviewed. Data were collected on patient demographics, medical history, dosage of ondansetron, outcome, adverse effects, and concurrent medications. The approved criteria were used to evaluate the appropriateness, effectiveness, and safety of ondansetron therapy. A total of 262 oncology patients were evaluated. Of these, 223 (85%) received ondansetron appropriately based on the emetic potential of their antineoplastic drug regimen. Ondansetron was correctly prescribed for acute-phase prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting in 252 patients (96%). Only 117 (45%) of the patients met the criterion for appropriate dosage. The mean +/- S.D. dose of ondansetron was 11.7 +/- 3.22 mg, and the mean +/- S.D. number of doses received per patient was 4.4 +/- 3.23. Of the 135 patients who received an inappropriate dosage, 106 (79%) were given a dose larger than currently recommended by the manufacturer. Positive outcomes, defined as no more than two episodes of vomiting, no more than two episodes of retching, and no more than two p.r.n. doses of antiemetics, were observed in 97%, 99.6%, and 94% of the 248 patients included in the outcome analysis, respectively. Chemotherapy was completed on schedule in all the patients, and there were no complications due to excessive vomiting or retching. Adverse reactions were reported by 21 patients (8%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Ondansetron 8mg and granisetron 3 mg, both combined with dexamethasone, showed similar efficacy and tolerability in the prevention of cisplatin-induced emesis. The choice between the two regimens can be dictated by their respective purchase prices.

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Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a series of condensed quinoline derivatives bearing a basic nitrogen on piperazine or [(dimethylamino)ethyl]thio moieties attached at the 2-position of the quinoline nucleus are described. 5-HT receptor binding studies revealed, for most of the compounds studied, nanomolar affinity for the 5-HT3 receptor subtype. The most active compound, benzopyrano[3,4-c]quinoline derivative 5f, displayed a Ki value very similar to that reported for quipazine along with an improved selectivity. Functional and in vivo testing carried out on three selected compounds showed that 5f,j,n are potent 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with potencies in the same range as the best known 5-HT3 receptor antagonists ondansetron, tropisetron, and zacopride. The crystal and molecular structures of compounds 5f,j,n were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and used as starting structures for molecular modeling studies. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was applied to binding constants of compounds 5a-p and 6a-h. The cross-validated r2, derived from partial least-squares calculations, indicated a good predictive capacity for affinity values in the series of compounds investigated. Evidence for the prediction capacity is provided in the form of plots of actual vs predicted pKi values. The steric and electrostatic features of the CoMFA-derived model are presented as standard coefficient contour maps of steric and electrostatic fields.

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The study aims to evaluate the efficacy of two doses of dexmedetomidine for sedation during awake fiberoptic intubation (AFOI). The study was designed in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded manner and carried out in an academic medical university. Forty young co-operative patients aged 15-45 years of either sex belonging to ASA class I-II, planned for elective maxillo-facial surgery formed the study group. All patients received midazolam 0.05 mg/kg, glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg, ondansetron 4 mg, and ranitidine 50 mg IV 15 min before as premedication, oxygen by nasal cannula, and topical local anesthetics to the airway. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the groups; dexmedetomedine 1 μg/kg IV (Group L), or dexmedetomidine 1.5 μg/kg IV (Group H). Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) was assessed. Primary outcome measurements were: HR, MAP, SpO2 and EtCO2 and secondary outcome measurements were: intubation scores by vocal cord movement, coughing and limb movement, fiberoptic intubation comfort score, nasotracheal intubation score and airway obstruction score. On the first post-operative day, recall, level of discomfort during fiberoptic intubation, adverse events and satisfaction score were also assessed. There were no significant hemodynamic differences between the two groups. OAA/S was significantly better with dexmedetomidine 1.5 μg/kg (p < 0.05) and patients were significantly calmer, more cooperative and satisfied during awake fiberoptic intubation with dexmedetomidine 1.5 μg/kg with fewer transient adverse effects. Dexmedetomidine 1.5 μg/kg proved to be more effective for sedation for awake fiberoptic intubation.

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To compare the efficacy of tramadol and ondansetron in minimizing the pain due to injection of propofol in 100 patients.

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zofran cost 2016-05-05

Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent haemorrhagic shock (mean arterial blood pressure 40 mm Hg for 90 min), followed by resuscitation. Various doses of ondansetron (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mg kg(-1)) or a single dose of ondansetron (1 mg kg(-1)) with or without a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB-203580, 2 mg kg(-1)) or vehicle were administered intravenously during resuscitation. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) buy zofran concentrations and various liver proinflammatory parameters were measured at 24h after resuscitation.

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With the aid of an overview and a new analysis of the literature published on this topic so buy zofran far, the current state of research is shown (including the fields in which further improvement will be necessary), and suggestions are made, wherever it seemed possible, to attain the "gold standard" in antiemetic therapy.

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Palonosetron provides more effective prophylaxis of early PON, late PON, and late POV compared with ondansetron. Future studies are required to investigate the role of palonosetron during 24-72 hr buy zofran following surgery.

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The reversal of the antinociceptive effect of systemically administered acetaminophen (paracetamol) by intrathecal administration of the potent 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist tropisetron has been reported in rats subjected to the paw pressure test, suggesting that acetaminophen action is mediated through spinal 5-HT(3) receptors. However, more recent data, showing differences between the pharmacological profiles of various 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, led us to reconsider the involvement of spinal 5-HT(3) receptors. To address this question, two different approaches were used: 1) electrophysiological recordings to assess whether acetaminophen directly modulates 5-HT(3) receptor activity buy zofran and 2) pharmacological investigations with various 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists and spinal 5-HT(3) receptors antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AODNs) to determine how those treatments might affect the antinociceptive action of acetaminophen. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that acetaminophen had no direct agonist or antagonist effects on 5-HT(3A) receptors. Unlike tropisetron, other 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron and granisetron, injected intrathecally were unable to reverse the antinociceptive effect of acetaminophen. Moreover, pretreatment with AODNs did not reverse the acetaminophen-induced antinociceptive effect, although it suppressed the antinociceptive effect of m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a specific agonist of 5-HT(3) receptors, and significantly reduced (30%) the expression of these receptors in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. These results suggest that acetaminophen-induced antinociceptive action involves a spinal tropisetron-sensitive receptor that is not the 5-HT(3) receptor and that remains to be identified.

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The effects of the Ca2+ and 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist dotarizine and of some other agonists and antagonists of different 5-HT receptor subtypes administered alone or in combination with the 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLU) on nociception were studied, using a foot-pressure method (analgesy-meter testing). Dotarizine (DOT) administered at a dose buy zofran of 50 mg/kg for 3 days orally significantly increased the pain threshold. Fluoxetine (FLU) administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 3 days also significantly increased the pain threshold. The combination of DOT and FLU abolished the analgesic effects of the two drugs. The 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B/1C receptor agonists buspirone and m-CPP decreased the pain threshold. The antagonists of 5-HT1A(NAN-190),5-HT1/5-HT2(methysergide), 5-HT2 (ritanserin), and 5-HT3 (ondansetron) receptors as well as the agonists of 5-HT2(DOI) and 5-HT3 (mCPBG) receptors increased the pain threshold. Fluoxetine at a single dose of 10 mg/kg differently influenced the effects of the 5-HT agonists and antagonists on nociception. Comparison of the effects of dotarizine with the effects of some of the agonists and antagonists of 5-HT receptor subtypes on the nociceptive and other actions suggests the possibility of a therapeutic value of dotarizine as an antimigraine drug.

zofran 8mg dosage 2016-11-14

Three phase II studies of the serotonin antagonist GR38032F were conducted. In trial 1, 20 patients given initial chemotherapy with cisplatin at doses greater than or equal to 100 mg/m2 were randomized to receive three GR38032F doses (0.18 mg/kg) on an every-2-hour or every-4-hour schedule. In trial 2, eight similar patients were given three 0.04-mg/kg doses every 2 hours. In trial 3, 12 previously treated patients receiving cisplatin at 20-25 mg/m2 on 4 or 5 consecutive days each received three daily GR38032F doses (0.15 buy zofran mg/kg) every 2 hours. In trial 1, 35% of the patients had no emesis [95% confidence interval (CI), 16%-58%] and 55% had one or two emetic episodes (95% CI, 32%-76%). Results were similar between the every-2-hour and every-4-hour schedules. In trial 2, only one of eight patients (13%) had no vomiting (95% CI, 1%-50%). In trial 3, in which previously treated patients were studied, complete control ranged from 75% on day 1 to 33% on day 3. Mild sedation, headache, and transient elevations of serum SGOT (AST) were observed. No extrapyramidal symptoms occurred. A dose of 0.15-0.18 mg/kg every 2 hours for three iv doses is recommended. Further comparison and combination studies of GR38032F are warranted.

zofran 2 mg 2016-12-10

The issue of "down dosing" was particularly pertinent because of the nature of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist dose-response curve: A steep dose-response profile within a narrow dose range suggests that antiemetic control will be lost buy zofran suddenly after dose deescalation. However, the array of predisposing and confounding patient factors indicates that it is unlikely that a loss of antiemetic control will be apparent across a population; rather, individuals will experience loss of control as the dose is reduced below threshold. Of the 4 5-HT3 receptor antagonists currently licensed in the United States (granisetron, ondansetron, dolasetron, and palonosetron), ondansetron is used sometimes at lower than optimal doses, and there is evidence to suggest that even the approved oral dose of dolasetron may be suboptimal.

zofran tablets uses 2015-07-05

The effects of serotonergic anxiolytics on the development of physical dependence on diazepam were examined in mice. Co-administration of buspirone (5-HT1A agonist) or ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist), but not mianserin (5-HT1C antagonist) or ketanserin (5-HT2 antagonist) with diazepam potentiated the hypersensitivity to FG 7142 following chronic treatment with diazepam. This potentiation was not ascribable to pharmacokinetic interactions between diazepam and buspirone or ondansetron. These results suggest that co-administration of buspirone or ondansetron with diazepam may potentiate the development of physical dependence on diazepam; 5-HT1A buy zofran and 5-HT3 receptors may be partially involved in the development of physical dependence on diazepam.

dosage zofran children 2016-11-06

The overall incidence could be reduced to a level below 20 %. Particularly in patients with a high buy zofran risk of PONV, TIVA could clearly reduce the incidence. However, the incidence in patients with 2 risk factors is still high (30-39 %). Therefore, it is important to reconsider the effort involved with risk screening and individually adapting anesthesia. Risk stratification means a pre- and perioperative effort. Therefore, we advocate a more liberal approach for PONV prophylaxis.

zofran po dose 2015-07-03

This drug does not appear (although the sample size is limited) to be associated with an increased risk buy zofran for major malformations above baseline.

zofran 25 mg 2016-07-20

Novel 9-methyl-4,9-dihydrothiopyrano buy zofran [2,3-b]indol-4-one derivatives 2b-e, 3-methylene-9-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydrothiopyrano[2,3-b]indol-4-on e derivatives 3b-e and 9-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydrothiopyrano[2,3-b]indol-4-one derivatives 4a-e were prepared. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptor-antagonistic activities of these compounds were evaluated by using the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex test (B. J. reflex, rats) and the contractile response to 5-HT in the isolated distal colon (guinea pig). The 5-ethyl-4-imidazolyl derivative 4d was found to be 79 times more potent than ondansetron 1 in the B. J. reflex test (ID50 = 0.048 microgram/kg, i.v.), and the 5-methyl-4-imidazolyl derivative 4c was found to be 126 times more potent than 1 in the colonic contraction (IC50 = 0.0062 microM) assay.

zofran medication uses 2015-09-16

Monitoring anesthesia with BIS promotes earlier extubation and discharge for pediatric dental buy zofran patients who receive oral Versed and sevoflurane GA.

zofran common dosage 2017-11-09

Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association Cefixime Tablets Benefits between response to antiemetics in the treatment of NVP and genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin receptor subunit genes HTR3A and HTR3B.

zofran buy 2017-12-30

Cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy is often given to patients for the treatment of breast cancer. This chemotherapy can induce severe nausea and vomiting in these patients, which can adversely affect their quality of life, especially as these regimens are often given on an outpatient basis over several courses. This paper reviews 5 randomised, double-blind, multicenter comparative studies which have been carried out in breast cancer patients to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of the potent and highly selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. These studies have shown that ondansetron is superior to placebo in the control of emesis induced by a 14-day CMF schedule and that it is superior to conventional anti-emetics (metoclopramide and alizapride) in the control of acute and delayed emesis induced by Benicar Reviews regimens containing high-dose cyclophosphamide. Ondansetron was well tolerated in these studies and did not induced any extrapyramidal reactions. The efficacy and tolerability of ondansetron was reflected in a better quality of life for patients given this anti-emetic which was formally assessed in 2 of the studies using the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist or the Functional Living Index-Emesis. In conclusion, ondansetron is an effective and well-tolerated anti-emetic for patients receiving cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer. Ondansetron provides significant benefits for patients' quality of life compared with conventional anti-emetics particularly as these patients are often treated on an outpatient basis and can be treated with oral ondansetron at home.

zofran 8mg tablets 2017-01-08

The profile of action of ondansetron was assessed in a novel animal model of anxiety. The mirrored chamber is a nonpunishing quantitative model of anxiety which measures approach-conflict behavior. Ondansetron in all the doses tested (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg i Valtrex Drug Interactions .p.) showed significant anxiolytic action as compared to naive mice, but it was less potent as compared to a well-known anxiolytic, diazepam (1 mg/kg). These results suggest that ondansetron has anxiolytic efficacy in nonconflict paradigms of anxiety, a response not mediated by the conventional neurotransmitter receptors. GABA-benzodiazepine as flumazenil (4 mg/kg), a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, failed to reverse the behavioral parameters evoked by ondansetron.

zofran dose infants 2015-05-17

Ginger root powder was effective in reducing Accutane 20 Mg severity of acute and delayed CINV as additional therapy to ondensetron and dexamethasone in patients receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy ( identifier: NCT00940368).

zofran normal dosage 2017-12-15

160 ASA physical status Accutane Generic Names I and II children ages 1 to 12 years who were scheduled for strabismus surgery.

zofran 4mg tablets 2015-10-21

Patients were given a PCA morphine solution containing either 30 mg of ondansetron (Group O), 30 mg of ondansetron plus 20 mg of prochlorperazine (Group OP), or no antiemetic Valtrex Shingles Dose (Group C; control group).

zofran medicine 2017-02-21

While the use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists is clearly justified in patients receiving cisplatin, their role with less emetic drugs is still not defined. The aim of our randomized study was to verify the efficacy of the single standard dose of three 5-HT3-receptor-antagonists in moderately emetic chemotherapies. Sixty chemotherapy-naive breast cancer patients of 30 to 71 years in age, P.S. = 0-1, receiving 5-fluorouracil-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide (FEC 75) q 21 days or cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil (CMF) or 120 mg/m2 epirubicin or high dose mitomycin-methotrexate-mitoxantrone (MMM) q 14 days (+ G-CSF) or 100 mg/m2 epirubicin (+ G-CSF) were randomized to receive, 15 min before chemotherapy, 8 mg i.v. bolus of ondansetron or 3 mg i.v. granisetron or 5 mg i.v. tropisetron and no further antiemetic therapy in the following days. 180 cycles were evaluable. Complete protection, (the absence of vomiting episodes,) was respectively 75%, 70% and 70% in the acute and 70%, 82%, 72% in the delayed phases, and an absence of nausea was 56%, 37% and 20% in the acute phase and 50%, 35% and 27% in Augmentin Generic Drug the delayed, respectively. Complete response, (absence of vomiting and absence or mild nausea,) was 74%, 58.6% and 50.8% in the acute and 64%, 63.7%, 47.3% in the delayed phases, respectively. At the statistical analysis no significant differences between the three drugs were found regarding acute vomiting while ondansetron was superior to granisetron and tropisetron in acute (p = 0.018; p < 0.05) and delayed nausea (P = 0.104; p < 0.01). This activity is practically the same as that we reported (Ann Oncol 1994; 6, suppl 8: 204) with a loading dose on day 1 and maintenance for the following 2-5 days, but with a significantly favorable cost-benefit ratio.

zofran overdose 2016-07-21

The article discusses the clinical management of patients affected by food protein Mysoline Tablet -induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), focusing on established therapeutic choices and future options.

zofran normal dose 2016-09-27

A total of 99 patients were enrolled in the study, 51 in group I and 48 in group II. The 24-h proteinuria on day 5 was markedly increased in group I (95+/-108 mg/day to 9098+/-4514 mg/day, means+/-SD) in comparison with the increase observed in group II (104+/-148 mg/day to 151+/-102 mg/day), and creatinine clearance showed a greater decrease in group I (83.1+/-23.6 ml/min to 44.9+/-17.3 ml/min) than in group II (89.6+/-22.1 ml/min to 72.8 Zantac Overdose +/-21.0 ml/min). The differences in these parameters between the two groups were statistically significant throughout the subsequent cycles.

zofran generic name 2015-08-12

The serotonin-receptor (5-HT3) antagonists combined with dexamethasone are considered the antiemetic therapy of choice in the prevention of cisplatin-induced emesis. As there are now several compounds on the market, the dilemma of preference is particularly relevant. In preclinical studies some differences among the three marketed drugs (ondansetron, granisetron and tropisetron) have emerged. In particular, tropisetron and granisetron have a greater potency and duration of action and seem to have a greater selectivity toward the 5-HT3 receptor with respect to ondansetron. Furthermore, while with tropisetron and granisetron there is a linear dose/response relationship, this does not Protonix Tablets seem to be the case for ondansetron. These preclinical differences, however, do not seem to correlate with the clinical antiemetic activity of these compounds. In fact, although the number of comparative studies is small, with all of them presenting several shortcomings (small number of patients, not blinded studies, no association with steroids, sponsored trials), it seems that the antiemetic activity and tolerability of ondansetron, granisetron and tropisetron is very similar. If these data are confirmed, the least expensive of the 5-HT3 antagonists should be the drug of choice. We feel, however, that the answer to this rather difficult question of choice will come from very large, independent, methodologically correct studies designed to show small but clinically significant differences (i.e., less than 10% in complete protection from emesis). These trials, which require about 1000-1500 patients, are ongoing and the one carried out as a multicenter study by the Italian Group for Antiemetic Research is close to conclusion.

zofran brand name 2015-12-09

To evaluate its usefulness in children with Requip Generic Medication acute gastroenteritis referred to a paediatric emergency department.

zofran 5 mg 2016-06-10

More than 3.8 million children sustain traumatic brain injuries annually. Treatment of posttraumatic headache (PTH) in the emergency department (ED) is variable, and benefits are unclear.

zofran drug classification 2015-08-01

1-(m-Chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) has a fairly complex neuropsychopharmacological profile owing to its affinity to multiple serotonergic receptors. This investigation was designed to establish the effect of mCPP on rodent depression-like behaviour. mCPP was screened in a rodent behavioural test battery comprising of validated antidepressant assays and interaction studies with conventional antidepressants and ligands were carried out in forced swim and tail suspension test (in mice). mCPP (1 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited depressant-like effects in forced swim and tail suspension test (in mice), without influencing the locomotor status. Potentiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan/pargyline induced head twitches (in mice) and hyperthermic effects (in rats) were observed at the same dose level. Further, the behavioural anomalies of the olfactory bulbectomised (OBX) rats were augmented by chronic mCPP (1-2 mg/kg) treatment as observed from the modified open field, elevated plus maze and social interaction paradigms. Interaction studies revealed that the mCPP induced depressant-like effects were reversed by ketanserin, escitalopram, amitriptyline, ziprasidone, venlafaxine pretreatments but not by bupropion, harmane, ondansetron, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and MK-801. In conclusion, this study provided ample evidence that the stimulation of 5-HT(2A) receptors underlies the depressogenic-like effect of mCPP. Finally, the mCPP induced depression-like behaviour in rodents is envisaged as a modified antidepressant assay to identify novel serotonergic antidepressants.

zofran and alcohol 2015-04-10

In the ondansetron group, 38 patients had pruritus (16 mild and 22 severe) and 9 patients had nausea and vomiting (5 mild and 4 severe). In the placebo group, 41 patients had pruritus (21 mild and 20 severe) and 29 patients had nausea and vomiting (9 mild and 15 severe). The frequency and severity of the nausea and vomiting episodes were significantly reduced in the ondansetron group. Pain scores were comparable between groups. No side effects related to ondansetron were reported.

zofran max dose 2016-05-25

The aim of this study was to prepare ondansetron-loaded biodegradable microspheres as a nasal delivery system. Microspheres were prepared with emulsification/spray-drying technique using poly(d,l-lactide) (PLA) and two different types of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). The effect of the type of organic solvent (dichloromethane (DCM) or a mixture of DCM and ethyl acetate) on the microsphere characteristics was also examined. The prepared microspheres were evaluated with respect to the morphological properties, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading efficiency, and in vitro drug release. The mean particle size (d(50)) of microsphere formulations was ranged from 11.67-25.54 μm, indicating suitable particle size for nasal administration. All microspheres had low drug loading efficiency in the range of 12.28-21.04%. The results indicated that particle size of microspheres were affected by both type of polymer and organic solvent, however drug loading efficiency of microspheres were affected by only the type of organic solvent used. All microspheres were negatively charged due to the polymers (PLA or PLGA) used. A prolonged in vitro drug release profile was observed for 96 h. Based on in vitro data, the selected microsphere formulation has been applied via nasal route to rats in vivo. Following nasal administration of ondansetron-loaded microsphere to rats, ondansetron plasma levels were within a range of 30-48 ng/mL during 96 h, indicating a sustained drug delivery pattern and relatively a constant plasma drug concentration level. The results suggested that biodegradable microspheres prepared with emulsification/spray-drying technique could be considered to deliver ondansetron via nasal route to obtain a prolonged release.

zofran uses alcohol 2017-09-20

1. The present study investigated the central effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine and the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine(3) (5-HT(3)) receptors in the core of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) on cocaine-induced behavioural changes in rats. 2. The 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron (1 or 10 ng) was microinjected bilaterally into the core of the NAc 60 min prior to peripheral cocaine (15 mg kg(-1), i.p.) administration followed by the assessment of locomotor activity, rearing activity and head bobs. Both doses of ondansetron attenuated cocaine's stimulatory effect on behaviours. 3. Fluoxetine (0.05 or 5 microg) microinjected bilaterally into the core of the NAc 30 min before peripheral administration of cocaine produced dose-dependent biphasic effects on cocaine-induced behaviours. Intra-NAc administration of 0.05 microg fluoxetine resulted in a potentiation of cocaine-induced behaviours, while the higher dose of the SSRI (5 microg) attenuated the stimulant effect of cocaine on behaviours. 4. To investigate a possible involvement of 5-HT(3) receptors in fluoxetine's facilitatory action, ondansetron (10 ng) was microinjected 30 min prior to fluoxetine (0.05 microg), which resulted in a significant attenuation of the facilitatory effect of fluoxetine on cocaine-induced behaviours. 5. Thus, 5-HT(3) receptors in the core of the NAc appear to mediate stimulatory effects on cocaine-induced locomotor activity, rears and head bobs, whereas the attenuation of cocaine-induced behaviours by fluoxetine at the higher dose, suggests the involvement of a different 5-HT receptor subtype.

zofran 2mg tablet 2016-06-17

This study compares intrathecal (IT) fentanyl with IV ondansetron for preventing intraoperative nausea and vomiting during cesarean deliveries performed with spinal anesthesia. Thirty healthy parturients presenting for elective cesarean delivery with standardized bupivacaine spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive 20 microg IT fentanyl (Group F) or 4 mg IV ondansetron (Group O) by using double-blinded methodology. At eight specific intervals during the surgery, a blinded observer questioned the patient about nausea (1 = nausea, 0 = no nausea), observed for the presence of retching or vomiting (1 = vomiting or retching, 0 = no vomiting or retching), and recorded a verbal pain score (0-10, 0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain imaginable). Cumulative nausea, vomiting, and pain scores were calculated as the sum of the eight measurements. Intraoperative nausea was decreased in the IT fentanyl group compared with the IV ondansetron group: the median (interquartile range) difference in nausea scores was 1 (1, 2), P = 0.03. The incidence of vomiting and treatment for vomiting was not different (P = 0.7). The IT fentanyl group had a lower cumulative perioperative pain score than the IV ondansetron group; the median difference in the cumulative pain score was 12 (8, 16) (P = 0.0007). The IT fentanyl group required less supplementary intraoperative analgesia. The median difference in the cumulative fentanyl dose was 100 (75, 100) microg fentanyl, (P = 0.0002).