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Irrespective of the method of calculation of infant exposure, the mean total dose of sertraline and its N-desmethyl metabolite transmitted to infants via breast-feeding is low and unlikely to cause any significant adverse effects.
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Cognitive dysfunction was not a detriment to improvement in symptoms of psychotic major depression in our geriatric patients. Young Old and Older patients improved to a similar degree on measures of depression and delusions from baseline to treatment end. However, improvement in cognition over the course of treatment was more prominent in the Young Old group than in the Older group.
Sertraline is slowly absorbed after oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations at 6-8 h. Plasma concentrations are linearly related to dose. The elimination half-life is about 32 h; metabolism is by demethylation to an inactive metabolite. Once-daily dosing is recommended, with steady state being reached after about 7 days. The kinetics of sertraline in the elderly and in patients with renal impairment are similar to those in young healthy female volunteers. In young male volunteers, peak plasma concentrations were lower, and elimination half-life shorter, than in elderly men or both groups of women. Nevertheless, no reduction in dosage is recommended for these groups. Sertraline is highly active in animal models of depression, and administration of the drug to healthy human beings causes a selective, dose-related inhibition of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake into blood platelets. Single doses of sertraline in volunteers caused changes in the quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalogram suggesting antidepressant and anxiolytic actions, with sedative potential evident only at doses of 200 mg or more. Sertraline does not impair psychomotor performance, including simulated car driving, and overall seems neither stimulating nor sedating: an increase in critical flicker fusion threshold suggests a slight alerting effect, whereas subjective tests indicate an increase in perceived sedation at doses of 100 mg or more. No potentiation of the effects of ethanol has been noted in either young or elderly subjects. No adverse effects on the electrocardiogram, blood pressure, or systolic time intervals have been detected, and sertraline lacks anticholinergic action. These studies imply a low probability of adverse central nervous and cardiovascular effects. Sertraline is probably a weak inducer of hepatic microsomal enzyme activity. Sertraline does not affect the clearance of lithium but there may be a pharmacodynamic interaction which leads to increased tremor when the drugs are given together. No clinically relevant effects were noted in the interaction studies with digoxin, atenolol and diazepam. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sertraline are generally favourable. However, caution is needed when sertraline is given to patients receiving lithium or drugs with a low therapeutic ratio, such as corticosteroids, oral hypoglycaemic agents, and warfarin.
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At study endpoint, 42 (69%) of the 61 acute positive responders maintained positive response and 32 (53%) achieved remission. Compared to the acute positive responders, 6 (27%) of the 22 acute partial responders had achieved positive treatment response at study endpoint (p < .001). Eight acute positive responders (13%) and 5 acute partial responders (22%) developed mania.
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Major depression is more prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than in general population. Comparing psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment responses could help to inform the choice between available treatment options.
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Sertraline appears to be well tolerated and safe over 24 weeks of treatment in children and adolescents with MDD. Children and adolescents treated with sertraline appear to have increased improvement over that seen in the first 10 weeks of treatment. These findings need confirmation in placebo-controlled studies.
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Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) served as a rapid, qualitative screening tool for the analysis of adulterated weight-loss products. We have previously shown that sibutramine extracted into methanol from dietary supplements can be detected at low levels (2ng) using a portable IMS spectrometer, and have adapted a similar method for the analysis of additional weight-loss product adulterants. An FDA collaborative study helped to define the limits for fluoxetine with a limit of detection of 2ng. We also evaluated more readily available, less toxic extraction solvents and found isopropanol and water were comparable to methanol. Isopropanol was favored over water for two reasons: (1) water increases the analysis time and (2) aqueous solutions were more susceptible to pH change, which affected the detection of sibutramine. In addition to sibutamine and fluoxetine, we surveyed 11 weight-loss adulterants; bumetanide, fenfluramine, furosemide, orlistat, phenolphthalein, phentermine, phenytoin, rimonabant, sertraline and two sibutramine analogs, desmethylsibutramine and didesmethylsibutramine, using portable and benchtop ion mobility spectrometers. Out of these 13 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), portable and benchtop ion mobility spectrometers were capable of screening products for 10 of these APIs. The developed procedure was applied to two weight-loss dietary supplements using both portable and benchtop instruments. One product contained didesmethylsibutramine while the other contained didesmethylsibutramine and phenolphthalein.
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The STOP-PD was not designed specifically to answer the research questions of the present study.
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The primary (safety) outcome measure was change from baseline in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF); secondary measures included surrogate cardiac measures and cardiovascular adverse events, as well as scores on the HAM-D scale and Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale (CGI-I) in the total randomized sample, in a group with any prior history of MDD, and in a more severe MDD subgroup defined a priori by a HAM-D score of at least 18 and history of 2 or more prior episodes of MDD.
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After 42-day initial treatment and 9-day withdrawal phases, children (6-12 years, n = 16) and adolescents (13-18 years, n = 27) entered a 24-week open-label phase, with sertraline titrated to 200 mg/day. Blood samples for plasma sertraline and N-desmethylsertraline levels were taken at the beginning of the 24-week phase and at weeks 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24. Efficacy and safety data were also collected.
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed treatments for depression and, as a class of drugs, are among the most used medications in the world. Concern regarding possible effects of SSRI treatment on fetal development has arisen recently as studies have suggested a link between maternal SSRI use and an increase in birth defects such as persistent pulmonary hypertension, seizures and craniosynostosis. Furthermore, SSRI exposure in adults is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk, and serotonin receptors are expressed in human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. To determine possible effects of SSRI exposure on developing bone, we treated both zebrafish, during embryonic development, and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), during differentiation into osteoblasts, with the two most prescribed SSRIs, citalopram and sertraline. SSRI treatment in zebrafish decreased bone mineralization, visualized by alizarin red staining and decreased the expression of mature osteoblast-specific markers during embryogenesis. Furthermore, we showed that this inhibition was not associated with increased apoptosis. In differentiating human MSCs, we observed a decrease in osteoblast activity that was associated with a decrease in expression of the osteoblast-specific genes Runx2, Sparc and Spp1, measured with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Similar to the developing zebrafish, no increase in expression of the apoptotic marker Caspase 3 was observed. Therefore, we propose that SSRIs inhibit bone development by affecting osteoblast maturation during embryonic development and MSC differentiation. These results highlight the need to further investigate the risks of SSRI use during pregnancy in exposing unborn babies to potential skeletal abnormalities.
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Obesity has more than doubled since 1980 all over the world, and in the European perspective it does not seem to be better. Obesity-related diseases like diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke and hyperlipidemia are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries. These are the reasons for continuous search for efficient treatment of obesity. One of the options is medical therapy. Over history, many anti-obesity drugs were introduced and subsequently removed from the market due to various side effects. Unfortunately, there is still no ideal drug for the treatment of obesity, and the current ones are very strictly evaluated. The anti-obesity drug should target patients that have previously failed to lose weight with lifestyle interventions, with body mass index (BMI) ≥30, or those with BMI ≥27 plus concomitant obesity-related risk factors or diseases. The only drug currently approved in Europe is orlistat, a pancreatic lipase inhibitor. Sibutramine, an appetite suppressant (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), has been off the market since 2010 due to cardiovascular side effects. There is a large group of drugs used for other indications with weight loss effects, e.g. incretin mimetics or analogues used in the treatment of diabetes type 2, topiramate used as an anticonvulsant, and fluoxetine and sertraline used in the treatment of depression.
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Paired blood and breast-milk samples were collected from 10 nursing mothers receiving sertraline. Samples were collected at steady state when the patients had been taking stable doses of 50-150 mg/day over several weeks. Sertraline concentrations in both fluids were determined using a specific, validated HPLC method. Plasma and milk concentrations showed a wide inter-individual variability for the same dose. Mean plasma concentrations were linearly related to dose, but this was not the case for breast-milk concentrations. An overall milk to plasma ratio of 1.76+/-1.72 was recorded. The average dose to the infants ranged from 1.1 to 31.1 &mgr;g/kg, which is less than 2 per cent of the maternal dose per day. Further studies are necessary to determine if these doses are detrimental to the development of the infant. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Epidemiological surveys have consistently reported that the prevalence of major depression in women is almost twice as high as it is in men. While it seems that no major gender differences have been observed in the severity and symptomatology of depression, results regarding differences in antidepressant treatment response are controversial, especially when considering menopause in treatment response.
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Sertraline does not appear to prevent development of cognitive and behavioral problems following TBI, although this does not negate evidence for the treatment (as opposed to prophylactic) role of sertraline to address emotional and neurobehavioral problems in individuals with TBI.
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Sertraline has shown promise in the treatment of dialysis-associated hypotension (DAH) in a limited number of end-stage renal disease patients. We undertook a study to evaluate the effect of adding sertraline to other therapies for patients with documented DAH. We also measured the effect of sertraline on intradialytic haemodynamics. We used the ultrasound dilution technique (HD01 monitor) to measure cardiac output (CO), central blood volume (CBV) and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) in these patients. The study was performed in two phases. Phase 1 was a control, while the second phase consisted of treatment with sertraline (50 mg/day). Cardiac output and central blood volume were measured 30 min following the initiation of dialysis and 30 min prior to the termination of dialysis. Blood pressure (BP) was monitored during haemodynamic measurements and throughout dialysis. Eighteen patients with documented DAH completed the study. Cardiac output, CBV and PVR were no different in the sertraline phase as compared with the control phase. The declines in systolic BP, diastolic BP and mean arterial pressures from pre-haemodialysis (HD) to lowest intradialytic and pre-HD to post-HD were not significantly different for the sertraline phase versus the control phase. In conclusion, it appears that sertraline has no additive effect on intradialytic haemodynamics to improve blood pressure in patients with DAH who are under therapy (with sodium modelling, cool dialysate and midodrine).
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There is little information on the efficacy and side effects of antidepressant treatment in elderly patients with combined depression and cognitive impairment without dementia (DEP-MCI), and it is unclear if cognitive performance improves with antidepressant response in these patients.
Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has been approved for treatment resistant depression (TRD) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 2005. However, the cellular and molecular targets responsible for its effects are still not characterized. Previously, chronic administration of VNS to rats was found to phosphorylate tyrosine 515 on TrkB, the neurotrophin receptor, whereas traditional antidepressants did not do this. In the present study, Western blot analysis was used to characterize activation due to phosphorylation in the hippocampus of down-stream pathways linked to specific key tyrosine residues on TrkB (namely Y816 and Y515) after either acute or chronic administration of VNS and traditional antidepressant drugs. Chronic administration of VNS caused phosphorylation of effectors linked to Y 515; namely Akt, ERK and p70S6 kinase, but this was not produced by either desipramine or sertraline. All the treatments, when given chronically, caused phosphorylation of the transcription factor, CREB. Acute administration of all the treatments also caused phosphorylation of PLCγ1 but this was not maintained with chronic treatment. Further research is required to determine what role, if any, activation of down-stream targets of Y515 plays in the behavioural effects of VNS.
isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN15858091.
A 46-year-old man had a smoke inhalation injury. Within 1 month, he developed neuropsychiatric problems including toxic encephalopathy, cognitive disorder, depression symptoms and personality change. From 3 to 14 years after the toxic inhalation injury, the patient received treatment with sertraline and methylphenidate. The (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan at 3 years after injury showed deterioration of glucose metabolism in the hippocampus and orbital frontal region; at 14 years after injury, the hippocampus had no significant change but the orbital frontal region had deterioration of glucose metabolism. It was hypothesised that sertraline may have provided selective hippocampal neuroprotection. Further study is justified to evaluate sertraline as a possible neuroprotective agent after smoke inhalation injury.
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Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of sertraline, citalopram and nortriptyline to treat post-stroke depression. Whether antidepressant medication may help to prevent post-stroke depression and decrease post-stroke mortality will require further controlled studies.
Evidence for the efficacy of combination pharmacotherapy has been limited and without positive trials in geriatric patients with major depression (MD) with psychotic features.
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To our knowledge, this is the first reported study exploring antidepressant pharmacokinetics after bariatric surgery. In the present trial, the AUC(0-10.5) and maximal plasma concentration were significantly smaller in the subjects who had undergone RYGB than in the matched subjects who had not. Additional investigation of the effects of bariatric surgery (RYGB, sleeve gastrectomy, and gastric banding) on the antidepressant pharmacokinetic parameters is warranted.
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A 72-year-old white woman was treated with sertraline for depression for 18 months and was then admitted to the hospital with a fractured tibia. She was administered metoclopramide because of nausea and, within 2 hours, developed agitation, dysarthria, diaphoresis, and a movement disorder. These symptoms recurred following 2 subsequent administrations of metoclopramide. Treatment with diazepam led to resolution of symptoms within 6 hours, and there was no recurrence at 6 weeks' follow-up. A 32-year-old white woman with major depression was treated with venlafaxine for 3 years. She was admitted following a fall and, after being given metoclopramide, developed movement disorder and a period of unresponsiveness. After a second dose of metoclopramide, these symptoms recurred and were associated with confusion, agitation, fever, diaphoresis, tachypnea, tachycardia, and hypertension. She improved with administration of diazepam, but needed repetition of this treatment over the next 16 hours. Symptoms resolved within 2 days, and she continued venlafaxine with no further adverse effects.
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NRI response was associated with the NET G1287A polymorphism (odds ratio [OR], 7.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.53-22.49; P<.001). An SSRI response was associated with the 5-HTT intron 2 s/l variation (OR, 20.11; 95% CI, 4.27-94.74; P<.001). The 5-HTTLPR was also associated with an SSRI response (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.41-7.91; P = .006). In contrast to studies in white patients, the favorable allele for SSRI response was S 5-HTTLPR. The S 5-HTTLPR was associated also with NRI response (OR, 3.73; 95% CI, 1.32-10.53; P = .01). The NET polymorphism was not associated with an SSRI response. The NET G1287A GG genotype (56% of the population) was associated with better response to the NRI (83.3% [35/42]) than to SSRI (58.7% [44/75]) (OR, 3.52; 95% CI, 1.39-8.95; P = .006). Some genotype combinations were associated with high rates of antidepressant response and others with low rates of response.
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This study was performed in the Department of Pharmacology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey between April 2008 and January 2010. Catalepsy was induced by haloperidol (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally [ip]). Apomorphine (1.5 mg/kg subcutaneously [sc]) was used for studying climbing behavior, and d-amphetamine (30 mg/kg ip) or MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg ip) was used for testing locomotor activities. Eight animals were used in each group. Sertraline (10 mg/kg ip) was injected either acutely, or over 5 days of repeated treatment.
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Data from over 59,000 patients showed that 16% switched antidepressants. Seventy-two per cent of switches appeared within 3 months after treatment initiation. Within switchers, median time to switch was 53 days. Switching patients had generally a more severe psychiatric profile, including more previous episodes of depression or other psychiatric disorders. They also had a higher proportion of concurrent psychiatric disorders (especially anxiety) and concomitant prescription of anxiolytics or hypnotics. Patients initially prescribed amitriptyline were almost twice as likely to switch (27%) as patients prescribed venlafaxine (17%) or an SSRI (15%).